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  1. added 2020-01-24
    Still resisting: replies to my critics.K. Brad Wray - forthcoming - Metascience:1-8.
    This is a reply piece to a series of book symposium contributions to my book, Resisting Scientific Realism. The contributions were by Steven French, Peter Vickers, Stathis Psillos, and Kyle Stanford.
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  2. added 2019-11-16
    Kusch and van Fraassen on Microscopic Experience.Alessio Gava - 2019 - Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofia 45 (1):7-31.
    Martin Kusch has recently defended Bas van Fraassen’s controversial view on microscopes, according to which these devices are not ‘windows on an invisible world’, but rather ‘image generators’. The two authors also claim that, since in a microscopic detection it is not possible to empirically investigate the geometrical relations between all the elements involved, one is entitled to maintain an agnostic stance about the reality of the entity allegedly represented by the produced image. In this paper I argue that, contrary (...)
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  3. added 2019-07-31
    Van Fraassen, a inferência da melhor explicação e a Matrix realista.Alessio Gava - 2019 - Problemata 10 (1):267-283.
    In a recent work published in this journal, “Van Fraassen e a inferência da melhor explicação” (2016), Minikoski and Rodrigues da Silva identify four critical lines proposed by Bas van Fraassen against the form of abductive reasoning known as ‘inference to the best explanation’ (IBE). The first one, put forward by the Dutch philosopher in his seminal book The Scientific Image (1980), concerns the distinction between observable and unobservable entities. Minikoski and Rodrigues da Silva consider that the distinction is of (...)
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  4. added 2019-03-07
    Resisting Scientific Realism.K. Brad Wray - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    In this book K. Brad Wray provides a comprehensive survey of the arguments against scientific realism. In addition to presenting logical considerations that undermine the realists' inferences to the likely truth or approximate truth of our theories, he provides a thorough assessment of the evidence from the history of science. He also examines grounds for a defence of anti-realism, including an anti-realist explanation for the success of our current theories, an account of why false theories can be empirically successful, and (...)
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  5. added 2019-01-16
    O Empirismo Construtivo, a Distinção Entre Observar E Observar Que E a Intencionalidade.Alessio Gava - 2016 - Trans/Form/Ação 39 (3):149-176.
    The act of observing is crucial for constructive empiricism, Bas van Fraassen's celebrated position on the aim of science. As Buekens and Muller noted in 2012, the Dutch philosopher should have characterized observation as an intentional act, because observation in science has a purpose. In the present article, which will also address the distinction between observing and observing that, introduced by Hanson and Dretske, it will be shown that considerations about the intentionality of the act of observing are, on the (...)
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  6. added 2018-06-05
    The Debate over Scientific Realism.Chrysovalantis 5. Stergiou - 2013 - In Aristidis Baltas & Kostas Stergiopoulos (eds.), Philosophy and Sciences in Twentieth Century. Crete University Press. pp. 467-498.
  7. added 2018-02-17
    Complementary Frameworks of Scientific Inquiry: Hypothetico-Deductive, Hypothetico-Inductive, and Observational-Inductive.T. E. Eastman & F. Mahootian - 2009 - World Futures 65 (1):61-75.
    The 20th century philosophy of science began on a positivistic note. Its focal point was scientific explanation and the hypothetico-deductive (HD) framework of explanation was proposed as the standard of what is meant by “science.” HD framework, its inductive and statistical variants, and other logic-based approaches to modeling scientific explanation were developed long before the dawn of the information age. Since that time, the volume of observational data and power of high performance computing have increased by several orders of magnitude (...)
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  8. added 2017-12-29
    Por uma reformulação do empirismo construtivo a partir de uma reavaliação do conceito de observabilidade.Alessio Gava - 2015 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
    The concept of observability is of key importance for a consistent defense of Constructive Empiricism. This anti-realist position, originally presented in 1980 by Bas van Fraassen in his book The Scientific Image, crucially depends on the observable/unobservable dichotomy. Nevertheless, the question of what it means to observe has been faced in an unsatisfactory and inadequate manner by van Fraassen and this represents an important lacuna in his philosophical position. The aim of this work is to propose a characterization of the (...)
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  9. added 2017-07-12
    H. I. Brown: "Observation and Objectivity". [REVIEW]John Forge - 1989 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67:358.
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  10. added 2017-07-12
    Review: Stegmüller on the Relationship Between Theory and Experience. [REVIEW]Joseph J. Kockelmans - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (3):397 - 420.
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  11. added 2017-07-03
    La Observación Y El Realismo.Fernando Broncano - 1985 - Theoria 1 (2):481-501.
    This paper offers an account of observation from a realist view. Observation is considered here as a process of information gathering from the environment; the performance of which will be more or less succesfull depending on the theories underlying this process.
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  12. added 2017-06-29
    Testability and the Importance of Observational and Theoretical Terms (2011, Vol 18, P 3).L. Bielik - 2011 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 18 (4):474-474.
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  13. added 2017-06-29
    The Theory-Observation Distinction, Andre Kukla.Axiological Realism - 1996 - Philosophy 71 (275).
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  14. added 2017-01-28
    Is Observation Theory Loaded?Taritmaoy Ghosh - 1999 - Indian Philosophical Quarterly 26 (3):405.
  15. added 2017-01-26
    Theory and Observation.Rudolf Carnap - 2009 - In Timothy J. McGrew, Marc Alspector-Kelly & Fritz Allhoff (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 329.
  16. added 2017-01-26
    How We Relate Theory to Observation.Nancy Cartwright - 1993 - In Paul Horwich (ed.), World Changes. Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science. MIT Press. pp. 259--273.
  17. added 2017-01-25
    Is Observation Theory-Loaded?Tarrrmov Ghosh - 1999 - Indian Philosophical Quarterly 26:405-414.
  18. added 2016-10-25
    Empiricism for Cyborgs.Adam Toon - 2014 - Philosophical Issues 24 (1):409-425.
    One important debate between scientific realists and constructive empiricists concerns whether we observe things using instruments. This paper offers a new perspective on the debate over instruments by looking to recent discussion in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Realists often speak of instruments as ‘extensions’ to our senses. I ask whether the realist may strengthen her view by drawing on the extended mind thesis. Proponents of the extended mind thesis claim that cognitive processes can sometimes extend beyond our brains (...)
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  19. added 2015-12-07
    Popper, Basic Statements and the Quine-Duhem Thesis.Stephen Thornton - 2007 - Yearbook of the Irish Philosophical Society 9.
    In this paper I explore Karl Popper’s ‘critical rationalism’, focusing on its presuppositions and implications as a form of realism regarding the nature of scientific truth. I reveal an underlying tension in Popper’s thought pertaining to his account of basic statements and the related question of whether the falsification of a universal theory can ever justifiably be regarded as final or conclusive. I conclude that Popper’s account of basic statements is implicitly conventionalist, and that it should, in consistency, have forced (...)
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  20. added 2015-07-21
    The Reality of the Unobservable.W. V. Metcalf - 1940 - Philosophy of Science 7 (3):337-341.
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  21. added 2015-07-11
    Ordinary Knowledge and Scientific Realism.William A. Rottschaefer - 1978 - In Joseph Pitt (ed.), The Philosophy of Wilfrid Sellars: Queries and Extensions. D. Reidel. pp. 135--161.
  22. added 2015-04-06
    Dimensions of Observability.Peter Kosso - 1988 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 39 (4):449-467.
    The concept of observability of entities in physical science is typically analysed in terms of the nature and significance of a dichotomy between observables and unobservables. In the present work, however, this categorization is resisted and observability is analysed in a descriptive way in terms of the information which one can receive through interaction with objects in the world. The account of interaction and the transfer of information is done using applicable scientific theories. In this way, the question of observability (...)
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  23. added 2015-04-06
    Observability and Observation in Physical Science.Peter Kosso - 1986 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
    The concept of observability of entities in physical science is typically analyzed in terms of the nature and significance of a dichotomy between observables and unobservables. In the present work, however, this categorization is resisted and observability is analyzed in a descriptive way in terms of the information which one can receive through interaction with objects in the world. The account of interaction and the transfer of information is done using applicable scientific theories. In this way, the question of observability (...)
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  24. added 2015-01-20
    Science and Experience: A Deweyan Pragmatist Philosophy of Science.Matthew J. Brown - 2009 - Dissertation, University of California, San Diego
    I resolve several pressing and recalcitrant problems in contemporary philosophy of science using resources from John Dewey's philosophy of science. I begin by looking at Dewey's epistemological and logical writings in their historical context, in order to understand better how Dewey's philosophy disappeared from the limelight, and I provide a reconstruction of his views. Then, I use that reconstruction to address problems of evidence, the social dimensions of science, and pluralism. Generally, mainstream philosophers of science with an interest in Dewey (...)
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  25. added 2014-04-19
    Perception and Observation Unladened.Ioannis Votsis - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (3):563-585.
    Let us call ‘veridicalism’ the view that perceptual beliefs and observational reports are largely truthful. This paper aims to make a case for veridicalism by, among other things, examining in detail and ultimately deflating in import what many consider to be the view’s greatest threat, the so-called ‘theory-ladenness’ of perception and/or observation. In what follows, it is argued that to the extent that theoretical factors influence the formation of perceptual beliefs and observational reports, as theory-ladenness demands, that influence is typically (...)
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  26. added 2014-04-02
    Conceptual Connection and the Observation/ Theory Distinction.Louise Anthony - 1993 - In Grazer Philosophische Studien. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 135-161.
    Fodor and LePore's reconstruction of the semantic holism debate in terms of "atomism" and "anatomism" is inadequate: it fails to highlight the important issue of how intentional contents are individuated, and excludes or obscures several possible positions on the metaphysics of content. One such position, "weak sociabilism" is important because it addresses concerns of Fodor and LePore's molecularist critics about conditions for possession of concepts, without abandoning atomism about content individuation. Properties like DEMOCRACY may be "theoretical" in the following sense: (...)
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  27. added 2014-04-02
    Observation Reconsidered.Jerry Fodor - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (March):23-43.
    Several arguments are considered which purport to demonstrate the impossibility of theory-neutral observation. The most important of these infers the continuity of observation with theory from the presumed continuity of perception with cognition, a doctrine widely espoused in recent cognitive psychology. An alternative psychological account of the relation between cognition and perception is proposed and its epistemological consequences for the observation/theory distinction are then explored.
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  28. added 2014-03-30
    Scientific Realism and Observation Statements.Crispin Wright - 1993 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 1 (2):231 – 254.
  29. added 2014-03-30
    What's a Theory to Do... With Seeing? Or Some Empirical Considerations for Observation and Theory.Daniel Gilman - 1992 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (3):287-309.
    Criticism of the observation/theory distinction generally supposes it to be an empirical fact that even the most basic human perception is heavily theory-laden. I offer critical examination of experimental evidence cited by Thomas Kuhn and Paul Churchland on behalf of this supposition. I argue that the empirical evidence cited is inadequate support for the claims in question. I further argue that we have empirical grounds for claiming that the Kuhnian discussion of perception is developed within an inadequate conceptual framework and (...)
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  30. added 2014-03-17
    The Unexpected Realist.William H. Krieger & Brian L. Keeley - 2006 - In Brian L. Keeley (ed.), Paul Churchland. Cambridge University Press.
    There are two ways to do the unexpected. The banal way—let's call it the expectedly unexpected—is simply to chart the waters of what is and is not done, and then set out to do something different. For a philosopher, this can be done by embracing a method of non sequitor or by perhaps inverting some strongly held assumption of the field. The more interesting way— the unexpectedly unexpected—is to transform the expectations themselves; to do something new and contextualize it in (...)
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  31. added 2014-03-09
    Theory, Observation and Scientific Realism.Jody Azzouni - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (3):371-392.
    A normative constraint on theories about objects which we take to be real is explored: such theories are required to track the properties of the objects which they are theories of. Epistemic views in which observation (and generalizations of it) play a central role, and holist views which see epistemic virtues as applicable only to whole theories, are contrasted in the light of this constraint. It's argued that global-style epistemic virtues can't meet the constraint, although (certain) epistemic views within which (...)
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  32. added 2014-02-10
    Sensation and Scientific Realism.J. Christopher Maloney - 1986 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 46 (3):471-482.
  33. added 2013-11-27
    Philosophy of Science Association Observation Reconsidered.Observation Reconsidered - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (1):23-43.
    Several arguments are considered which purport to demonstrate the impossibility of theory-neutral observation. The most important of these infers the continuity of observation with theory from the presumed continuity of perception with cognition, a doctrine widely espoused in recent cognitive psychology. An alternative psychological account of the relation between cognition and perception is proposed and its epistemological consequences for the observation/theory distinction are then explored.
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  34. added 2013-04-24
    From Rocks to Graphs — the Shaping of Phenomena.Matthias Kaiser - 1991 - Synthese 89 (1):111 - 133.
    Assuming an essential difference between scientific data and phenomena, this paper argues for the view that we have to understand how empirical findings get transformed into scientific phenomena. The work of scientists is seen as largely consisting in constructing these phenomena which are then utilized in more abstract theories. It is claimed that these matters are of importance for discussions of theory choice and progress in science. A case study is presented as a starting point: paleomagnetism and the use of (...)
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  35. added 2013-04-24
    Observation and Theory in Science.Ernest Nagel (ed.) - 1971 - Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  36. added 2013-04-01
    Experiment, Observation and the Confirmation of Laws.S. Okasha - 2011 - Analysis 71 (2):222-232.
    It is customary to distinguish experimental from purely observational sciences. The former include physics and molecular biology, the latter astronomy and palaeontology. Experiments involve actively intervening in the course of nature, as opposed to observing events that would have happened anyway. When a molecular biologist inserts viral DNA into a bacterium in his laboratory, this is an experiment; but when an astronomer points his telescope at the heavens, this is an observation. Without the biologist’s handiwork the bacterium would never have (...)
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  37. added 2013-01-17
    Did Perrin’s Experiments Convert Poincaré to Scientific Realism?Milena Ivanova - 2013 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 3 (1):1-19.
    In this paper I argue that Poincaré’s acceptance of the atom does not indicate a shift from instrumentalism to scientific realism. I examine the implications of Poincaré’s acceptance of the existence of the atom for our current understanding of his philosophy of science. Specifically, how can we understand Poincaré’s acceptance of the atom in structural realist terms? I examine his 1912 paper carefully and suggest that it does not entail scientific realism in the sense of acceptance of the fundamental existence (...)
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  38. added 2011-07-11
    Character Analysis in Cladistics: Abstraction, Reification, and the Search for Objectivity.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2009 - Acta Biotheoretica 57 (1-2):129-162.
    The dangers of character reification for cladistic inference are explored. The identification and analysis of characters always involves theory-laden abstraction—there is no theory-free “view from nowhere.” Given theory-ladenness, and given a real world with actual objects and processes, how can we separate robustly real biological characters from uncritically reified characters? One way to avoid reification is through the employment of objectivity criteria that give us good methods for identifying robust primary homology statements. I identify six such criteria and explore each (...)
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  39. added 2010-06-22
    Holism: A Consumer Update.Louise Anthony (ed.) - 1993 - Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  40. added 2009-11-26
    Data Meet Theory: Up Close and Inferentially Personal.Ioannis Votsis - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):89 - 100.
    In a recent paper James Bogen and James Woodward denounce a set of views on confirmation that they collectively brand 'IRS'. The supporters of these views cast confirmation in terms of Inferential Relations between observational and theoretical Sentences. Against 1RS accounts of confirmation, Bogen and Woodward unveil two main objections: (a) inferential relations are not necessary to model confirmation relations since many data are neither in sentential form nor can they be put in such a form and (b) inferential relations (...)
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  41. added 2009-11-26
    Making Contact with Observations.Ioannis Votsis - 2007 - In Mauricio Suarez, Mauro Dorato & Miklos Redei (eds.), EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences · Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer. pp. 267--277.
    A stalwart view in the philosophy of science holds that, even when broadly construed so as to include theoretical auxiliaries, theories cannot make direct contact with observations. This view owes much to Bogen and Woodward’s influential distinction between data and phenomena. According to them, data are typically the kind of things that are observable or measurable like "bubble chamber photographs, patterns of discharge in electronic particle detectors and records of reaction times and error rates in various psychological experiments". Phenomena are (...)
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  42. added 2009-05-24
    Scientific Realism and Perception. [REVIEW]Raimo Tuomela - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (1):87-104.
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  43. added 2009-05-19
    The Reality of the Unobservable: Observability, Unobservability and Their Impact on the Issue of Scientific Realism.Anjan Chakravartty - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):359-363.
    There is perhaps no more succinct a way of describing the controversy between scientific realists and antirealists than to say that it turns on the reality of the unobservable. Less concisely, it turns on whether we have reason to think that scientific theories tell us the truth (or something close to it) about some of the underlying, unobservable bits of a mind-independent, external reality, among other things. Claims to knowledge of such a reality have traditionally been a bone of contention (...)
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