Felice argues that individual human rights, which have proven to be of enormous value in the twentieth century, must be extended to communities ranging from the family unit to the entire human community.
How Do I Save My Honor? is a powerful exploration of individual moral responsibility in a time of war. When individuals conclude that their leaders have violated fundamental ethical principles, what are they to do? Through the compelling personal stories of those in the U.S. and British government and military who struggled with these thorny issues during the war in Iraq, William F. Felice analyzes the degrees of moral responsibility that public officials, soldiers, and private citizens bear for the (...) actions of their governments. Examining the struggles of these contemporary men and women, as well as of historical figures facing similar dilemmas, the author weighs the profound difficulties of overcoming the intense pressures of misguided loyalty, patriotism, and groupthink that predominate during war. (shrink)
Whether dealing with contracts, tort actions, or government regulations, lawyers are more likely to be successful if they are conversant in economics. Economics for Lawyers provides the essential tools to understand the economic basis of law. Through rigorous analysis illustrated with simple graphs and a wide range of legal examples, Richard Ippolito focuses on a few key concepts and shows how they play out in numerous applications. There are everyday problems: What is the social cost of legislation enforcing below-market (...) prices, minimum wages, milk regulation, and noncompetitive pricing? Why are matinee movies cheaper than nighttime showings? And then there are broader questions: What is the patent system's role in the market for intellectual property rights? How does one think about externalities like airport noise? Is the free market, a regulated solution, or tort law the best way to deliver the "efficient amount of harm" in the workplace? What is the best approach to the question of economic compensation due to a person falsely imprisoned? Along the way, readers learn what economists mean when they talk about sorting, signaling, reputational assets, lemons markets, moral hazard, and adverse selection. They will learn a new vocabulary and a whole new way of thinking about the world they live in, and will be more productive in their professions. (shrink)
In this article, I propose a semantic account of temporally mismatched past subjunctive counterfactuals. The proposal consists of the following parts. First, I show that in cases of temporal mismatch, [past] cannot be interpreted inside the proposition where it occurs at surface structure. Instead, it must be interpreted as constraining the time argument of the accessibility relation. This has the effect of shifting the time of the evaluation of the conditional to some contextually salient past time. Second, I will propose (...) specific felicity conditions (presuppositions) for subjunctive conditionals and I will argue that there is a strict correspondence between the time of evaluation in the truth conditions of a conditional and the time relevant for the felicity conditions. In other words, if the time relevant for the accessibility relation has been shifted to the past, then the conditional's presupposition will make reference to a past context. On the other hand, if no past is constraining the time argument of the accessibility relation, the conditional's felicity will make reference to the current (main) context. Third, I will argue that the intuition that the antecedent of mismatched counterfactuals is not true is a scalar implicature arising from a competition not between assertions but between presuppositions. Finally, I will investigate the repercussions of my proposal for the general theory of modality. (shrink)
The goal of this paper is to offer a compositional semantics for subjunctive and indicative will conditionals, and to derive the projection properties of the types of conditionals we consider and in particular those of counterfactual conditionals. It is argued that subjunctive conditionals are "bare" conditional embedded under temporal and aspectural operators, which constrain the interpretation of the modal operators in the embedded conditional. Furthermore, it is argued that a theory of presupposition projection à la Heim together with the present (...) proposal about their logical form explains the projection facts. (shrink)
This paper investigates the semantics of the focus particle only and is primarily concerned with the relation between the exclusive proposition and the proposition expressed by the prejacent (the only-less sentence). We argue that, in a sentence of the form only A is B, only triggers the conditional presupposition that if something is B, A is B. We show that in a positive-only sentence, the prejacent is a conversational implicature and therefore it is cancellable. Instead, in a negative-only sentence the (...) prejacent is shown to be entailed by any context that satisfies the conditional presupposition and to which the (negative) assertion is added. Hence, the prejacent of a negative-only sentence is not cancellable. The entailment analyses, the strong presupposition analyses and the weak presupposition analyses of only are discussed, together with the problems that each type of theories faces. (shrink)
In this paper, I argue that the aspectual, marginality, and concessive uses of the grading particles still and already can be reduced to the fol lowing three classes of focus sensitive-grading particles: additive particles like too, scalar particles like even, and exclusive particles like only. The meaning differences among the occurrences of still (and already) are mostly reduced to the differences among these three classes of grading particles. In turn, these differences are shown to correlate with what type of object (...) is denoted by the phrase in the scope of the particle. The proposal has repercussions also for the focus-sensitive particle again. I investigate the latter too, and I propose a parallel between the temporal and nominal domains where the contrast between still and again is analyzed along the lines of the contrast between definite and indefinite noun phrases. (shrink)
I show that wish, an attitude verb presupposing the counterfactuality of its complement, raises a problem for grammatical theories of scalar implicatures when a scalar item is embedded in its complement.
In this paper I provide a unified analysis of a number of pragmatic anomalies that have been discussed in the literature. The paper’s main goal is to account for Sobel sequences of conditionals and sequences of disjunctive sentences, but I will also propose that this analysis can be extended to sequences of sentences with superlatives. The starting point is the observation that, while all these sequences are felicitous in one order, they are infelicitous when the order is reversed. Previous proposals (...) have focussed on particular types of infelicitous sequences Ken Hale: A life in language, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2001; Moss in Noûs 46:516–586, 2012; Lewis in Noûs 52:481–507, 2018; a.o.), or a subset of all the phenomena cited above Linguistic and psycholinguistic approaches on implicatures and presuppositions. Palgrave McMillan, Basingstoke, 2017; a.o.). I propose that sequences of sentences belonging to the same structured set of alternatives T are subject to a Specificity Constraint : sequences are acceptable if both alternatives are dominated by the same number of nodes in the structured set of alternatives T. Violations of SC can be avoided by strengthening the weaker alternative. However, covert strengthening violates an economy condition if the overtly stronger alternative is among those made salient by the preceding utterance in the sequence. I propose that the set of alternatives made salient by an utterance of a sentence s consists of s’s sisters and mother in T. I will show that the strengthening mechanism varies depending on the kind of sequence we have. (shrink)
Conceived as a textbook, this work is divided in three sections. In the first, the “Beginning of Moral Philosophy,” the author broaches the thorny issue of using moral practice as a springboard for the elaboration of a moral philosophy. To think of morals as a practice means to compare general norms with a particular kind of behavior. The author points out that moral judgments are not perceptions but rather judgments of practical reason, that is, judgments that apply moral principles to (...) particular circumstances. Insofar as they are moved by practical rationality, Abbá takes moral judgments as the starting point of moral research. Thus, moral philosophy has the task of justifying the immanent rationality of moral judgments, in order to ensure a harmony between the ends and the concrete realizations. According to Abbá, the transition from moral practice to moral philosophy arises from the fact that our conduct can be shaped and explained by way of philosophical elaboration. Proceeding in this direction, some unavoidable questions arise: What kind of person do I want to be? Who am I truly? The answers will supply the subiectum, that is, the subject matter of moral philosophy. (shrink)
“This book aims to show that methodology is important and useful for experimental economists, but also that philosophers of science can learn from experimental economics”. With these words Francesco Guala makes clear right from the start what moved him to write this important book. The book is divided into two parts. The first part is dedicated to the theme of “inferences within the experiment,” and the second to “inferences from the experiment.” Each part is divided into five chapters.
Examine how community college faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics partnered with K–12 teachers to mentor community college science and math students and open their minds to pursuing a career in K–12 teaching. This report outlines the lessons learned by the community colleges that participated in AACC’s Teaching Scholar Partnerships, an initiative supported by the National Science Foundation.
ExcerptThe Omens In November 1961, the Einaudi publishing house published Renzo De Felice's Storia degli ebrei italiani sotto il fascismo.1 The Wiener Library in London and both the Yad Vashem Martyrs' and Heroes' Memorial Authority in Jerusalem and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research of New York City had just published (respectively, at the beginning and the end of 1960) two bibliographies concerning the persecution of Jews in Europe, one authored by Ilse R. Wolff and the other by Philip (...) Friedman and Jacob Robinson.2 According to their works (in particular, according to the latter, more extensive one),…. (shrink)
This paper, which is mainly based on unpublished material, focuses on the scientific influence that Felice Casorati exerted on Salvatore Pincherle. This influence can be traced, in particular, in Casorati’s work on the finite-difference calculus as conceived and published between 1879 and 1880 when Pincherle was living in Pavia. Casorati’s work has an interesting back story related to his entry to the 1880 Grand Prix of the French Académie des Sciences that helps us in understanding Casorati’s personality. Moreover, the (...) correspondence that Casorati exchanged with other mathematicians on his work reveals that some of the results contained in Casorati :10–45, 1880b) had been obtained—though in a narrower context—in an early paper by Christoffel. Finally, the letters between Casorati and Pincherle contain a short unpublished note by Pincherle on a paper by Jules Tannery :113–182, 1875). This note offers the first evidence of the influence of Casorati :10–45, 1880b) on Pincherle’s work on the finite-difference calculus. (shrink)