This paper shows a role for emotion in rational choice. The key concept here is “time illusion”. The perception of the time spent on an activity is often different from the actual time spent, and depends on how enjoyable the activity is. Based on the conception that time illusion affects one’s evaluation of the opportunity cost of an activity, this paper integrates the concept into utility theory. Using this approach suggests that an activity that is perceived as less time intensive (...) is demanded more as the price of time increases. The presence of time illusion leads to a deviation from rational choice, namely, over- or under-consumption. (shrink)
This is a study of 288 Korean and 323 Japanese Business executives. The result indicates that, (1) the business executives believe basically in higher level business ethics, but (2) they occasionally have to make unethical business decisions which conflict with their personal values, because of prevailing business practices. (3) However, they think higher ethical standards is useful for long-term profit and for improving workers' attitudes, and the standards can be improved, and (4) to improve ethical standards, model setting by superiors (...) is the most important and clear-cut company policies and code of ethics are essential. (shrink)
One important function of emotions is to guide decision making and behaviors for survival in complex environments. In the context of such reasoning, the somatic marker hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) has argued that bodily states are represented in specific brain regions, such as the insula, and would play critical roles in decision making. However, it still remains unclear what causal roles bodily states would play in decision making, and how the bodily states would change accompanying decision making. Thus, the aim of (...) this article is to reconsider aspects of the brain and bodily states in decision making based on recent findings. Questions for future research are proposed based on such findings. (shrink)
The epistemology of Richard of Saint-Victor is characterised through a detailed analysis of contemplatio, the highest mode of human knowledge. Contemplatio culminates in an ecstasy, in which man reaches the highest object of his knowledge, God himself, and is fulfilled by true spiritual pleasure. This plenitude of spiritual pleasure is not just the fruit of knowledge, but fed by love. Richard distinguishes three paths of knowledge in accordance with the growth of the love between God and man. The love of (...) God gives an orientation to human knowledge. Through the love of God human knowledge is structured from disoriented cogitatio to oriented meditatio as a spiritual ascent to the divine things supported by virtues, then finally to contemplatio, which culminates in ecstasy with true spiritual pleasure. So the essence of true spiritual pleasure reflects the structural key of the highest knowledge, contemplatio, namely the love of God. (shrink)
Este trabalho apresenta a experiência de uma abordagem interdisciplinar, desenvolvida na modalidade de pesquisa-ação, no atendimento ambulatorial a um grupo de 20 pacientes em tratamento da hepatite C. As especialidades envolvidas no projeto foram: assistência social, enfermagem, gastroenterologia, ..
Summary The mesotrons, or mesons, were the first elementary particles observed to be inherently unstable. This essay offers a reconstruction of the stream of researches related to mesotron decay, and examines how these researches shaped some of the basic concepts and practices of the emerging field of particle physics. Mass measurements could not settle the question of whether the mesons were a homogeneous kind of particles or an assortment of particles with different masses. The assumption of a single mass prevailed (...) not on experimental grounds but because the mesons were identified tentatively with the carriers of the nuclear force according to a theory formulated by Hideki Yukawa. The identification gained currency because it entailed the prediction of meson decay, and thereby upheld the promise of a unified explanation of nuclear and cosmic-ray phenomena. In turn, the observation of decay and the measurement of the mean lifetime created the conditions for investigating the nuclear interactions of mesons at rest. Interest in these interactions was heightened, immediately after WWII, by the prospect of building and using accelerators to acquire knowledge about fundamental nuclear processes. Using decay to study nuclear capture, however, led to the realization that there exist not only different kinds of mesons but also two nuclear forces. (shrink)
Rhodopsins are one of the most studied photoreceptor protein families, and ion‐translocating rhodopsins, both pumps and channels, have recently attracted broad attention because of the development of optogenetics. Recently, a new functional class of ion‐pumping rhodopsins, an outward Na+ pump, was discovered, and following structural and functional studies enable us to compare three functionally different ion‐pumping rhodopsins: outward proton pump, inward Cl− pump, and outward Na+ pump. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure‐function relationships in these three light‐driven pumps, (...) mainly focusing on Na+ pumps. A structural and functional comparison reveals both unique and conserved features of these ion pumps, and enhances our understanding about how the structurally similar microbial rhodopsins acquired such diverse functions. We also discuss some unresolved questions and future perspectives in research of ion‐pumping rhodopsins, including optogenetics application and engineering of novel rhodopsins. (shrink)
There have been two Japanese Nobel laureates in chemistry, three in physics, and one in the category of medicine or physiology. This relatively small number has been attributed to shortcomings in Japanese science. The award of the Physics Prize in 1949 to Hideki Yukawa and to his colleague Sin'itirô Tomonaga in 1965 gave public evidence of how Japanese could make outstanding individual contributions to science. Paradoxically, the Prize also reinforced a belief that such men formed part of a traditional (...) hierarchical system. This essay examines how the Nobel Prize has been represented in Japan. (shrink)