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  1. Hacking the Brain: Brain–Computer Interfacing Technology and the Ethics of Neurosecurity.Marcello Ienca & Pim Haselager - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (2):117-129.
    Brain–computer interfacing technologies are used as assistive technologies for patients as well as healthy subjects to control devices solely by brain activity. Yet the risks associated with the misuse of these technologies remain largely unexplored. Recent findings have shown that BCIs are potentially vulnerable to cybercriminality. This opens the prospect of “neurocrime”: extending the range of computer-crime to neural devices. This paper explores a type of neurocrime that we call brain-hacking as it aims at the illicit access to and manipulation (...)
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  2.  11
    Ethical Design of Intelligent Assistive Technologies for Dementia: A Descriptive Review.Marcello Ienca, Tenzin Wangmo, Fabrice Jotterand, Reto W. Kressig & Bernice Elger - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1035-1055.
    The use of Intelligent Assistive Technology in dementia care opens the prospects of reducing the global burden of dementia and enabling novel opportunities to improve the lives of dementia patients. However, with current adoption rates being reportedly low, the potential of IATs might remain under-expressed as long as the reasons for suboptimal adoption remain unaddressed. Among these, ethical and social considerations are critical. This article reviews the spectrum of IATs for dementia and investigates the prevalence of ethical considerations in the (...)
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  3.  21
    Ethics Review of Big Data Research: What Should Stay and What Should Be Reformed?Effy Vayena, Minerva Rivas Velarde, Mahsa Shabani, Gabrielle Samuel, Camille Nebeker, S. Matthew Liao, Peter Kleist, Walter Karlen, Jeff Kahn, Phoebe Friesen, Bobbie Farsides, Edward S. Dove, Alessandro Blasimme, Mark Sheehan, Marcello Ienca & Agata Ferretti - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-13.
    BackgroundEthics review is the process of assessing the ethics of research involving humans. The Ethics Review Committee is the key oversight mechanism designated to ensure ethics review. Whether or not this governance mechanism is still fit for purpose in the data-driven research context remains a debated issue among research ethics experts.Main textIn this article, we seek to address this issue in a twofold manner. First, we review the strengths and weaknesses of ERCs in ensuring ethical oversight. Second, we map these (...)
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  4.  11
    Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Neuroscience: Methodological and Ethical Challenges.Marcello Ienca & Karolina Ignatiadis - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (2):77-87.
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  5.  7
    “Hunting Down My Son’s Killer”: New Roles of Patients in Treatment Discovery and Ethical Uncertainty.Marcello Ienca & Effy Vayena - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):37-47.
    The past few years have witnessed several media-covered cases involving citizens actively engaging in the pursuit of experimental treatments for their medical conditions—or those of their loved ones—in the absence of established standards of therapy. This phenomenon is particularly observable in patients with rare genetic diseases, as the development of effective therapies for these disorders is hindered by the limited profitability and market value of pharmaceutical research. Sociotechnical trends at the cross-section of medicine and society are facilitating the involvement of (...)
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  6.  14
    Ethical Concerns with the Use of Intelligent Assistive Technology: Findings From a Qualitative Study with Professional Stakeholders.Tenzin Wangmo, Mirjam Lipps, Reto W. Kressig & Marcello Ienca - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-11.
    Background Advances in artificial intelligence, robotics and wearable computing are creating novel technological opportunities for mitigating the global burden of population ageing and improving the quality of care for older adults with dementia and/or age-related disability. Intelligent assistive technology is the umbrella term defining this ever-evolving spectrum of intelligent applications for the older and disabled population. However, the implementation of IATs has been observed to be sub-optimal due to a number of barriers in the translation of novel applications from the (...)
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  7.  2
    Towards a Governance Framework for Brain Data.Marcello Ienca, Joseph J. Fins, Ralf J. Jox, Fabrice Jotterand, Silja Voeneky, Roberto Andorno, Tonio Ball, Claude Castelluccia, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Hervé Chneiweiss, Agata Ferretti, Orsolya Friedrich, Samia Hurst, Grischa Merkel, Fruzsina Molnár-Gábor, Jean-Marc Rickli, James Scheibner, Effy Vayena, Rafael Yuste & Philipp Kellmeyer - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (2):1-14.
    The increasing availability of brain data within and outside the biomedical field, combined with the application of artificial intelligence (AI) to brain data analysis, poses a challenge for ethics and governance. We identify distinctive ethical implications of brain data acquisition and processing, and outline a multi-level governance framework. This framework is aimed at maximizing the benefits of facilitated brain data collection and further processing for science and medicine whilst minimizing risks and preventing harmful use. The framework consists of four primary (...)
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  8.  8
    Direct-to-Consumer Neurotechnology: What Is It and What Is It For?Marcello Ienca & Effy Vayena - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (4):149-151.
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  9.  26
    Digital Medicine and Ethics: Rooting for Evidence.Effy Vayena & Marcello Ienca - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (9):49-51.
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  10.  5
    Misplaced Trust and Distrust: How Not to Engage with Medical Artificial Intelligence.Georg Starke & Marcello Ienca - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics:1-10.
    Artificial intelligence plays a rapidly increasing role in clinical care. Many of these systems, for instance, deep learning-based applications using multilayered Artificial Neural Nets, exhibit epistemic opacity in the sense that they preclude comprehensive human understanding. In consequence, voices from industry, policymakers, and research have suggested trust as an attitude for engaging with clinical AI systems. Yet, in the philosophical and ethical literature on medical AI, the notion of trust remains fiercely debated. Trust skeptics hold that talking about trust in (...)
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  11.  35
    Democratizing Cognitive Technology: A Proactive Approach.Marcello Ienca - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (4):267-280.
    Cognitive technology is an umbrella term sometimes used to designate the realm of technologies that assist, augment or simulate cognitive processes or that can be used for the achievement of cognitive aims. This technological macro-domain encompasses both devices that directly interface the human brain as well as external systems that use artificial intelligence to simulate or assist human cognition. As they hold the promise of assisting and augmenting human cognitive capabilities both individually and collectively, cognitive technologies could produce, in the (...)
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  12. Ethics of Artificial Intelligence in Brain and Mental Health.Marcello Ienca & Fabrice Jotterand (eds.) - forthcoming
  13. Health Data Privacy Through Homomorphic Encryption and Distributed Ledger Computing: An Ethical-Legal Qualitative Expert Assessment Study.Effy Vayena, Marcello Ienca & James Scheibner - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-13.
    BackgroundIncreasingly, hospitals and research institutes are developing technical solutions for sharing patient data in a privacy preserving manner. Two of these technical solutions are homomorphic encryption and distributed ledger technology. Homomorphic encryption allows computations to be performed on data without this data ever being decrypted. Therefore, homomorphic encryption represents a potential solution for conducting feasibility studies on cohorts of sensitive patient data stored in distributed locations. Distributed ledger technology provides a permanent record on all transfers and processing of patient data, (...)
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    Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.Raheleh Heidari Feidt, Marcello Ienca, Bernice Simone Elger & Marc Folcher - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):33-52.
    Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational (...)
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    Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative. [REVIEW]Marc Folcher, Bernice Elger, Marcello Ienca & Raheleh Heidari Feidt - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):33-52.
    Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational (...)
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  16.  9
    Correction To: Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.Marc Folcher, Bernice Elger, Marcello Ienca & Raheleh Heidari Feidt - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):53-53.
    The author group of above-mentioned review paper was incorrectly published in the online article.
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    Correction To: Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.Raheleh Heidari Feidt, Marcello Ienca, Bernice Simone Elger & Marc Folcher - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):53-53.
    The author group of above-mentioned review paper was incorrectly published in the online article.
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