Results for 'competition'

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  1.  57
    The Perverse Effects of Competition on Scientists' Work and Relationships.Melissa S. Anderson, Emily A. Ronning, Raymond De Vries & Brian C. Martinson - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):437-461.
    Competition among scientists for funding, positions and prestige, among other things, is often seen as a salutary driving force in U.S. science. Its effects on scientists, their work and their relationships are seldom considered. Focus-group discussions with 51 mid- and early-career scientists, on which this study is based, reveal a dark side of competition in science. According to these scientists, competition contributes to strategic game-playing in science, a decline in free and open sharing of information and methods, (...)
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  2.  36
    Corporate Philanthropic Giving, Advertising Intensity, and Industry Competition Level.Ran Zhang, Jigao Zhu, Heng Yue & Chunyan Zhu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):39-52.
    This article examines whether the likelihood and amount of firm charitable giving in response to catastrophic events are related to firm advertising intensity, and whether industry competition level moderates this relationship. Using data on Chinese firms’ philanthropic response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that firm advertising intensity is positively associated with both the probability and the amount of corporate giving. The results also indicate that this positive advertising intensity-philanthropic giving relationship is stronger in competitive industries, and firms (...)
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  3.  6
    Killing the Competition.Martin Daly & Margo Wilson - 1990 - Human Nature 1 (1):81-107.
    Sex- and age-specific rates of killing unrelated persons of one’s own sex were computed for Canada (1974–1983), England/Wales (1977–1986), Chicago (1965–1981), and Detroit (1972) from census information and data archives of all homicides known to police. Patterns in relation to sex and age were virtually identical among the four samples, although the rates varied enormously (from 3.7 per million citizens per annum in England/Wales to 216.3 in Detroit). Men’s marital status was related to the probability of committing a same-sex, nonrelative (...)
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  4. Cosmopolitanism and Competition: Probing the Limits of Egalitarian Justice.David Wiens - 2017 - Economics and Philosophy 33 (1):91-124.
    This paper develops a novel competition criterion for evaluating institutional schemes. Roughly, this criterion says that one institutional scheme is normatively superior to another to the extent that the former would engender more widespread political competition than the latter. I show that this criterion should be endorsed by both global egalitarians and their statist rivals, as it follows from their common commitment to the moral equality of all persons. I illustrate the normative import of the competition criterion (...)
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  5.  10
    Competition as Cooperation.C. Thi Nguyen - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (1):123-137.
    Games have a complex, and seemingly paradoxical structure: they are both competitive and cooperative, and the competitive element is required for the cooperative element to work out. They are mechanisms for transforming competition into cooperation. Several contemporary philosophers of sport have located the primary mechanism of conversion in the mental attitudes of the players. I argue that these views cannot capture the phenomenological complexity of game-play, nor the difficulty and moral complexity of achieving cooperation through game-play. In this paper, (...)
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  6.  14
    Sexual Size Dimorphism, Canine Dimorphism, and Male-Male Competition in Primates.J. Michael Plavcan - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (1):45-67.
    Sexual size dimorphism is generally associated with sexual selection via agonistic male competition in nonhuman primates. These primate models play an important role in understanding the origins and evolution of human behavior. Human size dimorphism is often hypothesized to be associated with high rates of male violence and polygyny. This raises the question of whether human dimorphism and patterns of male violence are inherited from a common ancestor with chimpanzees or are uniquely derived. Here I review patterns of, and (...)
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  7.  6
    Unsustainable Growth, Hyper-Competition, and Worth in Life Science Research: Narrowing Evaluative Repertoires in Doctoral and Postdoctoral Scientists’ Work and Lives.Maximilian Fochler, Ulrike Felt & Ruth Müller - 2016 - Minerva 54 (2):175-200.
    There is a crisis of valuation practices in the current academic life sciences, triggered by unsustainable growth and “hyper-competition.” Quantitative metrics in evaluating researchers are seen as replacing deeper considerations of the quality and novelty of work, as well as substantive care for the societal implications of research. Junior researchers are frequently mentioned as those most strongly affected by these dynamics. However, their own perceptions of these issues are much less frequently considered. This paper aims at contributing to a (...)
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  8.  7
    Book Review 'Catching Capital: The Ethics of Tax Competition'. [REVIEW]Gajevic Sayegh Alexandre - 2017 - Contemporary Political Theory 16 (2).
    In today’s globalised economy, characterised by high capital mobility but largely domestic tax policy, individuals and corporations can pick and choose between different tax regimes. In Catching Capital: The Ethics of Tax Competition, Peter Dietsch offers a commanding analysis covering the moral assessment and an institutional solution to the problem of tax competition. This book will prove useful to political philosophers and legal theorists seeking a thorough approach to global justice that proceeds from real-world practice. And, more importantly, (...)
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  9.  45
    Cue Competition Effects and Young Children's Causal and Counterfactual Inferences.Teresa McCormack, Stephen Andrew Butterfill, Christoph Hoerl & Patrick Burns - 2009 - Developmental Psychology 45 (6):1563-1575.
    The authors examined cue competition effects in young children using the blicket detector paradigm, in which objects are placed either singly or in pairs on a novel machine and children must judge which objects have the causal power to make the machine work. Cue competition effects were found in a 5- to 6-year-old group but not in a 4-year-old group. Equivalent levels of forward and backward blocking were found in the former group. Children's counterfactual judgments were subsequently examined (...)
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  10.  1
    Resource Competition and Reproduction.Eckart Voland & R. I. M. Dunbar - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (1):33-49.
    A family reconstitution study of the Krummhörn population (Ostfriesland, Germany, 1720–1874) reveals that infant mortality and children’s probabilities of marrying or emigrating unmarried are affected by the number of living same-sexed sibs in farmers’ families but not in the families of landless laborers. We interpret these results in terms of a “local resource competition” model in which resource-holding families are obliged to manipulate the reproductive future of their offspring. In contrast, families that lack resources have no need to manipulate (...)
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  11.  12
    Sexual Coercion and Forced in-Pair Copulation as Sperm Competition Tactics in Humans.Aaron T. Goetz & Todd K. Shackelford - 2006 - Human Nature 17 (3):265-282.
    Rape of women by men might be generated either by a specialized rape adaptation or as a by-product of other psychological adaptations. Although increasing number of sexual partners is a proposed benefit of rape according to the “rape as an adaptation” and the “rape as a by-product” hypotheses, neither hypothesis addresses directly why some men rape their long-term partners, to whom they already have sexual access. In two studies we tested specific hypotheses derived from the general hypothesis that sexual coercion (...)
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  12.  17
    Distribution of Responsibility, Ability and Competition.Johan J. Graafland - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1-2):133 - 147.
    This paper considers the distribution of responsibility for prevention of negative social or ecological effects of production and consumption. Responsibility is related to ability and ability depends on welfare. An increase in competition between Western companies depresses their profitability, but increases the welfare of Western consumers and,hence, their ability to acknowledge social values. Therefore, an increase in competition on consumer markets shifts the balance in responsibility from companies to consumers to prevent negative external effects from production and consumption (...)
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  13.  14
    Weak Spots in Business Ethics: A Psycho-Analytic Study of Competition and Memory in "Death of a Salesman". [REVIEW]Steven P. Feldman - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 44 (4):391 - 404.
    The field of business ethics has shown little attention to the dynamics of memory in maintaining moral character. Yet memory is a complex process that involves the repression of some experiences in order to protect the moral integrity of the personality. Without the capacity to repress what one's moral conscience would not accept, the mind can be overtaken by neurotic ambivalence and moral confusion. In the context of business competition, where the pressures for potential gains and losses can be (...)
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  14. Competition Theory and Channeling Explanation.Christopher H. Eliot - 2011 - Philosophy and Theory in Biology 3 (20130604):1-16.
    The complexity and heterogeneity of causes influencing ecology’s domain challenge its capacity to generate a general theory without exceptions, raising the question of whether ecology is capable, even in principle, of achieving the sort of theoretical success enjoyed by physics. Weber has argued that competition theory built around the Competitive Exclusion Principle (especially Tilman’s resource-competition model) offers an example of ecology identifying a law-like causal regularity. However, I suggest that as Weber presents it, the CEP is not yet (...)
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  15.  21
    Cooperation and Competition in the Context of Organic and Mechanic Worldviews – A Theoretical and Case Based Discussion.Knut J. Ims & Ove D. Jakobsen - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 66 (1):19-32.
    In this study we argue that there is an interconnection between; the mechanistic worldview and competition, and the organic worldview and cooperation. To illustrate our main thesis we introduce two cases; first, Max Havelaar, a paradigmatic case of how business might function in an economy based upon solidarity and sustainability. Second, TINE, a Norwegian grocery corporation engaged in collusion in order to force a small competitor out of the market. On the one hand, in order to encourage market behaviour (...)
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  16.  11
    The Feminist Competition/Cooperation Dichotomy.Deborah Walker, Jerry W. Dauterive, Elyssa Schultz & Walter Block - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):243-254.
    Feminist literature sometimes posits that competition and cooperation are opposites. This dichotomy is important in that it is often invoked in order to explain why mainstream economics has focused on market activity to the exclusion of non-market activity, and why this fascination or focus is sexist. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the competition/cooperation dichotomy is false. Once the dichotomy is dissolved, those activities which are seen as competitive (masculine) and those which are seen as (...)
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  17.  31
    Games of Competition in a Stochastic Environment.Judith Avrahami, Werner Güth & Yaakov Kareev - 2005 - Theory and Decision 59 (4):255-294.
    The paper presents a set of games of competition between two or three players in which reward is jointly determined by a stochastic biased mechanism and players’ choices. More specifically, a resource can be found with unequal probabilities in one of two locations. The first agent is rewarded only if it finds the resource and avoids being found by the next agent in line; the latter is rewarded only if it finds the former. Five benchmarks, based on different psychological (...)
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  18.  6
    A Dialectic of Cooperation and Competition: Solidarity and Universal Health Care Provision.Samuel A. Butler - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (7):351-360.
    The concept of solidarity has achieved relatively little attention from philosophers, in spite of its signal importance in a variety of social movements over the past 150 years. This means that there is a certain amount of preliminary philosophical work concerning the concept itself that must be undertaken before one can ask about its potential use in arguments concerning the provision of health care. In this paper, I begin with this work through a survey of some of the most prominent (...)
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  19.  26
    Altruism, Spite and Competition in Bargaining Games.Maria Montero - 2008 - Theory and Decision 65 (2):125-151.
    This paper shows that altruism may be beneficial in bargaining when there is competition for bargaining partners. In a game with random proposers, the most altruistic player has the highest material payoff if players are sufficiently patient. However, this advantage is eroded as the discount factor increases, and if players are perfectly patient altruism and spite become irrelevant for material payoffs.
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  20.  7
    A Case of Non-Ideal Guidance: Tackling Tax Competition.Alexandre Gajevic Sayegh - 2016 - Moral Philosophy and Politics (1):2016-10-04.
    In the global justice literature, growing attention has been given to problems particular to a globalised economy such as tax competition. Political philosophers have started to reflect on how these problems intersect with theories of global justice. This paper explores the idea according to which action-guiding principles of justice can only be formulated at such intersections. This is the starting point from which I develop a ‘non-ideal theory’ of global justice. The methodology of this theory posits that principles of (...)
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  21.  41
    The Competition Controversy in Community Ecology.Gregory Cooper - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):359-384.
    There is a long history of controversy in ecology over the role of competition in determining patterns of distribution and abundance, and over the significance of the mathematical modeling of competitive interactions. This paper examines the controversy. Three kinds of considerations have been involved at one time or another during the history of this debate. There has been dispute about the kinds of regularities ecologists can expect to find, about the significance of evolutionary considerations for ecological inquiry, and about (...)
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  22.  33
    K–Player Additive Extension of Two-Player Games with an Application to the Borda Electoral Competition Game.Gilbert Laffond, Jean-François Laslier & Michel Le Breton - 2000 - Theory and Decision 48 (2):129-137.
    In this note we introduce the notion of K–player additive extension of a symmetric two-player game and prove a result relating the equilibria in mixed strategies in the two games. Then we apply the result to the Borda electoral competition game.
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  23.  4
    Can Infinitival to Omissions and Provisions Be Primed? An Experimental Investigation Into the Role of Constructional Competition in Infinitival to Omission Errors.Kirjavainen Minna, V. M. Lieven Elena & L. Theakston Anna - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (5):1242-1273.
    An experimental study was conducted on children aged 2;6–3;0 and 3;6–4;0 investigating the priming effect of two WANT-constructions to establish whether constructional competition contributes to English-speaking children's infinitival to omission errors. In two between-participant groups, children either just heard or heard and repeated WANT-to, WANT-X, and control prime sentences after which to-infinitival constructions were elicited. We found that both age groups were primed, but in different ways. In the 2;6–3;0 year olds, WANT-to primes facilitated the provision of to in (...)
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  24.  29
    Cooperation, Competition, and Democracy.Shaomeng Li - 2011 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (2):273-283.
    Rawlsian framework is based on a cooperation model, which takes a democratic society as a cooperation system. Such a conception of democracy not only obscures the distinction between democracy and despotism, but also makes it hard to argue for the superiority of democracy over despotism. This article develops a different model, the competition model, to explain the historical development towards democracy and to justify democracy as a social order superior to despotism. The article argues that once we adopt the (...)
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  25.  3
    Does Talker‐Specific Information Influence Lexical Competition? Evidence From Phonological Priming.Sophie Dufour & Noël Nguyen - 2017 - Cognitive Science:2221-2233.
    In this study, we examined whether the lexical competition process embraced by most models of spoken word recognition is sensitive to talker-specific information. We used a lexical decision task and a long lag priming experiment in which primes and targets sharing all phonemes except the last one were presented in two separate blocks of stimuli. In Experiment 1, the competitor prime block was presented only once to listeners, and no modulation of the competitor priming effect as a function of (...)
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  26.  14
    Supermarket Power, Own-Labels, and Manufacturer Counterstrategies: International Relations of Cooperation and Competition in the Fruit Canning Industry. [REVIEW]Libby Hattersley, Bronwyn Isaacs & David Burch - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (2):225-233.
    Growing supermarket dominance and the expansion of own-label market share in Australia has put considerable pressure on agri-food manufacturers, and the recent movement of a number of manufacturing operations off-shore has attracted widespread attention. This paper examines the pursuit of an international manufacturing base by SPC Ardmona, one of Australia’s major fruit and vegetable processors, with a focus on strategic alliances formed with Siam Foods in Thailand and Rhodes Food Group in South Africa/Swaziland. Strategic horizontal alliances have become increasingly important (...)
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  27.  12
    The Relationship Between Objective Sperm Competition Risk and Men's Copulatory Interest Is Moderated by Partner's Time Spent with Other Men.Michael N. Pham & Todd K. Shackelford - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (4):476-485.
    Men who spend a greater proportion of time apart from their female partner since the couple’s last copulation are at greater “objective” sperm competition risk. We propose a novel cue to sperm competition risk: the time she spends with her male friends. Four hundred and twenty men in a committed, heterosexual, sexual relationship completed a questionnaire. The results indicate that men at greater objective sperm competition risk report less time desired until the couple’s next copulation, greater interest (...)
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  28.  9
    Some Thoughts Concerning the Main Goals of Competition Law.Raimundas Moisejevas & Ana Novosad - 2013 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 20 (2):627-642.
    The aim of this article is to analyse different goals of the competition law, which are established in European Union and Lithuania. EU Commission and the Court of Justice distinguish a number of goals of the competition law. Most commonly, mentioned goals of competition law are the following: the integration of the Internal Market, the protection of consumers, protection of the competitors, freedom of competition and economic efficiency. Different goals of competition law are analysed in (...)
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  29.  5
    The Right to Confidentiality of Communications Between a Lawyer and a Client During Investigation of EU Competition Law Violations: The Aspect of the Status of a Lawyer.Justina Nasutavičienė - 2013 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 20 (1):39-55.
    For the purposes of this article, the right to confidentiality of communications between a lawyer and a client (legal professional privilege) is analysed and understood as a rule under which, in judicial or administrative proceedings, the content of communications between a lawyer and his client shall not be disclosed; if this rule is breached, the content of the communications in question is not treated as evidence in the process. Legal professional privilege is related to several articles of the Convention for (...)
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  30.  6
    The Assessment of Information Exchange Agreements Between Competitors from the Perspective of Competition Law of the EU and of the Republic of Lithuania.Daivis Švirinas - 2012 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 19 (1):87-119.
    The article analyses information exchange agreements between competitors. The article aims to reveal the cases where the exchange of information between competitors might be considered as a prohibited agreement, violating Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union or Article 5 of the Law of the Republic of Lithuania on Competition. The article analyses the legal nature of the information exchange agreements between competitors, with utmost regard to the criteria, according to which an agreement on (...)
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  31. Non-Competition Covenants in Case of a Business Transfer.Virginijus Bitė - 2011 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 18 (1):177-198.
    The validity (probability) of non-competition covenants which are typical for business transfer transactions is one of those issues on which discussions go in the international business transfer theory and practice. On one hand, such covenants help ensure the business interests of the buyer, on the other hand, by their nature, they can mean a restriction of competition, which is prohibited by law. This article, based on the analysis of the European Union, the Lithuanian and foreign legislation, case-law and (...)
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  32.  5
    An Electromyographic Examination of Response Competition.Charles W. Eriksen, Michael G. Coles, L. R. Morris & William P. O'Hara - 1985 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23 (3):165-168.
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  33.  7
    Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics.Joseph Heath (ed.) - 2014 - Oup Usa.
    In four new and nine previously published essays, Joseph Heath provides a compelling new framework for thinking about the moral obligations of economic actors. The "market failures" approach to business ethics that he develops provides the basis for a unified theory of business ethics, corporate law, economic regulation, and the welfare state.
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  34.  36
    Transnational Mobility and International Academic Employment: Gatekeeping in an Academic Competition Arena. [REVIEW]Brendan Cantwell - 2011 - Minerva 49 (4):425-445.
    This article draws upon concepts developed in recent empirical and theoretical work on high skilled and academic mobility and migration including accidental mobility, forced mobility and negotiated mobility. These concepts inform a situated, qualitative study of mobility among international postdoctoral researchers in life sciences and engineering fields who were employed at US and UK universities in 2008 and 2009. Informed by epistemological methods in the Foucauldian tradition of discourse and governmentality, the study explores how policy discourse and technologies empower and (...)
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  35.  39
    Quantity Competition, Endogenous Motives and Behavioral Heterogeneity.Alessandra Chirco, Caterina Colombo & Marcella Scrimitore - 2013 - Theory and Decision 74 (1):55-74.
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  36.  13
    Sperm Competition and Female Procurement of Male Resources.Dietrich Klusmann - 2006 - Human Nature 17 (3):283-300.
    This study investigates changes in sexual motivation over the duration of a partnership in a population sample stratified by age. The results replicate and extend the findings of a previous study that was based on a sample of college students. In the samples of 30- and 45-year-olds, male sexual motivation remains constant regardless of the duration of the partnership. Female sexual motivation matches male sexual motivation in the first years of the partnership and then steadily decreases. In the sample of (...)
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  37.  2
    Semen Displacement as a Sperm Competition Strategy.Gordon G. Gallup, Rebecca L. Burch & Tracy J. Berene Mitchell - 2006 - Human Nature 17 (3):253-264.
    Using a sample of 652 college students, we examined several implications of the hypothesis that the shape of the human penis evolved to enable males to substitute their semen for those of their rivals. The incidence of double mating by females appears sufficient to make semen displacement adaptive (e.g., one in four females acknowledge infidelity, one in eight admit having sex with two or more males in a 24-hour period, and one in 12 report involvement in one or more sexual (...)
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  38.  3
    Cooperation and Competition Among Primitive Peoples.Margaret Mead (ed.) - 1961 - Boston: Beacon Press.
    This work will be of great interest to anthropologists, cultural theorists, and students of interdisciplinary research.
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  39.  5
    The Effect of Competition on Visual Duration Threshold and its Independence of Stimulus Frequency.Leston L. Havens & Warren E. Foote - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (1):6.
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  40.  11
    Adequacy of Reflex Compensatory Eye-Movements Including the Effects of Neural Rivalry and Competition.R. Dodge - 1923 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 6 (3):169.
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  41. Business Ethics Studies in Fair Competition.Frank Chapman Sharp & Philip Gorder Fox - 1937 - D. Appleton-Century Company.
     
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  42.  2
    Anxiety (Drive) Level and Degree of Competition in Paired-Associates Learning.K. W. Spence, John Taylor & Rhoda Ketchel - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (5):306.
  43.  4
    Extinction and Response Competition in Original and Interpolated Learning of a Visual Discrimination.Robert G. Crowder, Michael Cole & Richard Boucher - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):422.
  44.  2
    Decrements in Human Instrumental Performance Due to Response Competition and Fear Extinction.J. K. Dua - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (3):547.
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  45.  1
    Intertrial Competition and the Prefix Effect.Robert G. Crowder & Yvette J. Hoenig - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (2p1):368.
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  46.  1
    Proactive Inhibition and Competition at Recall.John P. Houston - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (1):118.
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  47.  1
    Unlearning and Competition in List-1 Recall.Theresa S. Howe - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):559.
  48. The Evolution of Religion: How Cognitive By-Products, Adaptive Learning Heuristics, Ritual Displays, and Group Competition Generate Deep Commitments to Prosocial Religions.Scott Atran & Joseph Henrich - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (1):18-30.
    Understanding religion requires explaining why supernatural beliefs, devotions, and rituals are both universal and variable across cultures, and why religion is so often associated with both large-scale cooperation and enduring group conflict. Emerging lines of research suggest that these oppositions result from the convergence of three processes. First, the interaction of certain reliably developing cognitive processes, such as our ability to infer the presence of intentional agents, favors—as an evolutionary by-product—the spread of certain kinds of counterintuitive concepts. Second, participation in (...)
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  49.  9
    Competition, Redemption, and Hope.Scott Kretchmar - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 39 (1):101-116.
    Zero-sum aspects of sport have generated a number of ethical concerns and a similar number of defenses or apologetics. The trick has been to find a middle position that neither overly gentrifies sport nor inappropriately emphasizes the significance of winning and losing. One such position would have us focus on the process of trying to win over the fact of having one. It would also ameliorate any harms associated with defeat by pointing out that benefits like achievement, excellence, and moral (...)
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  50.  11
    Mixed Competition and Mixed Messages.Pam R. Sailors - 2014 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 41 (1):65-77.
    A survey of the philosophy of sport literature reveals that arguments regarding the issue of sex segregation in athletics have been advanced from time to time, but there has been little sustained discussion, no consensus, and no change in existing practice. In this paper, an effort to advance the conversation, I begin with Jane English’s seminal 1978 article as a springboard and employ existing literature on the question of sex segregation in order to raise difficulties with English’s analysis and outline (...)
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