Results for 'natural evil'

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  1. Natural Evil as a Test of Faith in the Abrahamic Traditions.Jeremy Koons - 2010 - Sophia 49 (1):15-28.
    This paper critically examines what I call the ‘testing theodicy,’ the widely held idea that natural evil exists in order to test our faith in God. This theodicy appears numerous times in the scriptures of all three Abrahamic faiths. After examining some of these scriptural passages, we will argue that in light of these texts, the notion of faith is best understood as some type of commitment such as trust, loyalty or piety, rather than as merely a belief (...)
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    Current Periodical Articles.Natural Evil - 1978 - American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (4).
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  3. The Problem of Natural Inequality: A New Problem of Evil.Moti Mizrahi - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (1):127-136.
    In this paper, I argue that there is a kind of evil, namely, the unequal distribution of natural endowments, or natural inequality, which presents theists with a new evidential problem of evil. The problem of natural inequality is a new evidential problem of evil not only because, to the best of my knowledge, it has not yet been discussed in the literature, but also because available theodicies, such the free will defense and the soul-making (...)
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  4.  11
    Perceiving Natural Evil Through the Lens of Divine Glory? A Conversation with Christopher Southgate.Celia Deane‐Drummond - 2018 - Zygon 53 (3):792-807.
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  5.  12
    On Social Evil and Natural Evil: In Conversation with Christopher Southgate.Ernst M. Conradie - 2018 - Zygon 53 (3):752-765.
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    Extinction, Natural Evil, and the Cosmic Cross.Ted Peters - 2018 - Zygon 53 (3):691-710.
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  7. The Problem of Natural Evil I: General Theistic Replies.Luke Gelinas - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (3):533-559.
    I examine different strategies involved in stating anti-theistic arguments from natural evil, and consider some theistic replies. There are, traditionally, two main types of arguments from natural evil: those that purport to deduce a contradiction between the existence of natural evil and the existence of God, and those that claim that the existence of certain types or quantities of natural evil significantly lowers the probability that theism is true. After considering peripheral replies, (...)
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  8.  7
    Solving Darwin’s Problem of Natural Evil.James P. Sterba - forthcoming - Sophia:1-12.
    Charles Darwin questions whether conflicts between species palpably captured by the conflict between Ichneumonidae and the caterpillars on which they prey could be compatible with the existence of an all-good, all-powerful God. He also questioned whether the suffering of millions of lower animals throughout our almost endless prehistory could be compatible with an all-good, all-powerful God. In this paper, I show that these two problems of natural evil that Darwin raised in his work can be resolved so as (...)
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  9. The Possibility of a Free-Will Defence for the Problem of Natural Evil.Tim Mawson - 2004 - Religious Studies 40 (1):23-42.
    In this paper, I consider various arguments to the effect that natural evils are necessary for there to be created agents with free will of the sort that the traditional free-will defence for the problem of moral evil suggests we enjoy – arguments based on the idea that evil-doing requires the doer to use natural means in their agency. I conclude that, despite prima facie plausibility, these arguments do not, in fact, work. I provide my own (...)
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  10. St. Augustine’s Free Will Theodicy and Natural Evil.Robert Allen - 2003 - Ars Disputandi 3.
    The problem of evil is an obstacle to justified belief in an omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent God . According to Saint Augustine’s free will theodicy , moral evil attends free will. Might something like AFWT also be used to account for natural evil? After all, it is possible that calamities such as famines, earthquakes, and floods are the effects of the sinful willing of certain persons, viz., ‘fallen angels.’ Working to destroy our faith, Satan and his (...)
     
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  11. The Problem of Natural Evil II: Hybrid Replies.Luke Gelinas - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (3):560-574.
    I consider two views that combine different elements of general theistic replies to natural evil, those of Peter van Inwagen and William Hasker. I end with a Hasker-style defense – one that, unlike Hasker's, denies the existence of pointless natural evils – and some brief observations on the direction of future debate.
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  12.  85
    Unknowable Worlds: Solving the Problem of Natural Evil.Frank J. Murphy - 2005 - Religious Studies 41 (3):343-346.
    This paper draws attention to the way free choice participates in the occurrence of what is usually called natural evil. While earthquakes are natural phenomena, they injure only those who have chosen to live in places where they occur. But if God could not foresee these choices, then God could not foresee much about the amount and distribution of natural evil. Combining a libertarian notion of freedom with a denial of middle knowledge allows God to (...)
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  13. Is Theism Capable of Accounting for Any Natural Evil at All?Nick Trakakis - 2005 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 57 (1):35 - 66.
    Received wisdom has it that a plausible explanation or theodicy for Gods permission of at least some instances of natural evil is not beyond the reach of the theist. In this paper I challenge this assumption, arguing instead that theism fails to account for any instance, kind, quantity, or distribution of natural evil found in the world. My case will be structured around a specific but not idiosyncratic conception of natural evil as well as (...)
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  14. Natural Evil.Richard Swinburne - 1978 - American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (4):295 - 301.
    THE FREEWILL DEFENCE IS DESIGNED TO SHOW THAT THE EXISTENCE OF MORAL EVIL (I.E., EVIL PRODUCED BY MEN) IS COMPATIBLE WITH THE EXISTENCE OF GOD. TO DO THIS IT MUST CLAIM THAT IT IS GOOD THAT MEN HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO BRING ABOUT EITHER GOOD OR EVIL. TO HAVE THIS OPPORTUNITY, THEY MUST KNOW HOW TO BRING ABOUT EVIL. GOD COULD TELL THEM, BUT THAT WOULD MAKE HIS PRESENCE SO MANIFEST AS TO IMPAIR THEIR FREEDOM. THE (...)
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  15.  67
    Hasker on Gratuitous Natural Evil.David O'Connor - 1995 - Faith and Philosophy 12 (3):380-392.
    In a recent contribution to this journal William Hasker rejects the idea, long a staple in philosophical debates over God and evil, that the existence of gratuitous evil is inconsistent with the existence of God. Among his arguments are three to show that God and gratuitous natural evil are not mutually inconsistent. I will show that none of those arguments succeeds. Then, very briefly, and as a byproduct of showing this, I will sketch out how a (...)
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  16.  42
    Natural Evil and the Simulation Hypothesis.David Kyle Johnson - 2011 - Philo 14 (2):161-175.
    Some theists maintain that they need not answer the threat posed to theistic belief by natural evil; they have reason enough to believe that God exists and it renders impotent any threat that natural evil poses to theism. Explicating how God and natural evil coexist is not necessary since they already know both exist. I will argue that, even granting theists the knowledge they claim, this does not leave them in an agreeable position. It (...)
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  17.  23
    The Problem with the Satan Hypothesis: Natural Evil and Fallen Angel Theodicies.Kent Dunnington - 2018 - Sophia 57 (2):265-274.
    In contemporary discussions of natural evil, one classically important theodicy—variously called warfare theodicy, fallen angel theodicy, or the Satan hypothesis—is rarely mentioned, let alone defended. This is the view that so-called natural evil, the evil suffered by sentient beings that is not caused by human agency, is caused by angelic agency, specifically that of Satan and other fallen angels. Although the Satan hypothesis has received scant attention in contemporary philosophy of religion, Richard Swinburne, Michael Martin, (...)
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  18. Confronting the Horror of Natural Evil: An Exchange Between Peter Coghlan and Nick Trakakis.Peter Coghlan & Nick Trakakis - 2006 - Sophia 45 (2):5-26.
    In this exchange, Peter Coghlan and Nick Trakakis discuss the problem of natural evil in the light of the recent Asian tsunami disaster. The exchange begins with an extract from a newspaper article written by Coghlan on the tsunami, followed by three rounds of replies and counter-replies, and ending with some final comments from Trakakis. While critical of any attempt to show that human life is good overall despite its natural evils, Coghlan argues that instances of (...) evil, even horrific ones, can be justified as the unavoidable by-product of a natural system on which human life and culture depends. Trakakis, however, rejects this view, counselling instead a degree of skepticism about our ability to construct a plausible theodicy for horrific evil. (shrink)
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  19.  41
    O'Connor on Gratuitous Natural Evil.William Hasker - 1997 - Faith and Philosophy 14 (3):388-394.
    David O’Connor has criticized my arguments for the conclusion that God’s existence is compatible with genuinely gratuitous natural evil. In this reply, I show that his own arguments fail to achieve their objective; in addition, I point out several respects in which he has misstated my position.
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  20.  4
    O’Connor on Gratuitous Natural Evil.William Hasker - 1997 - Faith and Philosophy 14 (3):388-394.
    David O’Connor has criticized my arguments for the conclusion that God’s existence is compatible with genuinely gratuitous natural evil. In this reply, I show that his own arguments fail to achieve their objective; in addition, I point out several respects in which he has misstated my position.
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  21.  22
    Reichenbach on Natural Evil.Michael Martin - 1988 - Religious Studies 24 (1):91 - 99.
    In Evil and a Good God Bruce Reichenbach presents a theodicy for natural evil. According to Reichenbach, natural evil consists in suffering and pain and ‘states of affairs significantly disadvantageous to sentient beings’ which have either nonhuman causes or human causes for which no human being can be held morally responsible. He attempts to provide a morally sufficient reason why natural evil exists. In this paper I will evaluate this reason.
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  22.  21
    Swinburne on Natural Evil.David O'Connor - 1983 - Religious Studies 19 (1):65 - 73.
    In his recent book, The Existence of God , Richard Swinburne argues that the world as we find it is one that a good and omnipotent God would have good reason to bring about. He does not claim to demonstrate, that is, deductively to prove, that the world is God–made but rather to show that the proposition that God exists and made the world is more likely to be true and hence more reasonable to believe, all things considered, than its (...)
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  23. Natural Goodness and Natural Evil.Joseph Millum - 2006 - Ratio 19 (2):199–213.
    In Natural Goodness Philippa Foot gives an analysis of the concepts we use to describe the characteristics of living things. She suggests that we describe them in functional terms, and this allows us to judge organisms as good or defective depending on how well they perform their distinctive functions. Foot claims that we can judge intentional human actions in the same way: the virtues contribute in obvious ways to good human functioning, and this provides us with grounds for making (...)
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  24.  41
    Natural Evil and the Love of God.Diogenes Allen - 1980 - Religious Studies 16 (4):439 - 456.
    There is some important data which has not as yet found its way into philosophic discussions on the problem of evil. Some religious people report that suffering, instead of being contrary to the love of God, is actually a medium in and through which his love can be experienced. This looks highly paradoxical, but it will be our purpose to show that it is intelligible and that it has important consequences for philosophical discussions of the problem of evil.
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  25.  13
    Residual Natural Evil and Anthropic Reasoning.Murdith McLean - 1991 - Religious Studies 27 (2):173 - 188.
    Bad things happen; and not just to bad people, but with apparent indifference to the moral or other qualities of the victims. For the theist who believes that the world is created and governed by an all-powerful and perfectly good God, this is a notorious difficulty. In fact the problem of evil is surely the most persuasive consideration available in favour of atheism.
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  26.  21
    Natural Evil: The Simulation Solution.Barry Dainton - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-22.
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    The Failure of Plantinga’s Solution to the Logical Problem of Natural Evil.David Kyle Johnson - 2012 - Philo 15 (2):145-157.
  28.  16
    Of Natural Evil.William Hasker - 2011 - In Ken Perszyk (ed.), Molinism: The Contemporary Debate. Oxford University Press. pp. 281.
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  29. Natural Evil and the Free Will Defense.Paul K. Moser - 1984 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 15 (1/2):49 - 56.
  30. The Free Will Defence and Natural Evil.Michael J. Coughlan - 1986 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 20 (2/3):93 - 108.
  31.  54
    An Atheological Argument From Evil Natural Laws.Quentin Smith - 1991 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 29 (3):159 - 174.
    A clearer case of a horrible event in nature, a natural evil, has never been presented to me. It seemed to me self evident that the natural law that animals must savagely kill and devour each other in order to survive was an evil natural law and that the obtaining of this law was sufficient evidence that God did not exist. If I held a certain epistemological theory about "basic beliefs", I might conclude from this (...)
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  32.  71
    Anthropocentrism and the Problem of Natural Evil: A Note.Timothy Chappell - 2001 - Ratio 14 (1):84–85.
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  33.  78
    Natural Selection and the Problem of Evil: An Evolutionary Model with Application to an Ancient Debate.Robert K. Fleck - 2011 - Zygon 46 (3):561-587.
    Abstract. Since Darwin, scholars have contemplated what our growing understanding of natural selection, combined with the fact that great suffering occurs, allows us to infer about the possibility that a benevolent God created the universe. Building on this long line of thought, I develop a model that illustrates how undesirable characteristics of the world (stylized “evils”) can influence long-run outcomes. More specifically, the model considers an evolutionary process in which each generation faces a risk from a “natural (...)” (e.g., predation, disease, or a natural disaster) subsequent to a basic resource allocation game. This allows both resource allocation and the natural evil to influence the number of surviving offspring. As the model shows, when the risk from the natural evil can be mitigated through the benevolent behavior of neighbors, the population may have increasing benevolence as a result of (1) greater risk from the natural evil and (2) a greater degree to which selfish individuals transfer resources to themselves in the resource allocation game. The main implication is that a world with evolutionary processes (in contrast to a world of static design) can allow two factors that have traditionally been considered “evils”—namely, the indiscriminate cruelty of the natural world and the capacity for humans to harm each other—to promote desirable long-run outcomes. (shrink)
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    Swinburne on Natural Evil From Natural Processes.David O'Connor - 1991 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 30 (2):77 - 87.
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  35.  56
    Theism, Natural Evil, and Superior Possible Worlds.Charles T. Hughes - 1992 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 31 (1):45 - 61.
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  36.  9
    God Satan and Natural Evil.Michqel Martin - 1983 - Sophia 22 (3):43-45.
  37.  31
    Thomas Aquinas, Natural Evil, and ‘Outside the Church, No Salvation’.Glenn B. Siniscalchi - 2015 - Heythrop Journal 56 (1):76-86.
  38. 25 Natural Evil and the Possibility of Knowledge'.Richard Swinburne - 1999 - In Eleonore Stump & Michael J. Murray (eds.), Philosophy of Religion: The Big Questions. Blackwell. pp. 6--210.
     
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  39.  8
    On Natural Evil's Being Necessary for Free Will.David O'Connor - 1985 - Sophia 24 (2):36-44.
  40.  6
    Hartshorne and Natural Evil: A Response. [REVIEW]Barry L. Whitney - 1996 - Sophia 35 (2):39-46.
  41. Anthropocentrism and The Problem of Natural Evil: A Note.Timothy Chappell - 2001 - Ratio 14 (1):84-85.
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  42. The Theory of Natural Beauty and its Evil Star: Kant, Hegel, Adorno.Rodolphe Gasché - 2002 - Research in Phenomenology 32 (1):103-122.
    In the aftermath of Kant, that is, with Schelling and Hegel, the natural beautiful is no longer a major concern of aesthetic theory. According to Adorno, an evil star hangs over the theory of natural beauty. The essay examines the reasons for this neglect of the beautiful of nature by confronting Kant's account of natural beauty with Hegel's theory about the fundamental deficiencies of beauty in nature and locates them in the essential indeterminacy of everything that (...)
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  43.  47
    Evil, the Human Cognitive Condition, and Natural Theology.John Beaudoin - 1998 - Religious Studies 34 (4):403-418.
    Recent responses to evidential formulations of the argument from evil have emphasized the possible limitations on human cognitive access to the goods and evils that might be connected with various wordly states of affairs. This emphasis, I argue, is a twin-edged sword, as it imperils a popular form of natural theology. I conclude by arguing that the popularity enjoyed by Reformed Epistemology does not detract from the significance of this result, since Reformed Epistemology is not inimical to (...) theology, and Reformists themselves concede the usefulness of theistic proofs. (shrink)
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  44. Leibniz’s Metaphysical Evil Revisited.Maria Rosa Antognazza - 2014 - In Samuel Newlands Larry Jorgensen (ed.), New Essays on Leibniz’s Theodicy. Oxford University Press. pp. 112-134.
    The category of metaphysical evil introduced by Leibniz appears to cast a sinister shadow over the goodness of creation. It seems to imply that creatures, simply in virtue of not being gods, are to some degree intrinsically and inescapably evil. After briefly unpacking this difficulty and outlining a recent attempt to deal with it, this paper returns to the texts to propose a novel and multilayered understanding of Leibniz’s category of metaphysical evil by reading it against the (...)
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  45.  10
    Good is to Be Pursued and Evil Avoided: How a Natural Law Approach to Christian Bioethics Can Miss Both.Corinna Delkeskamp-Hayes - 2016 - Christian Bioethics 22 (2):186-212.
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    Sharon Anderson-Gold, Unnecessary Evil. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2000, 138 Pp.(Index). ISBN 0-7914-4820-7, $16.95 (Pb). Filippo Aureli and Frans BM De Waal, Eds., Natural Conflict Resolution. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2000, 409 Pp.(Index). ISBN 0-520-22346-2, $24.95 (Pb). [REVIEW]Nigel M. De S. Cameron, Scott E. Daniels, Barbara J. White & Edward S. Casey - 2001 - Journal of Value Inquiry 35:587-590.
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  47. Natural Obligation: How Rationally Known Truth Determines Ethical Good and Evil.John C. Cahalan - 2002 - The Thomist 66 (1):101-132.
     
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  48.  75
    Artificial Evil and the Foundation of Computer Ethics.Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders - 2001 - Ethics and Information Technology 3 (1):55-66.
    Moral reasoning traditionally distinguishes two types of evil:moral (ME) and natural (NE). The standard view is that ME is theproduct of human agency and so includes phenomena such as war,torture and psychological cruelty; that NE is the product ofnonhuman agency, and so includes natural disasters such asearthquakes, floods, disease and famine; and finally, that morecomplex cases are appropriately analysed as a combination of MEand NE. Recently, as a result of developments in autonomousagents in cyberspace, a new class (...)
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  49.  33
    On the Natural Law Defense and the Disvalue of Ubiquitous Miracles.Leigh Vicens - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 80 (1):33-42.
    In this paper I explore Peter van Inwagen’s conception of miracles and the implications of this conception for the viability of his version of the natural law defense. I argue that given his account of miraculous divine action and its parallel to free human action, it is implausible to think that God did not prevent natural evil in our world for the reasons van Inwagen proposes. I conclude by suggesting that on the grounds he provides for “epistemic (...)
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    The Concept of Evil in 4 Maccabees.Hans Moscicke - 2017 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 25 (2):163-195.
    _ Source: _Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 163 - 195 The concept of evil in 4 Maccabees differs from what we find in most ancient Jewish literature, and little attention has been paid to its philosophical background. In this article I submit that the author of 4 Maccabees has absorbed and adapted a Stoic conception of evil into his Jewish philosophy. I trace the concept of evil in Stoicism and in 4 Maccabees using the categories of value (...)
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