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  1. Reliability and Interpretability in Science and Deep Learning.Luigi Scorzato - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (3):1-31.
    In recent years, the question of the reliability of Machine Learning (ML) methods has acquired significant importance, and the analysis of the associated uncertainties has motivated a growing amount of research. However, most of these studies have applied standard error analysis to ML models—and in particular Deep Neural Network (DNN) models—which represent a rather significant departure from standard scientific modelling. It is therefore necessary to integrate the standard error analysis with a deeper epistemological analysis of the possible differences between DNN (...)
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  2. In Defence of Linguistics as an Empirical Science in Light of Mario Bunge’s Defence of the Scientific Treatment of Biology.Dorota Zielińska - 2024 - Mεtascience: Scientific General Discourse 3:205-251.
    Although few linguists currently embrace the empirical paradigm, there are increasing calls for the development of tools for studying language that resemble those in exact sciences. This trend can be observed even in top mainstream linguistic journals, such as the Journal of Pragmatics, as exemplified by Xiang (2017). Today, however, linguists who adapt the methodologies from more advanced sciences face isolation from the mainstream linguistic community. This is because the majority of linguists in philological and philosophical departments remain convinced that (...)
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  3. Return of the organism? The concept in plant biology, now and then.Özlem Yilmaz - 2024 - Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology (Special Issue: Advances in Philo).
  4. Novelty and Innovation, the Joy of Experimentation, and the “Investigation of Things” (gewu) in Pre-modern China: The Example of Gunpowder.David Bartosch, Aleksandar Kondinski & Bei Peng - 2024 - International Communication of Chinese Culture 11 (1):23–40.
    In this transdisciplinary investigation, we focus on the invention and development of gunpowder. We aim to answer the questions regarding (1) the inspiration behind the invention, including historical, mythological, and intellectual backgrounds, (2) how it came about in concreto, and (3) its impact on the history of science in China. We argue that the invention has to be viewed in a broader context and that various factors come into play with regard to the above questions. The discussion starts by examining (...)
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  5. Rethinking Thomas Kuhn’s Legacy.Yafeng Shan (ed.) - forthcoming - Cham: Springer.
    Thomas Kuhn is widely considered as one of the most important philosophers of science in the 20th century and his The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is regarded as one of the most influential works in the philosophy of science. This book not only revisits his legacy in the history and philosophy of science but also explores and reflects on the prospect of the Kuhnian philosophy. Moreover, it includes the edited text of Kuhn’s ‘Does Knowledge Grow?’, which was never published before. (...)
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  6. Wissenschaftliche Lehrbücher – Warum Revolutionen unsichtbar sind.Nicola Mößner - forthcoming - In Markus Seidel (ed.), Klassiker auslegen: Thomas S. Kuhn: Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen. de Gruyter.
  7. Klassiker auslegen: Thomas S. Kuhn: Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen.Markus Seidel (ed.) - forthcoming - de Gruyter.
  8. Bilimsel Araştırma: Buluş ve Sınama.Carl G. Hempel - 2013 - İnsancıl 271:25-35. Translated by Alper Yavuz.
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  9. Scientific Method, Induction, and Probability: The Whewell–De Morgan Debate on Baconianism, 1830s–1850s.Lukas M. Verburgt - 2024 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 14 (1):134-163.
    By focusing on the nineteenth-century debate between William Whewell and Augustus De Morgan on the nature and scope of scientific method and induction, this article captures an important episode in the history of Baconianism. More specifically, it sheds new light on the social and intellectual construction of Francis Bacon as an emblem of modern science and on British Baconianism as part of the creation of a vision of the modern enterprise. A critic of Whewell’s renovated Baconianism and an advocate of (...)
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  10. The Principle of Dynamic Holism: Guiding Methodology for Investigating Cognition in Nonneuronal Organisms.Matthew Sims - 2023 - Philosophy of Science 91 (2):430 - 448.
    Basal cognition investigates cognition working upward from nonneuronal organisms. Because basal cognition is committed to empirically testable hypotheses, a methodological challenge arises: how can experiments avoid using zoocentric assumptions that ignore the ecological contexts that might elicit cognitively driven behavior in nonneuronal organisms? To meet this challenge, I articulate the principle of dynamic holism (PDH), a methodological principle for guiding research on nonneuronal cognition. I describe PDH’s relation to holistic research programs in human-focused cognitive science and psychology then present an (...)
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  11. Controlling the Unobservable: Experimental Strategies and Hypotheses in Discovering the Causal Origin of Brownian Movement.Klodian Coko - 2024 - In Jutta Schickore & William R. Newman (eds.), Elusive Phenomena, Unwieldy Things Historical Perspectives on Experimental Control. Springer. pp. 209-242.
    This chapter focuses on the experimental practices and reasoning strategies employed in nineteenth century investigations on the causal origin of the phenomenon of Brownian movement. It argues that there was an extensive and sophisticated experimental work done on the phenomenon throughout the nineteenth century. Investigators followed as rigorously as possible the methodological standards of their time to make causal claims and advance causal explanations of Brownian movement. Two major methodological strategies were employed. The first was the experimental strategy of varying (...)
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  12. Methodological Naturalism, Analyzed.Miles K. Donahue - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-22.
    I present and evaluate three interpretations of methodological naturalism (MN), the principle that scientific explanations may only appeal to natural phenomena: as an essential feature of science, as a provisional guideline grounded in the historical failure of supernatural hypotheses, and as a synthesis of these two approaches. In doing so, I provide both a synoptic overview of current scholarship on MN, as well a contribution to that discussion by arguing in favor of a restricted version of MN, placing it on (...)
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  13. Управління стратегічними можливостями машинобудівних підприємств.Igor Kryvovyazyuk, Ігор Кривов’язюк & Руслан Стрільчук - 2016
    Монографія розкриває нове вирішення важливого науково-прикладного завдання, що полягає у поглибленні існуючих, розробленні й обґрунтуванні нових науково-методичних положень управління стратегічними можливостями машинобудівних підприємств на основі комплексного діагностування стратегічних можливостей, врахування ступеня загрози кризового стану, обґрунтування пріоритетності їх використання в процесі реалізації стратегії розвитку машинобудівних підприємств. Здійснено теоретико-методичне обґрунтування стратегічних можливостей підприємства та розкрито концептуальні засади управління ними. Досліджено стратегічні можливості машинобудівних підприємств України та стан управління ними. Розроблено напрямки удосконалення підходів в управлінні стратегічними можливостями машинобудівних підприємств. Видання розраховане на наукових (...)
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  14. Introducción a la filosofía de la ciencia sistemática en psicología.Óscar Teixidó - 2023 - Córdoba: Psara Ediciones.
  15. L’expérimentation en sociologie.Dominique Raynaud - 2022 - In C. Allamel-Raffin, J. L. Gangloff & Y. Gingras (eds.), L’expérimentation dans les sciences. Editions matériologiques. pp. 87-102.
    Ce chapitre se propose d’examiner les questions suivantes : Peut-on pratiquer l’expérimentation en sociologie comme dans les autres sciences ? Y présente-t-elle des difficultés particulières ? Si oui, lesquelles ? Bien qu’à première vue, ces questions paraissent bien circonscrites et plutôt de portée limitée, les réponses qu’on peut leur apporter éclairent significativement certaines questions de fond comme celle de l’unité et de la diversité des sciences, et du statut épistémologique particulier de la sociologie.
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  16. Sociology Before the Origin.Dominique Raynaud - 2022 - In Robert Leroux, Thierry Martin & Stephen P. Turner (eds.), The Future of Sociology: Ideology or Objective Social Science? Digital Commons @ University of South Florida. pp. 21-37.
    I submit that, in order to fulfill its fundamental aspiration to be a science, sociology must reconnect – beyond classical sociologists – with the authors of prior generations who prepared its emergence. They are Condorcet, Laplace, Poisson, Arago, Quetelet and Verhulst, all of whom predate the creation of the word “sociology” by Auguste Comte. I show that these authors had a scientific project for sociology, and that in its embryonic stage this science has been silenced by the official sociology established (...)
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  17. Les déterminations de la vitesse de la lumière (1676–1983). Étude de sociologie internaliste des sciences.Dominique Raynaud - 2013 - L'Année Sociologique 63 (2):359-398.
    Cet article se propose de contribuer au débat sur les méthodes de la sociologie des sciences à partir d’une étude empirique des déterminations de la vitesse de la lumière réalisées entre 1676 et 1983. Loin d’être construites et déconstruites à volonté, les valeurs de c ont subi un processus de révision tendanciellement unidirectionnel et irréversible. Les méthodes de détermination de c sont restées dans la course seulement quand elles étaient assorties d’une incertitude inférieure ou égale à la meilleure valeur connue. (...)
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  18. Cientificismo metodológico.Dominique Raynaud - 2017 - In Gabriel Andrade (ed.), Elogio del Cientificismo. Laetoli. pp. 51-74.
    El cientificismo (scientisme) se ha convertido actualmente en una lacra o un insulto. Nuestra tendencia espontánea es la de apartarnos para evitar ser insultados. Pero es evidente que el cientificismo es atacado a menudo por confundir el conocimiento científico y su uso tecnológico; entre modo de producción de los conocimientos y conocimientos adquiridos, etc. Si se adopta una definición rigurosa del cientificismo como esta: “El cientificismo es la tesis según la cual la mejor manera de conocer el mundo real es (...)
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  19. When remediating one artifact results in another: control, confounders, and correction.David Colaço - 2024 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 46 (1):1-18.
    Scientists aim to remediate artifacts in their experimental datasets. However, the remediation of one artifact can result in another. Why might this happen, and what does this consequence tell us about how we should account for artifacts and their control? In this paper, I explore a case in functional neuroimaging where remediation appears to have caused this problem. I argue that remediation amounts to a change to an experimental arrangement. These changes need not be surgical, and the arrangement need not (...)
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  20. Astrobiology as Science (3rd edition).Erik Persson (ed.) - 2023 - Springer.
    “Astrobiology as science” refers to how astrobiology is characterized and discussed in the philosophy of science.
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  21. Mariafranca Spallanzani, L’arbre et le labyrinthe, Descartes selon l’ordre des Lumières (Paris: Honoré Champion, 2009), 584 pp., ISBN 2745318748. [REVIEW]Andrea Strazzoni - 2011 - Nuncius 26 (2):428–431.
  22. Transdisciplinary Philosophy of Science: Meeting the Challenge of Indigenous Expertise.David Ludwig, Charbel El-Hani, Fabio Gatti, Catherine Kendig, Matthias Kramm, Lucia Neco, Abigail Nieves Delgado, Luana Poliseli, Vitor Renck, Adriana Ressiore C., Luis Reyes-Galindo, Thomas Loyd Rickard, Gabriela De La Rosa, Julia J. Turska, Francisco Vergara-Silva & Rob Wilson - 2023 - Philosophy of Science 1.
    Transdisciplinary research knits together knowledge from diverse epistemic communities in addressing social-environmental challenges, such as biodiversity loss, climate crises, food insecurity, and public health. This paper reflects on the roles of philosophy of science in transdisciplinary research while focusing on Indigenous and other subaltern forms of knowledge. We offer a critical assessment of demarcationist approaches in philosophy of science and outline a constructive alternative of transdisciplinary philosophy of science. While a demarcationist focus obscures the complex relations between epistemic communities, transdisciplinary (...)
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  23. Ist Wissenschaft, was Wissen schafft?: Grundzüge der Forschung zwischen Geistesblitz und Grosslabor.Jörg Phil Friedrich - 2019 - München: Verlag Karl Alber.
    Modern sciences produce knowledge and findings which improve technological advance and our quality of life in every regard. But do the sciences also provide us with a genuine knowledge about the world in the sense of giving us insights into that which is taking place? This book traces the most important approaches, which have in past decades attempted to make intelligible the contemporary forms of scientific research and progress. The book suggests a new approach for a philosophy of science fit (...)
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  24. Um Breve Ensaio Sobre Francis Bacon.Vasco Mano - manuscript
    Neste trabalho abordamos a obra de Francis Bacon e as suas contribuições para a Filosofia da Ciência, incluindo a sua proposta de método científico e o seu posicionamento crítico face à anterior versão aristotélica e a influência que o pensamento baconiano exerceu na promoção de um novo quadro filosófico para o desenvolvimento científico na modernidade. Este trabalho foi realizado no âmbito da disciplina de Filosofia das Ciências I, parte do curso de Filosofia da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, (...)
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  25. Epistemological scientism and the scientific meta-method.Petri Turunen, Ilmari Hirvonen & Ilkka Pättiniemi - 2023 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 13 (2):1-23.
    This paper argues that the proponents of epistemological scientism must take some stand on scientific methodology. The supporters of scientism cannot simply defer to the social organisation of science because the social processes themselves must meet some methodological criteria. Among such criteria is epistemic evaluability, which demands intersubjective access to reasons. We derive twelve theses outlining some implications of epistemic evaluability. Evaluability can support weak and broad variants of epistemological scientism, which state that sciences, broadly construed, are the best sources (...)
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  26. What Are We Talking About When We Talk About Scientific Objectivity?Ivan Umeljić & Petar Nurkić - 2023 - In Nenad Cekić (ed.), Virtues and vices – between ethics and epistemology. Belgrade: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade. pp. 361-373.
    Philosophers of science often suggest that the key feature of scientific research is striving for objectivity and that we should evaluate scientific practice by whether it is objective or not. In this paper, we will analyze several definitions of scientific objectivity to illustrate the complex meaning of this term and examine its role in evaluating scientific practice. First, we will introduce Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's standpoint concerning the historical connection between the genesis and development of scientific objectivity and the (...)
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  27. The Varieties of Darwinism: Explanation, Logic, and Worldview.Hugh Desmond, André Ariew, Philippe Huneman & Thomas A. C. Reydon - manuscript
    Ever since its inception, the theory of evolution has been reified into an “-ism”: Darwinism. While biologists today tend to shy away from the term in their research, the term is still actively used in the broader academic and societal contexts. What exactly is Darwinism, and how precisely are its various uses and abuses related to the scientific theory of evolution? Some call for limiting the meaning of the term “Darwinism” to its scientific context; others call for its abolition; yet (...)
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  28. Popper: Critical Rationalist, Conventionalist, and Virtue Epistemologist.Patrick M. Duerr - 2023 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 13 (1):54-90.
    This article revisits Karl Popper’s falsificationist methodology with respect to three tasks. The first is to illuminate and systematize Popper’s methodological views in light of his core epistemological commitments. A second and related objective is to gauge which aspects of falsificationism should be identified as “conventionalist”—a label that Popper himself uses (albeit with qualifications) but that is compromised by and, thus, stands in need of elucidation because of Popper’s idiosyncratic understanding of conventionalism. Third, by elaborating Popper’s virtue-epistemological, dialogical model of (...)
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  29. General Morphological Analysis: An overview.Tom Ritchey - 2022 - Academia Letters.
    General Morphological Analysis (GMA) is a computer-aided, non-quantified modelling method employing (discrete) category variables for identifying and investigating the total set of possible relationships contained in a given problem complex. The epistemological principle underlying discrete variable morphological modelling is that of decomposing a complex (multivariate) concept into a number of(“simple”) one dimensional concepts (i.e. category variables), the domains of which can then be recombined and recomposed in order to discover all of the other possible (multidimensional) concepts which can be generated (...)
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  30. Sceptical Chymist in Search for Thales Principle.Petar Nurkić - 2021 - Filozofske Studije 37:135-149.
    Thales is considered to be the first philosopher to pose a question about fundamental principles on which everything else relied. His candidate for ἀρχή was water because he believed that everything comes from water and that the remaining three elements can also be created from water. Alchemists, or the first chemists, relied on the ancient tradition, especially Aristotle and the theory of the four elements. That is how they came to Aristotle’s testimonies about Thales, after which alchemists, like Helmont, accepted (...)
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  31. Trotz alledem: Eine Verteidigung der klassischen Unterscheidung von Natur und Technik.Gregor Schiemann - 2022 - Salzburger Jahrbuch für Philosophie 67:131-148.
    Recently, the distinction between nature and technology has been increasingly questioned. We are told that the changes to nature made possible by technology had reached such dimensions that it was no longer possible to clearly differentiate between nature and technology. Against the critical voices, I argue for the possibility and necessity of applying a version of the distinction that I call “classical”. I begin by examining selected historical origins of this distinction and thereby discussing some of its critics debated today (...)
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  32. Naturvetenskap vs. Humanvetenskap: Myt, Metodologi och Ontologi.R. D. Ingthorsson - manuscript
    Jag tror att det är ett misstag att kräva av humanvetenskaperna (d.v.s. humaniora, samhälls- och beteendevetenskaperna) att de imiterar naturvetenskapernas forskningsmetodik. Humanvetenskaperna studerar meningsfulla fenomen vilkas natur är på ett grundläggande sätt annorlunda än de blott fysiska fenomen som naturvetenskapen studerar. Den största skillnaden är att meningsfulla fenomen inte uppenbarligen är lagbundna på samma sätt som fysiska fenomen och uppvisar därför inte samma regelbundenhet och förutsägbarhet som fysiska fenomen. För att studera meningsfulla fenomen krävs därför andra forskningsmetoder. Trots att humanvetenskaperna (...)
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  33. Irrational methods suggest indecomposability and emergence.Hamed Tabatabaei Ghomi - 2023 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 13 (1):1-21.
    This paper offers a practical argument for metaphysical emergence. The main message is that the growing reliance on so-called irrational scientific methods provides evidence that objects of science are indecomposable and as such, are better described by metaphysical emergence as opposed to the prevalent reductionistic metaphysics. I show that a potential counterargument that science will eventually reduce everything to physics has little weight given where science is heading with its current methodological trend. I substantiate my arguments by detailed examples from (...)
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  34. Deep Learning Opacity in Scientific Discovery.Eamon Duede - 2023 - Philosophy of Science 90 (5):1089 - 1099.
    Philosophers have recently focused on critical, epistemological challenges that arise from the opacity of deep neural networks. One might conclude from this literature that doing good science with opaque models is exceptionally challenging, if not impossible. Yet, this is hard to square with the recent boom in optimism for AI in science alongside a flood of recent scientific breakthroughs driven by AI methods. In this paper, I argue that the disconnect between philosophical pessimism and scientific optimism is driven by a (...)
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  35. Introduction to 'Scientific Testimony: Its roles in science and society'.Mikkel Gerken - 2022 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This is the Introduction and Chapter 1.1 of the book ‘Scientific Testimony. Its roles in science and society’ (OUP 2022). The introduction contains a brief survey of the book’s chapters and main conclusions, which I hope will be useful to the curious ones.
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  36. The Challenges of Identifying Significant Epistemic Failure in Science.Tobias Lehmann, Michael Borggräfe & Jochen Gläser - 2022 - In Michael Jungert & Sebastian Schuol (eds.), Scheitern in den Wissenschaften: Perspektiven der Wissenschaftsforschung. Brill Deutschland GmbH. pp. 237-267.
    If one follows the accounts by philosophers of science and the discussions in scientific communities, there can be little doubt that failure is an essential part of scientific practice. It is essential both in the sense of being integral to scientific practice and of being necessary for its overall success. Researchers who create new scientific knowledge face uncertainties about the nature of the problem they are trying to solve, the existence of a solution to that problem, the way in which (...)
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  37. The Question Method and the (Un) scientific Status: A Case for the Complementarity of Natural and Social Research Methods.Abidemi Israel Ogunyomi & Solomon Kolawole Awe - 2022 - Nigerian Journal of Arts and Humanities 2 (1):36-46.
    The debate concerning the scientific or unscientific status of the social sciences and the question of the (in) applicability of the methods of research in the natural sciences to social investigations are still unsettled in Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Some of the questions which are often asked concerning these issues include: are the social sciences really scientific? Do they merit the name science? Can we apply the same methods used in the natural research to social research? Are the objects (...)
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  38. A holistic understanding of scientific methodology.S. Mate - 2022 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 36 (3-4):263-289.
    Philosophers of science are divided over the interpretations of scientific normativity. Larry Laudan defends a sort of goal-directed rules for scientific methodology. In contrast, Gerard Doppelt thinks methodological rules are a mixed batch of rules in that some are goal-oriented hypothetical rules and others are goal-independent categorical rules. David Resnik thinks that the debate between them is at a standstill now. He further thinks there are certain rules, such as the rule of consistency which is goal independent. However, he proposes (...)
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  39. Likelihoodism and Guidance for Belief.Tamaz Tokhadze - 2022 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 53 (4):501-517.
    Likelihoodism is the view that the degree of evidential support should be analysed and measured in terms of likelihoods alone. The paper considers and responds to a popular criticism that a likelihoodist framework is too restrictive to guide belief. First, I show that the most detailed and rigorous version of this criticism, as put forward by Gandenberger (2016), is unsuccessful. Second, I provide a positive argument that a broadly likelihoodist framework can accommodate guidance for comparative belief, even when objectively well-grounded (...)
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  40. Philosophy and Science of Risk: An Introduction.Isabelle Peschard, Yann Benétreau-Dupin & Christopher Wessels - 2022 - London: Routledge.
    What is risk? How do we assess risk? What are the ethical implications of risk? The concept of risk is important – sometimes even crucial – for many philosophical domains, from philosophy of science and technology to ethics and sustainability. Philosophy and Science of Risk is a clear, wide-ranging introduction to this urgent and fast-growing subject. It covers the following key topics: -/- • The philosophical and historical background to understanding and interpreting risk -/- • The meaning of risk and (...)
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  41. CMO No. 15, S. 2019: Graduate Students, Are You Ready for This?Joseph B. Quinto - 2022 - Journal of International Education 4 (1):54-62.
    With the approval and dissemination of CHED Memorandum Order Number 15, Series of 2019 in the Philippines, graduate students both in the Master of Science/Master of Arts Academic Track and Doctor of Philosophy Academic Track/Doctor of Philosophy by Research are now compelled to publish or, at least, show evidence of acceptance of research studies in refereed journals, or nationally or internationally indexed journals. Coriat (2019) claims that the value of research to society and its relationship to wealth and competitiveness has (...)
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  42. Simplicity.Elliott Sober - 1975 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Attempts to show that the simplicity of a hypothesis can be measured by attending to how well it answers certain kinds of questions.
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  43. Der logische Aufbau der Welt: Formale Aspekte.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
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  44. Book Review of Hon and Goldstein's "Reflections on the Practice of Physics". [REVIEW]Francesco Nappo - 2022 - The BJPS Review of Books.
    Reflections on the Practice of Physics has two admirable aims: on one hand, to contribute to a comprehensive historical understanding of Maxwell’s approach to physical inquiry; on the other, to extract philosophical lessons from the story of Maxwell’s astounding scientific breakthroughs. In line with an established tradition in scholarship (for example, Achinstein [1991]; Siegel [1991]; Harman [1998]), the authors defend the view that the method of ‘physical analogy’ that Maxwell first presented in the introductory section of his ‘On Faraday’s Lines (...)
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  45. Motivating and Maintaining Ethics, Equity, Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Expertise in Peer Review.Adam Craig, Christina Lee, Nithyaa Bala & Carl Taswell - 2022 - Brainiacs Journal 3 (1):I5B147D9D.
    Scientists who engage in science and the scientific endeavor should seek truth with conviction of morals and commitment to ethics. While the number of publications continues to increase, the number of retractions has increased at a faster rate. Journals publish fraudulent research papers despite claims of peer review and adherence to publishing ethics. Nevertheless, appropriate ethical peer review will remain a gatekeeper when selecting research manuscripts in scholarly publishing and approving research applications for grant funding. However, this peer review must (...)
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  46. A Falsificationist Account of Artificial Neural Networks.Oliver Buchholz & Eric Raidl - forthcoming - The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Machine learning operates at the intersection of statistics and computer science. This raises the question as to its underlying methodology. While much emphasis has been put on the close link between the process of learning from data and induction, the falsificationist component of machine learning has received minor attention. In this paper, we argue that the idea of falsification is central to the methodology of machine learning. It is commonly thought that machine learning algorithms infer general prediction rules from past (...)
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  47. Philosophy of Science.Alik Pelman - 2022 - Israel: Open University Press.
  48. A Complementary Account of Scientific Modelling: Modelling Mechanisms in Cancer Immunology.Martin Zach - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    According to a widely held view, scientific modelling consists in entertaining a set of model descriptions that specify a model. Rather than studying the phenomenon of interest directly, scientists investigate the phenomenon indirectly via a model in the hope of learning about some of the phenomenon’s features. I call this view the description-driven modelling (DDM) account. I argue that although an accurate description of much of scientific research, the DDM account is found wanting as regards the mechanistic modelling found in (...)
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  49. Critical Realism: A Critical Evaluation.Tong Zhang - 2023 - Social Epistemology 37 (1):15-29.
    Critical realism, championed by its proponents as the most promising post-positivist social science paradigm, has gained significant influence in the last few decades. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the critical realism movement in the hope of facilitating more fruitful dialogues between its proponents and rivalling schools of sociologists. Two concerns are raised about contemporary critical realism. First, critical realism is not the only philosophical school against positivism and not necessarily the best. Second, critical realists exaggerate the importance of (...)
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  50. Justifying the use of purely formal analogies in physics.Doreen Fraser - manuscript
    Recent case studies have revealed that purely formal analogies have been successfully used as a heuristic in physics. This is at odds with most general philosophical accounts of analogies, which require analogies to be physical in order to be justifiably used. The main goal of this paper is to supply a philosophical account that justifies the use of purely formal analogies in physics. Using Bartha’s (2010) articulation model as a starting point, I offer precise definitions of formal and physical analogies (...)
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