Scientific Method

Edited by Darrell Rowbottom (Lingnan University, Durham University)
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  1. Speculative Instruments. [REVIEW]R. A. - 1956 - Review of Metaphysics 9 (3):523-523.
  2. Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories & Applications.P. Achinstein (ed.) - 2005 - The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Peter Achinstein has gathered some prominent philosophers and historians of science for critical and lively discussions of both general questions about the ...
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  3. Explanation V. Prediction: Which Carries More Weight?Peter Achinstein - 1994 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:156 - 164.
    Do predictions of novel facts provide stronger evidence for a theory than explanations of old ones? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. Which obtains has nothing to do with whether the evidence is predicted or explained, but only with the selection procedure used to generate the evidence. This is demonstrated by reference to a series of hypothetical drug cases and to Heinrich Hertz's 1883 cathode ray experiments.
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  4. Waves and Scientific Method.Peter Achinstein - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:193 - 204.
    Laudan and Cantor maintain that there exists a methodological gulf between 19th century wave theorists of light, who employed a method of hypothesis, and 18th and 19th century particle theorists, who were inductivists. This paper examines how in fact wave theorists typically argued for their theory, in order to see to what extent their reasoning corresponds to the method of hypothesis or to inductivism in sophisticated versions of these doctrines offered by Whewell and Mill. It also examines how, given the (...)
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  5. Theoretical Derivations.Peter Achinstein - 1986 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 17 (4):375-414.
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  6. Studies in the Philosophy of Science Essays by Peter Achinstein [and Others]. --.Peter Achinstein - 1969 - Blackwell.
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  7. "Defeasible" Problems.Peter Achinstein - 1965 - Journal of Philosophy 62 (21):629-633.
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  8. The Foundations of Scientific Inference.Peter Achinstein & Wesley C. Salmon - 1969 - Philosophical Review 78 (4):531.
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  9. Postscript to The Logic of Scientific Discovery.Robert John Ackermann - 1984 - Philosophical Books 25 (3):164-167.
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  10. Simplicity and the Acceptability of Scientific Theories.Robert John Ackermann - 1960 - Dissertation, Michigan State University
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  11. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Volume IV: Analyses of Theories and Methods of Physics and Psychology.Volume V: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives of Science. [REVIEW]Robert Ackermann, Michael Radner, Stephen Winokur & Roger Stuewer - 1974 - Journal of Philosophy 71 (13):424.
  12. NEUROTEOLOGÍA ¿ES HOY LA NUEVA TEOLOGÍA NATURAL? / Is Neurotheology Now the New Natural Theology?Miguel Acosta - 2015 - Naturaleza y Libertad. Revista de Estudios Interdisciplinares 5:11-51.
    La Neuroteología surge como una nueva forma de explicar las relaciones entre el ser humano y Dios, las religiones y la espiritualidad en general a partir de la neurología (estudio del sistema nervioso, especialmente del encéfalo). Pero en algunos casos pretende incluso demostrar la existencia o no existencia de Dios. En este trabajo deseo exponer de qué manera algunas formas de Neuroteología manifiestan un rasgo sintomático de la cultura actual donde la ciencia actúa como un saber omnímodo que aspira explicar (...)
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  13. Farewell to Certitude: Einstein's Novelty on Induction and Deduction, Fallibilism. [REVIEW]Avshalom M. Adam - 2000 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 31 (1):19-37.
    In the late 19th century great changes in theories of light and electricity were in direct conflict with certitude, the view that scientific knowledge is infallible. What is, then, the epistemic status of scientific theory? To resolve this issue Duhem and Poincaré proposed images of fallible knowledge, Instrumentalism and Conventionalism, respectively. Only in 1919–1922, after Einstein's relativity was published, he offered arguments to support Fallibilism, the view that certainty cannot be achieved in science. Though Einstein did not consider Duhem's Instrumentalism, (...)
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  14. Simulation Methods for an Abductive System in Science.T. R. Addis & D. C. Gooding - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (1):37-52.
    We argue that abduction does not work in isolation from other inference mechanisms and illustrate this through an inference scheme designed to evaluate multiple hypotheses. We use game theory to relate the abductive system to actions that produce new information. To enable evaluation of the implications of this approach we have implemented the procedures used to calculate the impact of new information in a computer model. Experiments with this model display a number of features of collective belief-revision leading to consensus-formation, (...)
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  15. Jennifer Trusted, "The Logic of Scientific Inference". [REVIEW]Jonathan E. Adler - 1982 - Philosophical Quarterly 32 (28):291.
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  16. Is African Science True Science? Reflections on the Methods of African Science.Oseni Taiwo Afisi - 2016 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 5 (1):59-75.
    The general character of science and the methodology it employs are in specific terms referred to as observation and experimentation. These two methodologies reflect how science differs from other systematic modes of inquiries. This description characterises, strictly, ‘Western science’ and it is contrasted with the indigenous mode of enquiry that has come under the name, ‘African science’. In contemporary scholarship, ‘African science’ is being condemned to the level of the mysticoreligious or supernaturalist worldview. ‘African science’ is said to be purely (...)
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  17. Testing as a Bootstrap Operation in Physics.Joseph Agassi - 1973 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 4 (1):1-24.
    Science uses its firmest conclusions to arrive at new ones which may well completely destroy these, previously firmest, conclusions. The perceptive may notice that when the previously firmest conclusions are demolished we may remain in the dark with no conclusion worth replacing it with. But only when we replace it with a firmer conclusion can we speak of a bootstrap operation rather than of a refutations. Often, to conclude, the ad hoc nature of a fact-like statement is rooted in the (...)
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  18. Discussion: Analogies as Generalizations.Joseph Agassi - unknown
    Analogies have been traditionally recognized as a proper part of inductive procedures, akin to generalizations. Seldom, however, have they been presented as superior to generalizations, in the attainability of a higher degree of certitude for their conclusions or in other respects. Though Bacon definitely preferred analogy to generalization1, the tradition seems to me to go the other way-until the recent publication of works by Mary B. Hesse ([2], pp.21-28 and passim) and, perhaps, R. Harr6 ([1], pp.23-28 and passim). The aim (...)
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  19. Is Scientific Objectivity Possible Without Measurements?E. Agazzi & S. Walker - 1978 - Diogenes 26 (104):93-111.
  20. The Universe as a Scientific and Philosophical Problem.Evandro Agazzi - 1991 - In Evandro Agazzi & Alberto Cordero (eds.), Philosophy and the Origin and Evolution of the Universe. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 1--51.
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  21. The Optimum Aim for Science in Freedom and Rationality. Essays in Honor of John Watkins.F. D. Agostino - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 117:247-256.
  22. Criteria to Apply Taxonomic Categories to Human Fossils.Emiliano Aguirre - 2001 - Ludus Vitalis 9 (15):171-177.
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  23. A Challenge to the Followers of Lakatos.F. Michael Akeroyd - 1986 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (3):359-362.
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  24. Systematization and Change in the Science of Law.Carlos Alchourrón - forthcoming - Rechtstheorie.
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  25. Abductive Reasoning.Aliseda Atocha - 2007 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 22 (3):261-270.
    The motivation behind the collection of papers presented in this THEORIA forum on Abductive reasoning is my book Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations into the Processes of Discovery and Explanation. These contributions raise fundamental questions. One of them concerns the conjectural character of abduction. The choice of a logical framework for abduction is also discussed in detail, both its inferential aspect and search strategies. Abduction is also analyzed as inference to the best explanation, as well as a process of epistemic change, (...)
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  26. Abductive Reasoning: Challenges Ahead.Atocha Aliseda - 2007 - Theoria 22 (3):261-270.
    The motivation behind the collection of papers presented in this THEORIA forum on Abductive reasoning is my book Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations into the Processes of Discovery and Explanation. These contributions raise fundamental questions. One of them concerns the conjectural character of abduction. The choice of a logical framework for abduction is also discussed in detail, both its inferential aspect and search strategies. Abduction is also analyzed as inference to the best explanation, as well as a process of epistemic change, (...)
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  27. Error Types.Douglas Allchin - 2001 - Perspectives on Science 9 (1):38-58.
    : Errors in science range along a spectrum from those relatively local to the phenomenon (usually easily remedied in the laboratory) to those more conceptually derived (involving theory or cultural factors, sometimes quite long-term). One may classify error types broadly as material, observational, conceptual or discoursive. This framework bridges philosophical and sociological perspectives, offering a basis for interfield discourse. A repertoire of error types also supports error analytics, a program for deepening reliability through strategies for regulating and probing error.
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  28. Philosophy of Science.Fritz Allhoff - unknown
    Course Description: Science appears to be extraordinarily successful is two crucial respects. First, science apparently serves as an extremely reliable vehicle for arriving at the truth (as contrasted with astrology or palm reading). Second, the methodology of science seems eminently rational (again as opposed to the methodologies of astrology or palm reading). Philosophers have been quite interested in these two apparent virtues of science. Some philosophers think that the two virtues are illusory and that, upon reflection, science is not significantly (...)
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  29. Okruhlik and Scientific Rationality.Thomas Anthony Ambriz - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
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  30. Risk and Time Preferences of Entrepreneurs: Evidence From a Danish Field Experiment.Steffen Andersen, Amalia Di Girolamo, Glenn W. Harrison & Morten I. Lau - 2014 - Theory and Decision 77 (3):341-357.
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  31. Anthropomorphism, Anthropectomy, and the Null Hypothesis.Kristin Andrews & Brian Huss - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):711-729.
    We examine the claim that the methodology of psychology leads to a bias in animal cognition research against attributing “anthropomorphic” properties to animals . This charge is examined in light of a debate on the role of folk psychology between primatologists who emphasize similarities between humans and other apes, and those who emphasize differences. We argue that while in practice there is sometimes bias, either in the formulation of the null hypothesis or in the preference of Type-II errors over Type-I (...)
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  32. Evidence Based or Person Centered? An Ontological Debate.Rani Lill Anjum - 2016 - European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 4 (2):421-429.
    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is under critical debate, and person centered healthcare (PCH) has been proposed as an improvement. But is PCH offered as a supplement or as a replacement of EBM? Prima facie PCH only concerns the practice of medicine, while the contended features of EBM also include methods and medical model. I here argue that there are good philosophical reasons to see PCH as a radical alternative to the existing medical paradigm of EBM, since the two seem committed (...)
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  33. Evidence Based on What?Rani Lill Anjum, Roger Kerry & Stephen D. Mumford - forthcoming - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:n/a-n/a.
  34. Postmodernism and Big Science Einstein, Dawkins, Kuhn, Hawking, Darwin.Richard Appignanesi & Chris Horrocks - 2002
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  35. An Interpretation of Probability in the Law of Evidence Based on Pro-Et-Contra Argumentation.Lennart Åqvist - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):391-410.
    The purpose of this paper is to improve on the logical and measure-theoretic foundations for the notion of probability in the law of evidence, which were given in my contributions Åqvist [ (1990) Logical analysis of epistemic modality: an explication of the Bolding–Ekelöf degrees of evidential strength. In: Klami HT (ed) Rätt och Sanning (Law and Truth. A symposium on legal proof-theory in Uppsala May 1989). Iustus Förlag, Uppsala, pp 43–54; (1992) Towards a logical theory of legal evidence: semantic analysis (...)
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  36. Strong Underdetermination of Theories by Data: The Case of Different Mathematical Formulations of a Scientific Theory.Vincent Ardourel - unknown
  37. Seeking Truth and Actionable Knowledge: How the Scientific Method Inhibits Both.Chris Argyris - 1987 - Philosophica 40.
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  38. Pierre Duhem.Roger Ariew - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  39. Scientific Reasoning.Jerrold L. Aronson - 1991 - International Studies in Philosophy 23 (3):120-121.
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  40. Completeness for Cut-Based Abduction.A. M. Arruda & M. Finger - 2014 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 22 (2):286-296.
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  41. Objectivity and Reliability in Science,'.Mariano Artigas - 1988 - Epistemologia 11 (1988):101-116.
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  42. What About the Three Forms of Inference?Gennaro Auletta - 2009 - Acta Philosophica 18 (1).
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  43. Two Theories of Scientific Knowledge.Bruce Aune - 1971 - Critica 5 (13):3 - 20.
  44. Significance Testing, P-Values and the Principle of Total Evidence.Bengt Autzen - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (2):281-295.
    The paper examines the claim that significance testing violates the Principle of Total Evidence. I argue that p-values violate PTE for two-sided tests but satisfy PTE for one-sided tests invoking a sufficient test statistic independent of the preferred theory of evidence. While the focus of the paper is to evaluate a particular claim about the relationship of significance testing and PTE, I clarify the reading of this methodological principle along the way.
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  45. La Observación, Una Palabra Para Desbaratar y Re-Significar: Hacia Una Epistemología de la Observación.Rafael Avila - 2004 - Cinta de Moebio 21.
    This text and the seminar referred to, intend to open a window to observe observation, with a double purpose: firstly, to contribute to inquire the naïve concept and practice of observation which disregard its internal complexity; and secondly, identify and put under examination the assumptions ..
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  46. On the Scientific Method, Its Practice and Pitfalls.Francisco J. Ayala - 1994 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (2):205 - 240.
    This paper sets forth a familiar theme, that science essentially consists of two interdependent episodes, one imaginative, the other critical. Hypotheses and other imaginative conjectures are the initial stage of scientific inquiry because they provide the incentive to seek the truth and a clue as to where to find it. But scientific conjectures must be subject to critical examination and empirical testing. There is a dialogue between the two episodes; observations made to test a hypothesis are the inspiration for new (...)
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  47. The Problem of Knowledge , and, Probability and Evidence.A. J. Ayer - 2004
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  48. Probability and Evidence.A. J. Ayer & Graham MacDonald - 1972 - Cambridge University Press.
    A. J. Ayer was one of the foremost analytical philosophers of the twentieth century, and was known as a brilliant and engaging speaker. In essays based on his influential Dewey Lectures, Ayer addresses some of the most critical and controversial questions in epistemology and the philosophy of science, examining the nature of inductive reasoning and grappling with the issues that most concerned him as a philosopher. This edition contains revised and expanded versions of the lectures and two additional essays. Ayer (...)
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  49. Scientific Method.M. B. - 1973 - Review of Metaphysics 26 (3):534-534.
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  50. Nietzsche's Critique of Scientific Reason and Scientific Culture: On 'Science as a Problem'and 'Nature as Chaos'.Babette E. Babich - 2003 - In Gregory Moore & Thomas H. Brobjer (eds.), Nietzsche and Science. Ashgate. pp. 133--53.
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