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  1. Artifacts and Artefacts: A Methodological Classification of Context-Specific Regularities.Vadim Keyser - 2019 - In History and Philosophy of Technoscience: Perspectives on Classification in Synthetic Sciences: Unnatural Kinds. London, UK: pp. 63-77.
    Traditionally, in the literature on robustness analysis objects are classified as genuine phenomena (natural objects, events, and processes) or artifacts (results produced in error). But much of biological measurement requires the manipulation of local experimental conditions in order to produce new effects. These types of intervention-based regularities are neither natural objects nor artifacts; characterizing them as either fails adequately to address key ontological properties as well as their role in scientific practice. It is argued that a new classification, based on (...)
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  2. Problem Aksiologis Penggunaan Subjek Manusia Dalam Kasus Hipotermia Nazi.Banin Diar Sukmono - 2017 - Cogito: Jurnal Mahasiswa Filsafat 4 (1):45-57.
    Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memperlihatkan pentingnya prinsip penghargaan atas subjek dalam penelitian ilmiah. Dengan menjadikan kasus hipotermia Nazi sebagai contoh, artikel ini akan menunjukkan masalah yang terjadi saat prinsip penghargaan atas subjek absen dalam andaian aksiologis penelitian. Metode yang digunakan dalam artikel ini adalah evaluasi kritis dalam tataran prinsip dan kerangka riset. Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa ketidakhadiran prinsip penghargaan atas subjek adalah konsekuensi logis atas lemahnya kerangka riset yang dijalankan Nazi dalam penelitian hipotermianya. Dengan kata lain, problem non-epistemik yang tidak (...)
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  3. Filsafat Ilmu - Edisi 2.Endry Boeriswati & Fernandes Arung - 2019 - Tangerang, Tangerang City, Banten, Indonesia: Penerbit Universitas Terbuka.
    This book on Philosophy of Science includes a comprehensive discussion of ontology, epistemology, and axiology of science in the constellation of various other knowledge, as well as the development of scientific knowledge holistically contained in each module in this course. These three things are branches of philosophy which are very useful for students of Teacher Training and Education in mediating the learning and learning process so that the essence of Philosophy of Science can then be implemented within the scope of (...)
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  4. Against Neuroscience Imperialism.Roberto Fumagalli - 2017 - In Uskali Mäki, Adrian Walsh & Manuela Fernández Pinto (eds.), Scientific Imperialism: Exploring the Boundaries of Interdisciplinarity. pp. 205-223.
    In recent years, several authors advocated neuroscience imperialism, an instance of scientific imperialism whereby neuroscience methods and findings are systematically applied to model and explain phenomena investigated by other disciplines. Calls for neuroscience imperialism target a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, economics, and philosophy. To date, however, neuroscience imperialism has not received detailed attention by philosophers, and the debate concerning its identification and normative assessment is relatively underdeveloped. In this paper, I aim to remedy this situation by making some (...)
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  5. Realism and the Epistemic Objectivity of Science.Howard Sankey - forthcoming - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy.
    The paper presents a realist account of the epistemic objectivity of science. Epistemic objectivity is distinguished from ontological objectivity and the objectivity of truth. As background, T.S. Kuhn’s idea that scientific theory-choice is based on shared scientific values with a role for both objective and subjective factors is discussed. Kuhn’s values are epistemologically ungrounded, hence provide a minimal sense of objectivity. A robust account of epistemic objectivity on which methodological norms are reliable means of arriving at the truth is presented. (...)
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  6. El sentido lógico de la refutabilidad.Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - manuscript
    In this paper, I analyse some of the classical criticism to falsificationism in the light of the distinction between the logical and practical sense of falsification. In the first section, I briefly characterise the basics of the falsificationist proposal. The second section presents the criticism of the logical empiricists Reichenbach and Neurath, and the third presents the criticism of Thomas Kuhn. In the fourth section, I introduce the reforms to falsificationism proposed by Lakatos, which allows me to distinguish the logical (...)
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  7. The Unitarian Connection and Ricardo's Scientific Style.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi & Marcelo Dascal - 2002 - History of Political Economy 34 (2):505-508.
    We reply to Philippe Depoortère’s paper “On Ricardo’s method: The Unitarian influence examined. Some comments on Cremaschi and Dascal’s article ‘Malthus and Ricardo on Economic Methodology’”. Depoortère asks two questions: (1) was Ricardo’s ‘conversion’ to Unitarianism sincere? (2) did Ricardo follow the methodologies of Priestley and Belsham? His answers are that he was a ‘religious skeptic’ and he was not an ‘empiricist’ like Priestley and Belsham. We reply that the sincerity of Ricardo’s religious beliefs is irrelevant since we start with (...)
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  8. The Illusion of Evidence-Based Medicine: Exposing the Crisis of Credibility in Clinical Research.Leemon McHenry & Jon Jureidini - forthcoming - Adelaide SA, Australia: Wakefield Press.
    We live in an age alleged devoted to evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine, however, depends on reliable data and if the data are largely, if not completely, manipulated by the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, then the data are not reliable. Evidence-based medicine is an illusion. -/- This book raises and attempts to answer the following questions: What are the ways in which the profit motive of industry undermines the integrity of science? How is science protected from corporate malfeasance in a capitalist economy? (...)
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  9. John Gillott and Manjit Kumar, Science and the Retreat From Reason. [REVIEW]Sean F. Johnston - 1996 - Public Understanding of Science 5:179-181.
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  10. History of Science: A Beginner's Guide.Sean F. Johnston - 2009 - OneWorld.
    Weaving together intellectual history, philosophy, and social studies, Sean Johnston offers a unique appraisal of the history of science and the nature of this evolving discipline. Science is all-encompassing and new developments are usually mired in controversy; nevertheless, it is a driving force of the modern world. Based on its past, where might it lead us in the twenty-first century?
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  11. A Selective Survey of Theories of Scientific Method.Howard Sankey & Robert Nola - 2000 - In Robert Nola & Howard Sankey (eds.), After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 1-65.
    This is a survey of theories of scientific method which opens the book "After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method".
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  12. Conservation of the Circle: Core Dynamic in Nature.Ilexa Yardley - 2017
    Zero and one is circumference and diameter. Literally. And, figuratively.
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  13. The Scientific Study of Belief and Pain Modulation: Conceptual Problems.Miguel Farias, Guy Kahane & Nicholas Shackel - 2016 - In F. P. Mario, M. F. P. Peres, G. Lucchetti & R. F. Damiano (eds.), Spirituality, Religion and Health: From Research to Clinical Practice. New York, USA: Springer.
    We examine conceptual and methodological problems that arise in the course of the scientific study of possible influences of religious belief on the experience of physical pain. We start by attempting to identify a notion of religious belief that might enter into interesting psychological generalizations involving both religious belief and pain. We argue that it may be useful to think of religious belief as a complex dispositional property that relates believers to a sufficiently thick belief system that encompasses both cognitive (...)
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  14. ERNEST B. HOOK , Prematurity in Scientific Discovery: On Resistance and Neglect. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2002. Pp. Xx+378. ISBN 0-520-23106-6. £55.00, $80.00. [REVIEW]Friedrich Steinle - 2004 - British Journal for the History of Science 37 (2):235-236.
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  15. Phronesis and Automated Science: The Case of Machine Learning and Biology.Emanuele Ratti - 2019 - In Fabio Sterpetti & M. Bertolaso (eds.), Will Science Remain Human? Springer.
    The applications of machine learning and deep learning to the natural sciences has fostered the idea that the automated nature of algorithmic analysis will gradually dispense human beings from scientific work. In this paper, I will show that this view is problematic, at least when ML is applied to biology. In particular, I will claim that ML is not independent of human beings and cannot form the basis of automated science. Computer scientists conceive their work as being a case of (...)
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  16. The Methods of Science and Religion: Epistemologies in Conflict.Tiddy Smith - 2019 - Lexington Books.
    The Methods of Science and Religion is a philosophical analysis of the conflict between science and religion, which challenges the popular, contemporary view that science and religion are complementary worldviews. It exposes their methodological incompatibility and concludes that religious modes of investigation are unreliable.
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  17. Kokeellinen yhteiskuntatiede.Jaakko Kuorikoski & Samuli Reijula - 2018 - In Tuukka Kaidesoja, Tomi Kankainen & Petri Ylikoski (eds.), Syistä selityksiin. Kausaalisuus ja selittäminen yhteiskuntatieteissä. pp. 279-307.
    Tässä luvussa tarkastelemme hypoteesien testaamista ja kokeellista kausaalista järkeilyä tieteenfilosofisesta näkökulmasta. Arvioimme kokeellisen menetelmän mahdollisuuksia ja rajoituksia yhteiskuntatieteellisen tutkimuksen kontekstissa, jossa luonnontieteille ominaisia yleispäteviä teorioita harvoin on saatavilla ja jossa suoraviivaisiin kausaaliväitteisiin suhtaudutaan usein epäillen. Tämä luku ei siis ole menetelmäopas, joka kädestä pitäen opastaisi, kuinka yhteiskuntatieteellisiä kokeita tulisi rakentaa, vaan katsaus niihin perustaviin metodologisiin kysymyksiin ja periaatteisiin, joihin varsinaiset menetelmät nojaavat.
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  18. Imprecise Probability and the Measurement of Keynes's "Weight of Arguments".William Peden - 2018 - IfCoLog Journal of Logics and Their Applications 5 (4):677-708.
    Many philosophers argue that Keynes’s concept of the “weight of arguments” is an important aspect of argument appraisal. The weight of an argument is the quantity of relevant evidence cited in the premises. However, this dimension of argumentation does not have a received method for formalisation. Kyburg has suggested a measure of weight that uses the degree of imprecision in his system of “Evidential Probability” to quantify weight. I develop and defend this approach to measuring weight. I illustrate the usefulness (...)
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  19. Replicability or Reproducibility? On the Replication Crisis in Computational Neuroscience and Sharing Only Relevant Detail.Marcin Miłkowski, Witold M. Hensel & Mateusz Hohol - 2018 - Journal of Computational Neuroscience 3 (45):163-172.
    Replicability and reproducibility of computational models has been somewhat understudied by “the replication movement.” In this paper, we draw on methodological studies into the replicability of psychological experiments and on the mechanistic account of explanation to analyze the functions of model replications and model reproductions in computational neuroscience. We contend that model replicability, or independent researchers' ability to obtain the same output using original code and data, and model reproducibility, or independent researchers' ability to recreate a model without original code, (...)
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  20. From Galileo to Hubble: Copernican Principle as a Philosophical Dogma Defining Modern Astronomy.Spyridon Kakos - 2018 - International Journal of Theology, Philosophy and Science 2 (3):13-37.
    For centuries the case of Galileo Galilei has been the cornerstone of every major argument against the church and its supposedly unscientific dogmatism. The church seems to have condemned Galileo for his heresies, just because it couldn’t and wouldn’t handle the truth. Galileo was a hero of science wrongfully accused and now – at last – everyone knows that. But is that true? This paper tries to examine the case from the point of modern physics and the conclusions drawn are (...)
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  21. Angélique Groß, Die Bildpädagogik Otto Neuraths: Methodische Prinzipien der Darstellung von Wissen.Başak Aray - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
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  22. Popper Versus Wittgenstein on Truth, Necessity, and Scientific Hypotheses.Victor Rodych - 2003 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 34 (2):323-336.
    Most philosophers of science maintain Confirmationism's central tenet, namely, that scientific theories are probabilistically confirmed by experimental successes. Against this dominant conception of experimental science, Popper's well-known, anti-inductivistic Falsificationism has stood, virtually alone, since 1934. Indeed, it is Popper who tells us that it was he who killed Logical Positivism. It is also pretty well-known that Popper blames Wittgenstein for much that is wrong with Logical Positivism, just as he despises Wittgenstein and Wittgensteinian philosophers for abdicating philosophy's true mission. What (...)
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  23. The Structure and Epistemic Import of Multiple Determination in Scientific Practice.Klodian Coko - 2015 - Dissertation, Indiana University
    Empirical multiple determination (multiple determination, for short) is the epistemic strategy of establishing the same result by means of multiple and independent procedures. It is an important epistemic strategy praised by both philosophers of science and practicing scientists. Commentators from different contexts have referred to multiple determination as one of the main strategies that researchers use to establish the reliability of their results. Multiple determination has been used to address a variety of problems that arise because of the fallibility of (...)
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  24. Statistical Inference and the Replication Crisis.Lincoln J. Colling & Dénes Szűcs - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology.
    The replication crisis has prompted many to call for statistical reform within the psychological sciences. Here we examine issues within Frequentist statistics that may have led to the replication crisis, and we examine the alternative—Bayesian statistics—that many have suggested as a replacement. The Frequentist approach and the Bayesian approach offer radically different perspectives on evidence and inference with the Frequentist approach prioritising error control and the Bayesian approach offering a formal method for quantifying the relative strength of evidence for hypotheses. (...)
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  25. Experimental Design: Ethics, Integrity and the Scientific Method.Jonathan Lewis - 2020 - In Ron Iphofen (ed.), Handbook of Research Ethics and Scientific Integrity. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 459-474.
    Experimental design is one aspect of a scientific method. A well-designed, properly conducted experiment aims to control variables in order to isolate and manipulate causal effects and thereby maximize internal validity, support causal inferences, and guarantee reliable results. Traditionally employed in the natural sciences, experimental design has become an important part of research in the social and behavioral sciences. Experimental methods are also endorsed as the most reliable guides to policy effectiveness. Through a discussion of some of the central concepts (...)
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  26. Scientific Method.Howard Sankey - 2008 - In Stathis Psillos & Martin Curd (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 248-258.
    This is an introductory overview of theories of scientific method.
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  27. Formaliser le vivant : lois, théories, modèles.Franck Varenne - 2010 - Paris, France: Hermann.
    Peut-on formaliser le vivant ? Peut-on réduire une plante à une simple formule mathématique ? Goethe ne l’aurait pas admis. Pour beaucoup encore, cette question ne se pose même pas tant elle peut sembler provocante et contre-nature. Dans une perspective à la fois historique et épistémologique, ce livre rend compte de travaux contemporains qui ont pourtant tous tenté de braver cet interdit. C’est en grande partie sur ce terrain, hautement problématique, que, dans les premières décennies du XXe siècle, on voit (...)
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  28. The Epistemic Importance of Establishing the Absence of an Effect.Ari Kruger, Fiona Fidler, Felix Singleton Thorn, Ashley Barnett & Steven Kambouris - 2018 - Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science 1 (2):237-244.
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  29. Proti primitivismu: Gombrichova kritika moderního umění.Tomas Hribek - 2009 - In Ladislav Kesner & František Mikš (eds.), Gombrich: porozumět umění a jeho dějinám. Brno, Česko: pp. 117-163.
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  30. Tough Love for Science: Henry H. Bauer: Science is Not What You Think: How It has Changed, Why We Can’T Trust It, How It Can Be Fixed. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2017, Viii + 251 Pp, $35.00 PB.Kevin McCain - 2018 - Metascience 27 (2):351-353.
  31. Philosophy of Science A to Z, Arabic Translation فلسفة العلم من الألف إلى الياء.Salah Osman - 2018 - Cairo, Cairo Governorate, Egypt: Ministry of Culture, National Center for Translation.
    دليل مُرتَّب أبجديًا للمصطلحات الأساسية، وكذلك لأشهر الأعلام، في المجالات المختلفة لفلسفة العلم. يُغطي الكتاب أبرز المشكلات، والمواقف، والتصورات، والحجج التي كانت مثار مناقشات واسعة بين الفلاسفة. والهدف الأساسي له هو فهم المناقشات الحالية من خلال تتبع وتفسير تطوراتها التاريخية وارتباطاتها بالمسائل الفلسفية الأبعد. ومع أن الكتاب يفترض مسبقًا وجود خلفية معرفية بفلسفة العلم لدى القارئ، إلا أنه مفيد بالقدر ذاته لكل من المبتدئين من دارسي فلسفة العلم، والمتخصصين ذوي الخبرات الواسعة، فضلاً عن عامة القُراء. وسوف يجد القارئ من خلال (...)
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  32. On the Scientific Methods of Kuhn and Popper: Implications of Paradigm-Shifts to Development Models.Christopher Maboloc - 2018 - Philosophia 46 (2):387-399.
    One of the most enduring contributions of Sir Karl Popper to the philosophy of science was his deductive approach to the scientific method, as opposed to Hilary Putnam’s absolute faith in science as an inductive process. Popper’s logic of discovery counters the whole inductive procedure that modern science is so often identified with. While the inductive method has generally characterized how scientists commence their work in laboratories, for Popper scientific theories actually start with generalizations inside our mind whose validity the (...)
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  33. Whewell on Classification and Consilience.Aleta Quinn - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 1 (64):65-74.
    In this paper I sketch William Whewell’s attempts to impose order on classificatory mineralogy, which was in Whewell’s day (1794e1866) a confused science of uncertain prospects. Whewell argued that progress was impeded by the crude reductionist assumption that all macroproperties of crystals could be straightforwardly explained by reference to the crystals’ chemical constituents. By comparison with biological classification, Whewell proposed methodological reforms that he claimed would lead to a natural classification of minerals, which in turn would support advances in causal (...)
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  34. Gassendi et l’Hypothèse dans la Méthode Scientifique.Saul Fisher - 2008 - In Sylvie Taussig (ed.), Gassendi et la modernité. Turnhout, Belgium: pp. 399-425.
    Aucune méthode d'hypothèse et de raisonnement hypothétique en science ne peut être examinée dc façon critique sans que soit résolue au préalable la question de ce qui sert d'hypothèse. D'un point de vue très général, des éléments très différents peuvent servir à constituer la partie hypothétique ou conjecturale de la science. Du temps de Gassendi, il était possible de recourir à des entités hypothétiques tels les tourbillons cartésiens, à de généralisations idéalisées de phénomènes telle la loi de la chute libre, (...)
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  35. Pierre Gassendi's Philosophy And Science: Atomism for Empiricists.Saul Fisher - 2005 - Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
    This look at Gassendi’s philosophy and science illuminates his contributions to early modern thought and to the broader history of philosophy of science. Two keys to his thought are his novel picture of acquiring and judging empirical belief, and his liberal account of criteria for counting empirical beliefs as parts of warranted physical theories. By viewing his philosophical and scientific pursuits as part of one and the same project, Gassendi’s arguments on behalf of atomism can be fruitfully explained as licensed (...)
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  36. Sir John F. W. Herschel and Charles Darwin: Nineteenth-Century Science and Its Methodology.Charles H. Pence - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (1):108-140.
    There are a bewildering variety of claims connecting Darwin to nineteenth-century philosophy of science—including to Herschel, Whewell, Lyell, German Romanticism, Comte, and others. I argue here that Herschel’s influence on Darwin is undeniable. The form of this influence, however, is often misunderstood. Darwin was not merely taking the concept of “analogy” from Herschel, nor was he combining such an analogy with a consilience as argued for by Whewell. On the contrary, Darwin’s Origin is written in precisely the manner that one (...)
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  37. Larry Laudan’s Typology for Historical Methodology and the Historical and Experimental Turns in Philosophy of Science.Jutta Schickore - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (1):87-107.
  38. The Myth of the Framework: In Defence of Science and Rationality. Karl R. Popper, M. A. Notturno.Noretta Koertge - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (1):182-184.
  39. Challengeability in Modern Science. J. O. Wisdom.Fred Wilson - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (1):169-170.
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  40. Popper and the Human Sciences. G. Currie, A. Musgrave.C. A. Hooker - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (2):313-315.
  41. Physics, Philosophy, and Psychoanalysis. R. S. Cohen, L. Laudan.Brent Mundy - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):318-320.
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  42. Radical Knowledge: A Philosophical Inquiry Into the Nature and Limits of Science. Gonzalo Munévar.Richard M. Burian - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (1):163-165.
  43. The Nature of Explanation. Peter Achinstein.James H. Fetzer - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (3):516-519.
  44. Popper and Beyond. David Stove.Andrew Lugg - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (2):350-352.
  45. A World of ProbabilityExperience and Prediction. Hans Reichenbach. [REVIEW]Eleanor Bisbee - 1938 - Philosophy of Science 5 (3):360-366.
  46. Peirce's Philosophy of Science. Critical Studies in His Theory of Induction and Scientific Method. Nicholas Rescher.John V. Strong - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (4):655-657.
  47. Information and Inference. J. Hintikka, P. Suppes.Alex C. Michalos - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (2):271-272.
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  48. Science: Its Method and Its Philosophy. G. Burniston Brown.Cornelius L. Golightly - 1953 - Philosophy of Science 20 (1):83-83.
  49. The Science of Culture. Leslie A. White.Harry Elmer Barnes - 1952 - Philosophy of Science 19 (1):87-89.
  50. Ontology.Barry Smith - 2003 - In Luciano Floridi (ed.), Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 155-166.
    Ontology as a branch of philosophy is the science of what is, of the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes and relations in every area of reality. ‘Ontology’ in this sense is often used by philosophers as a synonym of ‘metaphysics’ (a label meaning literally: ‘what comes after the Physics’), a term used by early students of Aristotle to refer to what Aristotle himself called ‘first philosophy’. But in recent years, in a development hardly noticed by philosophers, the (...)
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