Results for 'Behavior'

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  1. Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes.Fred I. Dretske - 1988 - MIT Press.
    In this lucid portrayal of human behavior, Fred Dretske provides an original account of the way reasons function in the causal explanation of behavior.
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  2.  80
    Linguistic Behaviour.Jonathan Bennett - 1976 - Cambridge University Press.
    First published in 1976, this book presents a view of language as a matter of systematic communicative behaviour.
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  3. Behavior: The Control of Perception.William T. Powers - 1973
     
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  4.  17
    Verbal Behavior.B. F. Skinner - 1957 - Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Covert behavior may also be strong behavior which cannot be overtly emitted because the proper circumstances are lacking. When we are strongly inclined to go skiing, although there is no snow, we say I would like to go skiing. It is not very  ...
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  5.  35
    Behavior Therapy: Scientific, Philosophical and Moral Foundations.Edward Erwin - 1978 - Cambridge University Press.
    Edward Erwin's clear analysis addresses some of the fundamental questions on behavior therapy that remained in 1978, when this book was first published.
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  6. Behavior Matching in Multimodal Communication is Synchronized.Max M. Louwerse, Rick Dale, Ellen G. Bard & Patrick Jeuniaux - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (8):1404-1426.
    A variety of theoretical frameworks predict the resemblance of behaviors between two people engaged in communication, in the form of coordination, mimicry, or alignment. However, little is known about the time course of the behavior matching, even though there is evidence that dyads synchronize oscillatory motions (e.g., postural sway). This study examined the temporal structure of nonoscillatory actions—language, facial, and gestural behaviors—produced during a route communication task. The focus was the temporal relationship between matching behaviors in the interlocutors (e.g., (...)
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  7.  25
    Explaining Behaviour: Reasons in a World of Causes.Andy Clark - 1990 - Philosophical Quarterly 40 (158):95-102.
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  8. The Natural Behavior Debate: Two Conceptions of Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - 2020 - Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 23 (3):325-337.
    The performance of natural behavior is commonly used as a criterion in the determination of animal welfare. This is still true, despite many authors having demonstrated that it is not a necessary component of welfare – some natural behaviors may decrease welfare, while some unnatural behaviors increase it. Here I analyze why this idea persists, and what effects it may have. I argue that the disagreement underlying this debate on natural behavior is not one about which conditions affect (...)
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  9.  15
    Explaining Behavior: Bringing the Brain Back In.S. Skarda - 1986 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 29 (June):187-201.
    What is needed today is a biologically grounded explanation of behavior, one that moves beyond the so?called mind?body problem. Yet no solution will be found by philosophers who refuse to learn about how brains and bodies work, or by neuroscientists pursuing experimental research based on outmoded or blatantly anti?biological theories. Churchland's book proposes a solution: to come by a unified theory of the mind?brain philosophers have to work together with neuroscientists. Yet Churchland's vision of a unified theory is based (...)
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  10. Behavior Genetics and Postgenomics.Evan Charney - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):331-358.
    The science of genetics is undergoing a paradigm shift. Recent discoveries, including the activity of retrotransposons, the extent of copy number variations, somatic and chromosomal mosaicism, and the nature of the epigenome as a regulator of DNA expressivity, are challenging a series of dogmas concerning the nature of the genome and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. According to three widely held dogmas, DNA is the unchanging template of heredity, is identical in all the cells and tissues of the body, (...)
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  11. Behavior Change or Empowerment: On the Ethics of Health-Promotion Strategies. [REVIEW]P. -A. Tengland - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (2):140-153.
    There are several strategies to promote health in individuals and populations. Two general approaches to health promotion are behavior change and empowerment. The aim of this article is to present those two kinds of strategies, and show that the behavior-change approach has some moral problems, problems that the empowerment approach (on the whole) is better at handling. Two distinct ‘ideal types’ of these practices are presented and scrutinized. Behavior change interventions use various kinds of theories to target (...)
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  12.  85
    The Explanation Of Behaviour.C. Taylor - 1964 - Humanities Press.
  13.  23
    The Behavioural Constellation of Deprivation: Causes and Consequences.Gillian V. Pepper & Daniel Nettle - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40:1-72.
    Socioeconomic differences in behaviour are pervasive and well documented, but their causes are not yet well understood. Here, we make the case that a cluster of behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status, which we call “the behavioural constellation of deprivation.” We propose that the relatively limited control associated with lower SES curtails the extent to which people can expect to realise deferred rewards, leading to more present-oriented behaviour in a range of domains. We illustrate this idea using the specific (...)
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  14.  65
    Language and Human Behavior.Derek Bickerton - 1995 - Seattle: University Washington Press.
    According to Bickerton, the behavioral sciences have failed to give an adequate account of human nature at least partly because of the conjunction and mutual reinforcement of two widespread beliefs: that language is simply a means of communication and that human intelligence is the result of the rapid growth and unusual size of human brains. Bickerton argues that each of the properties distinguishing human intelligence and consciousness from that of other animals can be shown to derive straightforwardly from properties of (...)
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  15. How the Mind Explains Behavior: Folk Explanations, Meaning, and Social Interaction.Bertram F. Malle - 2004 - MIT Press.
    In this provocative monograph, Bertram Malle describes behavior explanations as having a dual nature -- as being both cognitive and social acts -- and proposes...
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  16. Rational Behaviour and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations.John C. Harsanyi - 1986 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a paperback edition of a major contribution to the field, first published in hard covers in 1977. The book outlines a general theory of rational behaviour consisting of individual decision theory, ethics, and game theory as its main branches. Decision theory deals with a rational pursuit of individual utility; ethics with a rational pursuit of the common interests of society; and game theory with an interaction of two or more rational individuals, each pursuing his own interests in a (...)
     
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  17. Ethical Behavior of Marketing Managers.David J. Fritzsche & Helmut Becker - 1983 - Journal of Business Ethics 2 (4):291 - 299.
    The ethical behavior of marketing managers was examined by analyzing their responses to a series of different types of ethical dilemmas presented in vignette form. The ethical dilemmas addressed dealt with the issues of (1) coercion and control, (2) conflict of interest, (3) the physical environment, (4) paternalism, and (5) personal integrity. Responses were analyzed to discover whether managers' behavior varied by type of issue faced or whether there is some continuity to ethical behavior which transcends the (...)
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  18.  82
    Behavior, Purpose and Teleology.Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener & Julian Bigelow - 1943 - Philosophy of Science 10 (1):18-24.
  19. Is Behavioural Flexibility Evidence of Cognitive Complexity? How Evolution Can Inform Comparative Cognition.Irina Mikhalevich, Russell Powell & Corina Logan - 2017 - Interface Focus 7.
    Behavioural flexibility is often treated as the gold standard of evidence for more sophisticated or complex forms of animal cognition, such as planning, metacognition and mindreading. However, the evidential link between behavioural flexibility and complex cognition has not been explicitly or systematically defended. Such a defence is particularly pressing because observed flexible behaviours can frequently be explained by putatively simpler cognitive mechanisms. This leaves complex cognition hypotheses open to ‘deflationary’ challenges that are accorded greater evidential weight precisely because they offer (...)
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  20.  13
    Linguistic Behaviour.Charles E. Caton - 1978 - Philosophical Review 87 (3):468.
  21.  75
    Hypnotic Behavior: A Social-Psychological Interpretation of Amnesia, Analgesia, and “Trance Logic”.Nicholas P. Spanos - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):449-467.
  22.  15
    Signing Behavior in Apes: A Critical Review.Mark S. Seidenberg & Laura A. Petitto - 1979 - Cognition 7 (2):177-215.
  23.  52
    Dividends Behavior in State- Versus Family-Controlled Firms: Evidence From Hong Kong. [REVIEW]Tina T. He, Wilson X. B. Li & Gordon Y. N. Tang - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (1):97-112.
    This study comparatively examines the dividends behavior in state-controlled firms versus family-controlled firms. With the sample of large industrial firms listed on the Main Board of Hong Kong Stock Exchange, we investigate the dividends payment rates, stability of dividends payment, the effects of firm size, profitability and growth opportunity on likelihood to pay dividends, as well as the concentration of dividend in state-controlled versus family-controlled firms. Based on the findings, we derive some ethical implications of dividends policy regarding the (...)
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  24.  38
    Verbal Behavior and Problem Solving: Some Effects of Labeling in a Functional Fixedness Problem.Sam Glucksberg & Robert W. Weisberg - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (5):659.
  25.  45
    Ethical Behavior Among Marketing Researchers: An Assessment of Selected Demographic Characteristics. [REVIEW]S. W. Kelley, O. C. Ferrell & S. J. Skinner - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (8):681 - 688.
    This study considers the relationship between perceptions of ethical behavior and the demographic characteristics of sex, age, education level, job title, and job tenure among a sample of marketing researchers. The findings of this study indicate that female marketing researchers, older marketing researchers, and marketing researchers holding their present job for ten years or more generally rate their behavior as more ethical.
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  26.  65
    Ethical Behaviours in Organizations: Directed by the Formal or Informal Systems? [REVIEW]Loren Falkenberg & Irene Herremans - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (2):133 - 143.
    Past research has focused on individual culpability with the assumption that individuals will further their own self interest over that of the organization, given an appropriate opportunity. In contrast, this research shifts the focus from individual motivation to the influence of the formal and informal control systems of organizations on ethical behaviours. An open-ended interview approach was used to collect data. It was found that pressures within the informal system were the dominant influence in the resolution of ethical issues. The (...)
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  27.  17
    Sustained Behavior Under Delayed Reinforcement.Charles B. Ferster - 1953 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (4):218.
  28.  45
    Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. An Introduction to Human Ecology. George K. Zipf.Svend Riemer - 1950 - Philosophy of Science 17 (2):204-205.
  29.  9
    Operant Behavior as Adaptation to Constraint.J. E. Staddon - 1979 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108 (1):48-67.
  30.  33
    Deviant Behavior in a Moderated-Mediation Framework of Incentives, Organizational Justice Perception, and Reward Expectancy.Yehuda Baruch & Shandana Shoaib - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (3):617-633.
    This study introduces the concept of deviant behavior in a moderated-mediation framework of incentives and organizational justice perception. The proposed relationships in the theoretical framework were tested with a sample of 311 academics, using simple random sampling, via causal models and structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that incentives might boost the apparent performance, but not necessarily the intended performance. The results confirm that employees’ affection for incentives has direct, indirect, and conditional indirect effects on their deviant behavior (...)
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  31.  45
    Genes, Behavior, and Developmental Emergentism: One Process, Indivisible?Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):209-252.
    The question of the influence of genes on behavior raises difficult philosophical and social issues. In this paper I delineate what I call the Developmentalist Challenge (DC) to assertions of genetic influence on behavior, and then examine the DC through an indepth analysis of the behavioral genetics of the nematode, C. elegans, with some briefer references to work on Drosophila. I argue that eight "rules" relating genes and behavior through environmentally-influenced and tangled neural nets capture the results (...)
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  32.  37
    Studying Human Behavior: How Scientists Investigate Aggression and Sexuality.Helen E. Longino - 2013 - University of Chicago Press.
    In Studying Human Behavior, Helen E. Longino enters into the complexities of human behavioral research, a domain still dominated by the age-old debate of “nature versus nurture.” Rather than supporting one side or another or attempting..
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  33. Cognition and Behavior.Ken Aizawa - 2017 - Synthese 194 (11):4269-4288.
    An important question in the debate over embodied, enactive, and extended cognition has been what has been meant by “cognition”. What is this cognition that is supposed to be embodied, enactive, or extended? Rather than undertake a frontal assault on this question, however, this paper will take a different approach. In particular, we may ask how cognition is supposed to be related to behavior. First, we could ask whether cognition is supposed to be behavior. Second, we could ask (...)
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  34.  47
    Behavioural Artificial Intelligence: An Agenda for Systematic Empirical Studies of Artificial Inference.Tore Pedersen & Christian Johansen - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):519-532.
    Artificial intelligence receives attention in media as well as in academe and business. In media coverage and reporting, AI is predominantly described in contrasted terms, either as the ultimate solution to all human problems or the ultimate threat to all human existence. In academe, the focus of computer scientists is on developing systems that function, whereas philosophy scholars theorize about the implications of this functionality for human life. In the interface between technology and philosophy there is, however, one imperative aspect (...)
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  35.  15
    Behavior of the Lower Organisms.H. S. Jennings - 1906 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 3 (24):658-666.
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  36.  30
    The Behavioural Effects of Corporate Ethical Codes: Empirical Findings and Discussion.Einar Marnburg - 2000 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 9 (3):200–210.
    The use of corporate ethical codes has been increasing. It is argued that the use of ethical codes solely as an instrument in a company’s image management is morally questionable. Therefore, the introduction and use of ethical codes must have the intention of achieving behavioural change or the maintenance of already superior behaviour. This change or superior behaviour may apply to ethics in general, but also to the different sub‐structures of ethics, namely the areas of reliability ethics, human ethics, capability (...)
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  37. Does Consciousness Cause Behaviour?Susan Pockett - 2004 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (2):23-40.
  38.  72
    Collective Behavior.Robert L. Goldstone & Todd M. Gureckis - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (3):412-438.
  39.  60
    How Adaptive Behavior is Produced: A Perceptual-Motivational Alternative to Response Reinforcements.Dalbir Bindra - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):41-52.
  40.  24
    Human Behaviour and Biology.G. D. Wassermann - 1983 - Dialectica 37 (3):169-184.
    SummaryExtremism in the environment‐versus innateness controversy in the behavioural sciences and in human sociobiology is being examined. Genetic effects can be severely modified or overruled by environmental factors, but may, nevertheless, be important. Dawkins' view that we are survival machines programmed to subserve selfish genes seems untenable and is a root of racialism. It is also argued that morality is compatible with mixed genetic and environmental control of brains via existing biological machinery.
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  41.  84
    Foul Behavior.Victor Kumar - 2017 - Philosophers' Imprint 17.
    Disgust originated as an evolutionary adaptation for avoiding disease, but it has since infiltrated morality. Many philosophers are skeptical of moral disgust. Skeptics argue that disgust is unreliable and harmful, and that we should eliminate or minimize feelings of disgust in moral thought. However, these arguments are unsuccessful. They do not show that disgust is more problematic than other emotions implicated in morality. Moreover, empirical research suggests that disgust supports important norms and values. Disgust is frequently elicited by “reciprocity violations,” (...)
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  42.  19
    Prosocial Behavior Leads to Happiness in a Small-Scale Rural Society.Lara B. Aknin, Tanya Broesch, J. Kiley Hamlin & Julia W. Van de Vondervoort - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (4):788-795.
  43.  41
    Behavioural Deception and Formal Models of Communication.Gregory McWhirter - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (3):757-780.
    Having a satisfactory definition of behavioural deception is important for understanding several types of evolutionary questions. No definition offered in the literature so far is adequate on all fronts. After identifying characteristics that are important for a definition, a new definition of behavioural deception is offered. The new definition, like some other proposed attempts, relies on formal game-theoretic models of signalling. Unlike others, it incorporates explicit consideration of the population in which the potentially deceptive interactions occur. The general structure of (...)
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  44. Behavior Control and Freedom of Action.Patricia S. Greenspan - 1978 - Philosophical Review 87 (April):225-40.
  45.  23
    Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes. [REVIEW]Brian P. McLaughlin - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (4):641-645.
  46.  75
    Unethical Behavior in Information Systems: The Gender Factor. [REVIEW]Deepak Khazanchi - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (9):741 - 749.
    This article reports the findings of a survey examining whether gender differences influence the degree to which individuals recognize unethical conduct in the use and development of information technology. The results show that, on the average, there is a significant gender gap in the recognition of unethical behavior in information systems. Although, women are better able to recognize unethical actions described in information systems scenarios than men, the existence of statistically significant differences varies depending upon the nature of the (...)
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  47.  20
    Why Behavioural Policy Needs Mechanistic Evidence.Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (3):463-483.
  48.  48
    Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment of Criminal Offenders—A Comment on Bomann-Larsen.Jesper Ryberg & Thomas S. Petersen - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):79-83.
    Whether it is morally acceptable to offer rehabilitation by CNS-intervention to criminals as a condition for early release constitutes an important neuroethical question. Bomann-Larsen has recently suggested that such interventions are unacceptable if the offered treatment is not narrowly targeted at the behaviour for which the criminal is convicted. In this article it is argued that Bomann-Larsen’s analysis of the morality of offers does not provide a solid base for this conclusion and that, even if the analysis is assumed to (...)
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  49.  5
    Optimal Behavior in Free-Operant Experiments.Charles P. Shimp - 1969 - Psychological Review 76 (2):97-112.
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  50.  21
    Social Behaviours in Dog-Owner Interactions Can Serve as a Model for Designing Social Robots.Tamás Faragó, Ádám Miklósi, Beáta Korcsok, Judit Száraz & Márta Gácsi - 2014 - Interaction Studies 15 (2):143-172.
    It is essential for social robots to fit in the human society. In order to facilitate this process we propose to use the family dog’s social behaviour shown towards humans as an inspiration. In this study we explored dogs’ low level social monitoring in dog-human interactions and extracted individually consistent and context dependent behaviours in simple everyday social scenarios. We found that proximity seeking and tail wagging were most individually distinctive in dogs, while activity, orientation towards the owner, and exploration (...)
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