Results for 'Behavior'

998 found
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  1.  7
    see also Perspective taking Differential ability scales (DAS), 200 Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), 72, 155 Distal cause, 323, 332–333, 338, 343, 346–. [REVIEW]Child Behavior Checklist Cbc - 2003 - In B. Repacholi & V. Slaughter (eds.), Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press. pp. 363.
  2. Waft.Nuclear Fuel Rod Behavior During - 2005 - In Alan F. Blackwell & David MacKay (eds.), Power. Cambridge University Press. pp. 2.
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  3. Rejoinder. Mind, Brain & Behavior - 1995 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 9 (1):103 – 104.
     
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  4. Institutional interaction in traffic law enforcement in China: Resistance and obedience.Discourse Ning YeCorresponding authorCentre for Police & Behaviour Zhejiang Police College - forthcoming - Semiotica.
    Journal Name: Semiotica Issue: Ahead of print.
     
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  5. Hardwired Behavior: What Neuroscience Reveals About Morality.Laurence Tancredi - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores the impact of neuroscience research over the past 20 or more years on brain function as it affects moral decisions. Findings show that the mind and brain are very close, if not the same, and that the brain 'makes' the mind. This is bringing about a change of focus from examining mental activity to the physical activity of the brain to understand thinking and behavior. We are discovering that the physical features of the brain play the (...)
     
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  6. Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes.Fred Dretske - 1988 - MIT Press.
    In this lucid portrayal of human behavior, Fred Dretske provides an original account of the way reasons function in the causal explanation of behavior.
  7.  8
    Ethical Behaviour in the South African Organizational Context: Essential and Workable.Ebben Van Zyl & Kobus Lazenby - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 21 (1):15 - 22.
    The South African business world is increasingly characterised by the absence of clear ethical norms and behaviour. However, changing business circumstances has made South African organizations ethically more vulnerable. Furthermore, new perspectives on the benefits of ethical behaviour make the implementation thereof essential. A theoretical model of ethical behaviour for generating an improved understanding of ethical behaviour in organizational context is discussed. This model is used as a basis for presenting practical suggestions on the implementation of ethical behaviour in organizational (...)
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  8. Linguistic behaviour.Jonathan Bennett - 1976 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    First published in 1976, this book presents a view of language as a matter of systematic communicative behaviour.
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  9.  44
    Behavior therapy: scientific, philosophical, and moral foundations.Edward Erwin - 1978 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Edward Erwin's clear analysis addresses some of the fundamental questions on behavior therapy that remained in 1978, when this book was first published.
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  10.  33
    Verbal Behavior.B. F. Skinner - 1957 - Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Covert behavior may also be strong behavior which cannot be overtly emitted because the proper circumstances are lacking. When we are strongly inclined to go skiing, although there is no snow, we say I would like to go skiing. It is not very  ...
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  11.  4
    Behavior and Its Causes: Philosophical Foundations of Operant Psychology.T. L. Smith - 2013 - Springer Verlag.
    This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data-processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychology through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and computer science. While primary emphasis will (...)
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  12.  5
    Behavioural Psychology of Unique Family Firms Toward R&D Investment in the Digital Era: The Role of Ownership Discrepancy.Muhammad Zulfiqar, Weidong Huo, Shifei Wu, Shihua Chen, Ehsan Elahi & Muhammad Usman Yousaf - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:928447.
    This study examines the R&D investment behaviour of different types of family-controlled firms with the moderating role of ownership discrepancy between cash-flow rights and excess voting rights by using the sufficiency conditions’ theoretical framework of ability and willingness developed by De Massis. It uses data from family firms that have issued A-shares from 2008 to 2018. They used pooled OLS regression for data analysis and Tobit regression for robustness checks. This study classifies family firm types into two categories, namely, the (...)
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  13. Behavior genetics and postgenomics.Evan Charney - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):331-358.
    The science of genetics is undergoing a paradigm shift. Recent discoveries, including the activity of retrotransposons, the extent of copy number variations, somatic and chromosomal mosaicism, and the nature of the epigenome as a regulator of DNA expressivity, are challenging a series of dogmas concerning the nature of the genome and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. According to three widely held dogmas, DNA is the unchanging template of heredity, is identical in all the cells and tissues of the body, (...)
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  14.  18
    Behavior and mind: the roots of modern psychology.Howard Rachlin - 1994 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This book attempts to synthesize two apparently contradictory views of psychology: as the science of internal mental mechanisms and as the science of complex external behavior. Most books in the psychology and philosophy of mind reject one approach while championing the other, but Rachlin argues that the two approaches are complementary rather than contradictory. Rejection of either involves disregarding vast sources of information vital to solving pressing human problems--in the areas of addiction, mental illness, education, crime, and decision-making, to (...)
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  15.  16
    Explaining behavior: Bringing the brain back in.S. Skarda - 1986 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 29 (June):187-201.
    What is needed today is a biologically grounded explanation of behavior, one that moves beyond the so?called mind?body problem. Yet no solution will be found by philosophers who refuse to learn about how brains and bodies work, or by neuroscientists pursuing experimental research based on outmoded or blatantly anti?biological theories. Churchland's book proposes a solution: to come by a unified theory of the mind?brain philosophers have to work together with neuroscientists. Yet Churchland's vision of a unified theory is based (...)
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  16. Behavior matching in multimodal communication is synchronized.Max M. Louwerse, Rick Dale, Ellen G. Bard & Patrick Jeuniaux - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (8):1404-1426.
    A variety of theoretical frameworks predict the resemblance of behaviors between two people engaged in communication, in the form of coordination, mimicry, or alignment. However, little is known about the time course of the behavior matching, even though there is evidence that dyads synchronize oscillatory motions (e.g., postural sway). This study examined the temporal structure of nonoscillatory actions—language, facial, and gestural behaviors—produced during a route communication task. The focus was the temporal relationship between matching behaviors in the interlocutors (e.g., (...)
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  17.  17
    Rational Behaviour and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations.John C. Harsanyi - 1977 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a paperback edition of a major contribution to the field, first published in hard covers in 1977. The book outlines a general theory of rational behaviour consisting of individual decision theory, ethics, and game theory as its main branches. Decision theory deals with a rational pursuit of individual utility; ethics with a rational pursuit of the common interests of society; and game theory with an interaction of two or more rational individuals, each pursuing his own interests in a (...)
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  18.  13
    Behavioural Research, the Museum Darwinianum and Evolutionism in Early Soviet Russia.Margarete Vöhringer - 2009 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 31 (2):279 - 294.
    In 1907 the taxidermist Aleksandr Feodorovich Kohts founded a so-called "Museum Darwinianum" in Moscow. This museum first of all hosted a growing collection of stuffed, modelled, and visualized species and secondly — from 1913 on — a laboratory for the exploration of the evolution of species ruled by Koht's wife and psychologist Nadeshda Nikolaevna Ladygina-Kohts. While he was mainly dealing with dead animals and models, his wife was comparing the behaviour of a young chimpanzee to the behaviour of her little (...)
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  19. Behavior, purpose and teleology.Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener & Julian Bigelow - 1943 - Philosophy of Science 10 (1):18-24.
    This essay has two goals. The first is to define the behavioristic study of natural events and to classify behavior. The second is to stress the importance of the concept of purpose.Given any object, relatively abstracted from its surroundings for study, the behavioristic approach consists in the examination of the output of the object and of the relations of this output to the input. By output is meant any change produced in the surroundings by the object. By input, conversely, (...)
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  20.  3
    The Behavior of Ethicists.Eric Schwitzgebel & Joshua Rust - 2016 - In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Chichester, UK: Wiley. pp. 225–233.
    We review and present a new meta‐analysis of research suggesting that ethicists in the United States appear to behave no morally better overall than do non‐ethicist professors. Measures include: returning library books, peer evaluation of overall moral behavior, voting participation, courteous and discourteous behavior at conferences, replying to student emails, paying conference registration fees and disciplinary society dues, staying in touch with one's mother, charitable giving, organ and blood donation, vegetarianism, and honesty in responding to survey questions. One (...)
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  21.  8
    Predicting Behavior With Implicit Measures: Disillusioning Findings, Reasonable Explanations, and Sophisticated Solutions.Franziska Meissner, Laura Anne Grigutsch, Nicolas Koranyi, Florian Müller & Klaus Rothermund - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    Two decades ago, the introduction of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) sparked enthusiastic reactions. With implicit measures like the IAT, researchers hoped to finally be able to bridge the gap between self-reported attitudes on one hand and behavior on the other. Twenty years of research and several meta-analyses later, however, we have to conclude that neither the IAT nor its derivatives have fulfilled these expectations. Their predictive value for behavioral criteria is weak and their incremental validity over and above (...)
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  22.  32
    The behavioural constellation of deprivation: Causes and consequences.Gillian V. Pepper & Daniel Nettle - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40:1-72.
    Socioeconomic differences in behaviour are pervasive and well documented, but their causes are not yet well understood. Here, we make the case that a cluster of behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status, which we call “the behavioural constellation of deprivation.” We propose that the relatively limited control associated with lower SES curtails the extent to which people can expect to realise deferred rewards, leading to more present-oriented behaviour in a range of domains. We illustrate this idea using the specific (...)
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  23. Ethical behavior of marketing managers.David J. Fritzsche & Helmut Becker - 1983 - Journal of Business Ethics 2 (4):291 - 299.
    The ethical behavior of marketing managers was examined by analyzing their responses to a series of different types of ethical dilemmas presented in vignette form. The ethical dilemmas addressed dealt with the issues of (1) coercion and control, (2) conflict of interest, (3) the physical environment, (4) paternalism, and (5) personal integrity. Responses were analyzed to discover whether managers' behavior varied by type of issue faced or whether there is some continuity to ethical behavior which transcends the (...)
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  24.  44
    Explaining Behaviour: Reasons in a World of Causes.Andy Clark - 1990 - Philosophical Quarterly 40 (158):95-102.
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  25.  78
    Collective Behavior.Robert L. Goldstone & Todd M. Gureckis - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (3):412-438.
    The resurgence of interest in collective behavior is in large part due to tools recently made available for conducting laboratory experiments on groups, statistical methods for analyzing large data sets reflecting social interactions, the rapid growth of a diverse variety of online self‐organized collectives, and computational modeling methods for understanding both universal and scenario‐specific social patterns. We consider case studies of collective behavior along four attributes: the primary motivation of individuals within the group, kinds of interactions among individuals, (...)
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  26.  36
    Why behavioural policy needs mechanistic evidence.Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (3):463-483.
    :Proponents of behavioural policies seek to justify them as ‘evidence-based’. Yet they typically fail to show through which mechanisms these policies operate. This paper shows – at the hand of examples from economics and psychology – that without sufficient mechanistic evidence, one often cannot determine whether a given policy in its target environment will be effective, robust, persistent or welfare-improving. Because these properties are important for justification, policies that lack sufficient support from mechanistic evidence should not be called ‘evidence-based’.
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  27.  11
    Ethical behavior in leadership: a bibliometric review of the last three decades.María Pilar Gamarra & Michele Girotto - 2022 - Ethics and Behavior 32 (2):124-146.
    The study of ethical behavior in the field of leadership began in the 1990s when Murphy et al. (1992) responded to a call by Randall and Gibson (1990) to develop more rigorous methodologies in empi...
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  28.  27
    Collective behavior in cancer cell populations.Thomas S. Deisboeck & Iain D. Couzin - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (2):190-197.
    In recent years the argument has been made that malignant tumors represent complex dynamic and self‐organizing biosystems. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that collective cell migration is common during invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors. Here, we argue that cancer systems may be capable of developing multicellular collective patterns that resemble evolved adaptive behavior known from other biological systems including collective sensing of environmental conditions and collective decision‐making. We present a concept as to how these properties could arise in (...)
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  29.  70
    Genes, behavior, and developmental emergentism: One process, indivisible?Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):209-252.
    The question of the influence of genes on behavior raises difficult philosophical and social issues. In this paper I delineate what I call the Developmentalist Challenge (DC) to assertions of genetic influence on behavior, and then examine the DC through an indepth analysis of the behavioral genetics of the nematode, C. elegans, with some briefer references to work on Drosophila. I argue that eight "rules" relating genes and behavior through environmentally-influenced and tangled neural nets capture the results (...)
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  30.  13
    Behavioural modernity, investigative disintegration & Rubicon expectation.Adrian Currie & Andra Meneganzin - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-28.
    Abstract‘Behavioural modernity’ isn’t what it used to be. Once conceived as an integrated package of traits demarcated by a clear archaeological signal in a specific time and place, it is now disparate, archaeologically equivocal, and temporally and spatially spread. In this paper we trace behavioural modernity’s empirical and theoretical developments over the last three decades, as surprising discoveries in the material record, as well the reappraisal of old evidence, drove increasingly sophisticated demographic, social and cultural models of behavioural modernity. We (...)
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  31. Moral values and political behaviour in Ancient Greece: from Homer to the end of the fifth century.Arthur W. H. Adkins - 1972 - London,: Chatto & Windus.
    In this book, Professor Adkins undertakes an examination of certain key value-words in the period between Homer and the end of the fifth century. The behavior of these words both affected and was affected by the nature of the society in which their usage developed. The author shows how only with a complete understanding of the implications and significance of these value-words can the essence of the Greeks and their society be grasped.
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  32.  29
    Behavior Change or Empowerment: On the Ethics of Health-Promotion Goals.Per-Anders Tengland - 2016 - Health Care Analysis 24 (1):24-46.
    One important ethical issue for health promotion and public health work is to determine what the goals for these practices should be. This paper will try to clarify what some of these goals are thought to be, and what they ought to be. It will specifically discuss two different approaches to health promotion, such as, behavior change and empowerment. The general aim of this paper is, thus, to compare the behavior-change approach and the empowerment approach, concerning their immediate (...)
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  33. Behavior, Cognition and Theories of Choice.Hugh M. Lacey - 1978 - Behavior and Philosophy 6 (2):177.
    Critics have argued that behaviorism must necessarily be inadequate to account for complex human behavior whereas cognitive psychology is adequate to account for such behavior. Recently, Fodor has focused this criticism on certain situations in which humans choose among a set of alternatives. We argue that this criticism applies to forms of behaviorism that are reductionistic but not to non-reductionistic behaviorisms like that of Skinner. Non-reductionistic behaviorism can be used to interpret human choice situations of varying degrees of (...)
     
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  34. Is behavioural flexibility evidence of cognitive complexity? How evolution can inform comparative cognition.Irina Mikhalevich, Russell Powell & Corina Logan - 2017 - Interface Focus 7.
    Behavioural flexibility is often treated as the gold standard of evidence for more sophisticated or complex forms of animal cognition, such as planning, metacognition and mindreading. However, the evidential link between behavioural flexibility and complex cognition has not been explicitly or systematically defended. Such a defence is particularly pressing because observed flexible behaviours can frequently be explained by putatively simpler cognitive mechanisms. This leaves complex cognition hypotheses open to ‘deflationary’ challenges that are accorded greater evidential weight precisely because they offer (...)
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  35.  32
    Behavioural ecology's ethological roots.Jean-Sébastien Bolduc - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (3):674-683.
    Since Krebs and Davies’s (1978) landmark publication, it is acknowledged that behavioural ecology owes much to the ethological tradition in the study of animal behaviour. Although this assumption seems to be right—many of the first behavioural ecologists were trained in departments where ethology developed and matured—it still to be properly assessed. In this paper, I undertake to identify the approaches used by ethologists that contributed to behavioural ecology’s constitution as a field of inquiry. It is my contention that the current (...)
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  36.  57
    Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. An Introduction to Human Ecology. George K. Zipf.Svend Riemer - 1950 - Philosophy of Science 17 (2):204-205.
  37.  19
    Sustained behavior under delayed reinforcement.Charles B. Ferster - 1953 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (4):218.
  38.  47
    Verbal behavior and problem solving: Some effects of labeling in a functional fixedness problem.Sam Glucksberg & Robert W. Weisberg - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (5):659.
  39.  90
    Language and Human Behavior.Derek Bickerton - 1995 - Seattle: University Washington Press.
    According to Bickerton, the behavioral sciences have failed to give an adequate account of human nature at least partly because of the conjunction and mutual reinforcement of two widespread beliefs: that language is simply a means of communication and that human intelligence is the result of the rapid growth and unusual size of human brains. Bickerton argues that each of the properties distinguishing human intelligence and consciousness from that of other animals can be shown to derive straightforwardly from properties of (...)
  40. Explaining Behaviour.F. Dretske - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (1):157-165.
     
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  41.  35
    The behavioural effects of corporate ethical codes: Empirical findings and discussion.Einar Marnburg - 2000 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 9 (3):200–210.
    The use of corporate ethical codes has been increasing. It is argued that the use of ethical codes solely as an instrument in a company’s image management is morally questionable. Therefore, the introduction and use of ethical codes must have the intention of achieving behavioural change or the maintenance of already superior behaviour. This change or superior behaviour may apply to ethics in general, but also to the different sub‐structures of ethics, namely the areas of reliability ethics, human ethics, capability (...)
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  42.  22
    Linguistic Behaviour.Charles E. Caton - 1978 - Philosophical Review 87 (3):468.
  43.  13
    The behavioural effects of corporate ethical codes: Empirical findings and discussion.Einar Marnburg - 2000 - Business Ethics: A European Review 9 (3):200-210.
    The use of corporate ethical codes has been increasing. It is argued that the use of ethical codes solely as an instrument in a company’s image management is morally questionable. Therefore, the introduction and use of ethical codes must have the intention of achieving behavioural change or the maintenance of already superior behaviour. This change or superior behaviour may apply to ethics in general, but also to the different sub‐structures of ethics, namely the areas of reliability ethics, human ethics, capability (...)
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  44. Intelligent Behaviour.Dimitri Coelho Mollo - 2022 - Erkenntnis 89 (2):705-721.
    The notion of intelligence is relevant to several fields of research, including cognitive and comparative psychology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and philosophy, among others. However, there is little agreement within and across these fields on how to characterise and explain intelligence. I put forward a behavioural, operational characterisation of intelligence that can play an integrative role in the sciences of intelligence, as well as preserve the distinctive explanatory value of the notion, setting it apart from the related concepts of cognition and (...)
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  45.  57
    Behavioural Genetics: Why Eugenic Selection is Preferable to Enhancement.Julian Savulescu, Melanie Hemsley, Ainsley Newson & Bennett Foddy - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2):157-171.
    abstract Criminal behaviour is but one behavioural tendency for which a genetic influence has been suggested. Whilst this research certainly raises difficult ethical questions and is subject to scientific criticism, one recent research project suggests that for some families, criminal tendency might be predicted by genetics. In this paper, supposing this research is valid, we consider whether intervening in the criminal tendency of future children is ethically justifiable. We argue that, if avoidance of harm is a paramount consideration, such an (...)
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  46.  23
    Antisocial Behavior, Moral Disengagement, Empathy and Negative Emotion: A Comparison Between Disabled and Able-Bodied Athletes.Maria Kavussanu, Christopher Ring & Jayne Kavanagh - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (4):297-306.
    Theories of morality suggest that negative emotions associated with antisocial behavior should diminish motivation for such behavior. Two reasons that have been proposed to explain why some individuals repeatedly harm others are that (a) they use mechanisms of moral disengagement to justify their actions, and (b) they may not empathize with and vicariously experience the negative emotions felt by their victims. With the aim of testing these proposals, the present study compared spinal cord injured disabled athletes and able-bodied (...)
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  47.  48
    Behavioural Deception and Formal Models of Communication.Gregory McWhirter - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (3):757-780.
    Having a satisfactory definition of behavioural deception is important for understanding several types of evolutionary questions. No definition offered in the literature so far is adequate on all fronts. After identifying characteristics that are important for a definition, a new definition of behavioural deception is offered. The new definition, like some other proposed attempts, relies on formal game-theoretic models of signalling. Unlike others, it incorporates explicit consideration of the population in which the potentially deceptive interactions occur. The general structure of (...)
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  48.  39
    Deviant Behavior in a Moderated-Mediation Framework of Incentives, Organizational Justice Perception, and Reward Expectancy.Yehuda Baruch & Shandana Shoaib - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (3):617-633.
    This study introduces the concept of deviant behavior in a moderated-mediation framework of incentives and organizational justice perception. The proposed relationships in the theoretical framework were tested with a sample of 311 academics, using simple random sampling, via causal models and structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that incentives might boost the apparent performance, but not necessarily the intended performance. The results confirm that employees’ affection for incentives has direct, indirect, and conditional indirect effects on their deviant behavior (...)
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  49.  14
    Coping Behavior of Orthodox Religious Students in Russia.Oleg Pavenkov, Ilya Shmelev & Mariia Rubtcova - 2016 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 15 (44):205-224.
    This article presents a study of coping behavior regarding Orthodox religious students in Russia. The paper analyzes the investigation results concerning psychological features of modern Orthodox students from two universities in Russia. The data collection methods are: Folkman and Lazarus’s coping-test, Smirnov’s psychometric techniques "Questionnaire of religious activity" and Shcherbatykh’s "Test for revealing of the level of individual religiosity". The study suggests that coping behavior is connected with the level of religiosity.
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  50. Strategic behavior and counterfactuals.Cristina Bicchieri - 1988 - Synthese 76 (1):135 - 169.
    The difficulty of defining rational behavior in game situations is that the players'' strategies will depend on their expectations about other players'' strategies. These expectations are beliefs the players come to the game with. Game theorists assume these beliefs to be rational in the very special sense of beingobjectively correct but no explanation is offered of the mechanism generating this property of the belief system. In many interesting cases, however, such a rationality requirement is not enough to guarantee that (...)
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