Search results for 'Gert Woerner' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, Stephan Schuhmacher & Gert Woerner (eds.) (1989). The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala.
  2.  10
    Bernard Gert (2007). Reply to Julia Driver, Timm Triplett, and Kathleen Wallace. Metaphilosophy 38 (4):404-419.
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  3.  59
    Bernard Gert (1998). Morality: Its Nature and Justification. Oxford University Press.
    This book offers the fullest and most sophisticated account of Gert's influential moral theory, a model first articulated in the classic work The Moral Rules: A New Rational Foundation for Morality, published in 1970. In this final revision, Gert makes clear that the moral rules are only one part of an informal system that does not provide unique answers to every moral question but does always provide a range of morally acceptable options. A new chapter on reasons includes (...)
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  4.  53
    Bernard Gert (2004). Common Morality: Deciding What to Do. Oxford University Press.
    Moral problems do not always come in the form of great social controversies. More often, the moral decisions we make are made quietly, constantly, and within the context of everyday activities and quotidian dilemmas. Indeed, these smaller decisions are based on a moral foundation that few of us ever stop to think about but which guides our every action. Here distinguished philosopher Bernard Gert presents a clear and concise introduction to what he calls "common morality" -- the moral system (...)
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  5.  16
    Bernard Gert (1997). Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals. Oxford University Press.
    An updated and expanded successor to Culver and Gert's Philosophy in Medicine, this book integrates moral philosophy with clinical medicine to present a comprehensive summary of the theory, concepts, and lines of reasoning underlying the ...
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  6.  12
    Joshua Gert (2012). Normative Bedrock: Response-Dependence, Rationality, and Reasons. OUP Oxford.
    Joshua Gert offers an original account of normative facts and properties, those which have implications for how we ought to behave. He argues that our ability to think and talk about normative notions such as reasons and benefits is dependent on how we respond to the world around us, including how we respond to the actions of other people.
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  7.  55
    Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver & K. Danner Clouser (2000). Common Morality Versus Specified Principlism: Reply to Richardson. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (3):308 – 322.
    In his article 'Specifying, balancing and interpreting bioethical principles' (Richardson, 2000), Henry Richardson claims that the two dominant theories in bioethics - principlism, put forward by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Bioethics , and common morality, put forward by Gert, Culver and Clouser in Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals - are deficient because they employ balancing rather than specification to resolve disputes between principles or rules. We show that, contrary to Richardson's claim, the major problem with principlism, either (...)
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  8. Bernard Gert (2010). Hobbes. Polity.
    Thomas Hobbes was the first great English political philosopher. His work excited intense controversy among his contemporaries and continues to do so in our own time. In this masterly introduction to his work, Bernard Gert provides the first account of Hobbes’s political and moral philosophy that makes it clear why he is regarded as one of the best philosophers of all time in both of these fields. In a succinct and engaging analysis the book illustrates that the commonly accepted (...)
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  9.  2
    Bernard Gert (2010). Hobbes. In John Skorupski (ed.), International Philosophical Quarterly. Routledge 481-483.
    Thomas Hobbes was the first great English political philosopher. His work excited intense controversy among his contemporaries and continues to do so in our own time. In this masterly introduction to his work, Bernard Gert provides the first account of Hobbes’s political and moral philosophy that makes it clear why he is regarded as one of the best philosophers of all time in both of these fields. In a succinct and engaging analysis the book illustrates that the commonly accepted (...)
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  10. Bernard Gert (2013). Hobbes. Polity.
    Thomas Hobbes was the first great English political philosopher. His work excited intense controversy among his contemporaries and continues to do so in our own time. In this masterly introduction to his work, Bernard Gert provides the first account of Hobbes’s political and moral philosophy that makes it clear why he is regarded as one of the best philosophers of all time in both of these fields. In a succinct and engaging analysis the book illustrates that the commonly accepted (...)
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  11.  23
    Bernard Gert (2006). Bioethics: A Systematic Approach. Oxford University Press.
    This book is the result of over 30 years of collaboration among its authors. It uses the systematic account of our common morality developed by one of its authors to provide a useful foundation for dealing with the moral problems and disputes that occur in the practice of medicine. The analyses of impartiality, rationality, and of morality as a public system not only explain why some bioethical questions, such as the moral acceptability of abortion, cannot be resolved, but also provide (...)
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  12. Benedikt V. Ehinger, Petra Fischer, Anna L. Gert, Lilli Kaufhold, Felix Weber, Gordon Pipa & Peter König (2014). Kinesthetic and Vestibular Information Modulate Alpha Activity During Spatial Navigation: A Mobile EEG Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  13. K. D. Clouser & B. Gert (1990). A Critique of Principlism. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (2):219-236.
    The authors use the term “principlism” to refer to the practice of using “principles” to replace both moral theory and particular moral rules and ideals in dealing with the moral problems that arise in medical practice. The authors argue that these “principles” do not function as claimed, and that their use is misleading both practically and theoretically. The “principles” are in fact not guides to action, but rather they are merely names for a collection of sometimes superficially related matters for (...)
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  14. Joshua Gert (2007). Normative Strength and the Balance of Reasons. Philosophical Review 116 (4):533-562.
  15. Joshua Gert (2006). Problems for Moral Twin Earth Arguments. Synthese 150 (2):171-183.
    Terry Horgan and Mark Timmons have recently presented a series of papers in which they argue against what has come to be called the ‘new wave’ moral realism and moral semantics of David Brink, Richard Boyd, Peter Railton, and a number of other philosophers. The central idea behind Horgan and Timmons’s criticism of these ‘new wave’ theories has been extended by Sean Holland to include the sort of realism that drops out of response-dependent accounts that make use of an analogy (...)
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  16. Wlodek Rabinowicz, Toni Rønnow‐Rasmussen, Douglas Lavin, Rachana Kamtekar, Joshua Gert, Elijah Millgram, David Copp & Stephen M. Gardiner (2004). 10. Peter Singer, One World: The Ethics of Globalization Peter Singer, One World: The Ethics of Globalization (Pp. 634-638). [REVIEW] Ethics 114 (3).
     
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  17.  64
    Joshua Gert (2004). Value and Parity. Ethics 114 (3):492-510.
  18.  29
    Bernard Gert (1988). Morality: A New Justification of the Moral Rules. Oxford University Press.
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  19. Joshua Gert (2008). What Colors Could Not Be: An Argument for Color Primitivism. Journal of Philosophy 105 (3):128-155.
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  20.  61
    Joshua Gert (2010). Color Constancy, Complexity, and Counterfactual. Noûs 44 (4):669-690.
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  21.  31
    Joshua Gert (2015). Parity, Preference and Puzzlement. Theoria 81 (3):249-271.
    Ruth Chang has argued for the existence of a fourth positive value relation, distinct from betterness, worseness and equality, which she calls “parity.” In an earlier article I seemed to criticize Chang's suggestion by offering an interval model for the values of items that I claimed could accommodate all the phenomena characteristic of parity. Wlodek Rabinowicz, offering his own model of value relations, endorsed one central feature of my proposal: the need to distinguish permissible preferences from required ones. But he, (...)
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  22.  88
    Joshua Gert (2006). A Realistic Colour Realism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (4):565 – 589.
    Whether or not one endorses realism about colour, it is very tempting to regard realism about determinable colours such as green and yellow as standing or falling together with realism about determinate colours such as unique green or green31. Indeed some of the most prominent representatives of both sides of the colour realism debate explicitly endorse the idea that these two kinds of realism are so linked. Against such theorists, the present paper argues that one can be a realist about (...)
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  23. Bernard Gert (2008). The Definition of Morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  24.  49
    Joshua Gert & Alfred Mele (2005). Lenman on Externalism and Amoralism: An Interplanetary Exploration. Philosophia 32 (1-4):275-283.
  25. Bernard Gert & Charles M. Culver (2004). The Philosophy of Psychiatry: A Companion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  26.  56
    Joshua Gert (2005). A Functional Role Analysis of Reasons. Philosophical Studies 124 (3):353-378.
    One strategy for providing an analysis of practical rationality is to start with the notion of a practical reason as primitive. Then it will be quite tempting to think that the rationality of an action can be defined rather simply in terms of ‘the balance of reasons’. But just as, for many philosophical purposes, it is extremely useful to identify the meaning of a word in terms of the systematic contribution the word makes to the meanings of whole sentences, this (...)
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  27.  97
    Joshua Gert (2012). Religious, and Ethnic Aversions, the More Likely It is That They Will Let Them-Selves Be Persuaded to Overcome Them. Mind 121:484.
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  28.  7
    Joshua Gert (2014). Disgust, Moral Disgust, and Morality. Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (4):33-54.
    This paper calls into question the idea that moral disgust is usefully regarded as a form of genuine disgust. This hypothesis is questionable even if, as some have argued, the spread of moral norms through a community makes use of signaling mechanisms that are central to core disgust. The signaling system is just one part of disgust, and may well be completely separable from it. Moreover, there is plausibly a significant difference between the cognitive scientist’s concept of an emotion and (...)
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  29.  67
    Joshua Gert (2003). Requiring and Justifying: Two Dimensions of Normative Strength. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 59 (1):5 - 36.
    Many contemporary accounts of normative reasons for action accord a single strength value to normative reasons. This paper first uses some examples to argue against such views by showing that they seem to commit us to intransitive or counterintuitive claims about the rough equivalence of the strengths of certain reasons. The paper then explains and defends an alternate account according to which normative reasons for action have two separable dimensions of strength: requiring strength, and justifying strength. Such an account explains (...)
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  30.  80
    Joshua Gert (2009). Response-Dependence and Normative Bedrock. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (3):718-742.
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  31.  8
    Bernard Gert (1970). The Moral Rules. New York,Harper & Row.
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  32.  12
    L. Bovens, T. Brauner, B. J. Copeland, C. S. Delancey, J. Dubucs, K. Fine, A. Galton, N. Georgalis, J. Gert & K. Green (2006). Kastner, RE. Synthese 150:511.
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  33.  63
    Joshua Gert (2005). Neo-Sentimentalism and Disgust. Journal of Value Inquiry 39 (3):345-352.
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  34. Bernard Gert (1967). Hobbes and Psychological Egoism. Journal of the History of Ideas 28 (4):503-520.
    Hobbes has served for both philosophers and political scientists as the paradigm case of someone who held an egoistic view of human nature. In this article I shall attempt to show that the almost unanimous view that Hobbes held psychological egoism is mistaken, and further that Hobbes's political theory does not demand an egoistic psychology, but on the contrary is incompatible with psychological egoism. I do not maintain that Hobbes was completely consistent; in fact, I shall show that there was (...)
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  35. Joshua Gert (2008). Michael Smith and the Rationality of Immoral Action. Journal of Ethics 12 (1):1 - 23.
    Although it goes against a widespread significant misunderstanding of his view, Michael Smith is one of the very few moral philosophers who explicitly wants to allow for the commonsense claim that, while morally required action is always favored by some reason, selfish and immoral action can also be rationally permissible. One point of this paper is to make it clear that this is indeed Smith’s view. It is a further point to show that his way of accommodating this claim is (...)
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  36.  75
    Joshua Gert (2003). Brute Rationality. Noûs 37 (3):417–446.
  37.  83
    Joshua Gert (2002). Korsgaard's Private-Reasons Argument. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 64 (2):303-324.
    In The Sources of Normativity, Christine Korsgaard presents and defends a neo-Kantian theory of normativity. Her initial account of reasons seems to make them dependent upon the practical identity of the agent, and upon the value the agent must place on her own humanity. This seems to make all reasons agent-relative. But Korsgaard claims that arguments similar to Wittgenstein’s private-language argument can show that reasons are in fact essentially agent-neutral. This paper explains both of Korsgaard’s Wittgensteinian arguments, and shows why (...)
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  38.  43
    Joshua Gert (2007). Reply to Tenenbaum. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):463-476.
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  39.  76
    Joshua Gert (2008). Vague Terms, Indexicals, and Vague Indexicals. Philosophical Studies 140 (3):437 - 445.
    Jason Stanley has criticized a contextualist solution to the sorites paradox that treats vagueness as a kind of indexicality. His objection rests on a feature of indexicals that seems plausible: that their reference remains fixed in verb phrase ellipsis. But the force of Stanley’s criticism depends on the undefended assumption that vague terms, if they are a special sort of indexical, must function in the same way that more paradigmatic indexicals do. This paper argues that there can be more than (...)
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  40.  42
    Bernard Gert (1999). Common Morality and Computing. Ethics and Information Technology 1 (1):53-60.
    This article shows how common morality can be helpful in clarifying the discussion of ethical issues that arise in computing. Since common morality does not always provide unique answers to moral questions, not all such issues can be resolved, however common morality does provide a clear answer to the question whether one can illegally copy software for a friend.
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  41. Bernard Gert (2010). Moral Disagreement Concerning Abortion. Diametros 26:23-43.
    I use the example of abortion to show that there are some unresolvable moral disagreements. I list four sources of unresolvable moral disagreement: 1) differences in the rankings of the basic evils of death, pain, disability, loss of freedom, and loss of pleasure, 2) differences in the interpretation of moral rules, 3) ideological differences in the view of human nature and human societies, and 4) differences concerning who is impartially protected by the moral rules. It is this last difference that (...)
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  42.  15
    Joshua Gert (2000). Practical Rationality, Morality, and Purely Justificatory Reasons. American Philosophical Quarterly 37 (3):227 - 243.
  43.  8
    Joshua Gert (2009). Desires, Reasons, and Rationality. American Philosophical Quarterly 46 (4):319 - 332.
    Derek Parfit, Joseph Raz, and T. M. S canlon, among others, all hold that reasons for action are provided by facts about those actions. They also hold that the fact that an action would promote or achieve the object of an agent's desire is not one of the relevant facts, and does not provide a reason. Rather, the facts that provide reasons are typically facts about valuable states of affairs that the action is likely to bring about, or valuable properties (...)
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  44.  44
    Joshua Gert (2010). Fitting-Attitudes, Secondary Qualities, and Values. Philosophical Topics 38 (1):87-105.
    Response-dispositional accounts of value defend a biconditional in which the possession of an evaluative property is said to covary with the disposition to cause a certain response. In contrast, a fitting-attitude account of the same property would claim that it is such as to merit or make fitting that same response. This paper argues that even for secondary qualities, response-dispositional accounts are inadequate; we need to import a normative notion such as appropriateness even into accounts of such descriptive properties as (...)
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  45. Bernard Gert (1965). Hobbes, Mechanism, and Egoism. Philosophical Quarterly 15 (61):341-349.
  46.  28
    Bernard Gert (2005). Moral Arrogance and Moral Theories. Philosophical Issues 15 (1):368–385.
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  47.  36
    E. M. Berger & B. M. Gert (1991). Genetic Disorders and the Ethical Status of Germ-Line Gene Therapy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 16 (6):667-683.
    Recombinant DNA technology will soon allow physicians an opportunity to carry out both somatic cell- and Germ-Line gene therapy. While somatic cell gene therapy raises no new ethical problems, gene therapy of gametes, fertilized eggs or early embryos does raise several novel concerns. The first issue discussed here relates to making a distinction between negative and positive eugenics; the second issue deals with the evolutionary consequences of lost genetic diversity. In distinguishing between positive and negative eugenics, the concept of malady (...)
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  48.  8
    Bernard Gert (2012). Neuroscience and Morality. Hastings Center Report 42 (3):22-28.
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  49.  60
    Joshua Gert (2010). Color Constancy and the Color/Value Analogy. Ethics 121 (1):58-87.
    This article explains and defends the existence of value constancy, understood on the model of color constancy. Color constancy involves a phenomenal distinction between the transient color appearances of objects and the unchanging colors that those objects appear to have. The existence of value constancy allows advocates of response-dependent accounts of value to reject the question “What is the uniquely appropriate attitude to have toward this evaluative property?” as containing a false uniqueness assumption. Rejecting this assumption allows response-dependent accounts of (...)
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  50. Heather J. Gert (1990). Rights and Rights Violators: A New Approach to the Nature of Rights. Journal of Philosophy 87 (12):688-694.
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