The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents? normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664 Italian students (age range 15?21, M = 17.06, SD = 1.15) filled out a questionnaire to measure their perception of: (1) school moral atmosphere, (2) normative orientation and (3) frequency of aggressive (...) and transgressive behaviours at school. Normative orientation and school moral atmosphere were good predictors of both aggressive and transgressive behaviours. Normative orientation was proved as a direct explicative variable with transgressive behaviours as dependent variable, but an indirect variable with aggressive behaviours as dependent. In this case the relation was mediated by the school moral atmosphere, confirming previous results. Educational implications are discussed. (shrink)
Recent research shows that in reasoning tasks, subjects usually produce an initial intuitive answer, accompanied by a metacognitive experience, which has been called feeling of rightness. This paper is aimed at exploring the complimentary experience of feeling of error, that is, the spontaneous, subtle sensation of cognitive uneasiness arising from conflict detection during thinking. We investigate FOE in two studies with the “bat-and-ball” reasoning task, in its standard and isomorphic control versions. Study 1 is a generation study, in which participants (...) are asked to generate their own response. Study 2 is an evaluation study, in which participants are asked to choose between two conflicting answers. In each study, the FOE is measured by the FOE questionnaire. Results show that the FOE is significantly present in the standard B&B task when participants give a wrong answer, that our questionnaire can measure it, and furthermore, that it is diagnostic of genuine error. (shrink)
We construct two recursive models of fragments of set theory. We also show that the fragments of Kripke-Platek set theory that prove -induction for -formulas have no recursive models but the standard model of the hereditarily finite sets.
A study of the structural perfection of icosahedral quasicrystalline grains of various alloys and Al-Cu-Fe), grown by different slow solidification techniques was performed using high-resolution diffraction, including recording rocking curves combined with X-ray topography and phase contrast radiography, at a third-generation synchrotron radiation source . For Al-Pd-Mn, additional coherent diffraction and diffuse scattering measurements were also carried out. After evaluating the potentialities of the techniques used, in the light of the criteria defined for crystals, it is shown that the structural (...) perfection of icosahedral quasicrystals is quite comparable with that of metallic crystals but is considerably influenced by either uniform phason strains which can destroy the quasiperiodic long-range order, or by long-wavelength phason fluctuations leading to diffuse scattering. The structural perfection was also found to be extremely variable across the as-grown quasicrystalline grains and to be dependent on the presence and characteristics of inhomogeneities often included in the quasicrystalline matrix. Regarding the grains that we used, it has been impossible to distinguish a clear influence of either the type of alloy or the growth method. It has, however, been noticed that Al-Pd-Mn and Al-Cu-Fe grains appeared less defective than Zn-Mg-RE grains and that the microstructure of these latter grains looks like that of crystals grown by the same technique. Annealing and mechanical polishing effects have also been analysed in the case of Al-Pd-Mn grains. It appeared that annealing improves the quasicrystalline lattice perfection by lowering phason strains insofar as no precipitates are nucleated. Mechanical polishing can introduce defects, located at the external surfaces, having the shape of bands. (shrink)
The dynamical equations of quantum mechanics are rewritten in the form of dynamical equations for the measurable, positive marginal distribution of the shifted, rotated, and squeezed quadrature introduced in the so-called “symplectic tomography”. Then the possibility of a purely classical description of a quantum system as well as a reinterpretation of the quantum measurement theory is discussed and a comparison with the well-known quasi-probabilities approach is given. Furthermore, an analysis of the properties of this marginal distribution, which contains all the (...) quantum information, is performed in the framework of classical probability theory. Finally, examples of the harmonic oscillator's states dynamics are treated. (shrink)
En revendiquant le rôle méthodologique fondateur de la philosophie, dans ce célèbre Discours de 1894, très cité dans le cadre du « Débat sur l'historicisme », Windelband procède à une remise en perspective des théories de la connaissance en place à son époque. En polémiquant tout à la fois avec les philosophies positivistes et avec Dilthey, en critiquant notamment l'opposition établie par celui-ci entre Sciences de l'Esprit et Sciences de la Nature, Windelband défend ici l'idée que les sciences contemporaines demandent (...) à être différenciées non pas sur la base de leur objet spécifique (l'esprit ou la nature), mais de leur méthode d'approche des objets, méthode qui varie selon qu'elle soit généralisante (ou nomothétique) ou singularisante (ou idiographique). In his famous Address of 1894 — often cited within the contextual framework of the so-called « Debate on historicism » —, Windelband asserts the methodological and founding role of philosophy. He sets about putting into perspective the theories of knowledge that were current at the time. In arguing with both the positivistic philosophies and Dilthey, notably in criticizing the opposition brought about by the latter between « Sciences of the Mind » and « Sciences of Nature », Windelband champions here the idea that contemporary sciences have to be differentiated not on the basis of their specific object (mind, or nature), but on the basis of their method of approach of these objects — a method that varies, depending on whether it is totalizing (or nomothetic) or singularizing (or ideographic). (shrink)
The paper describes a highly specific Italian action research experience, connected with the trade unions, going through different phases from the 1970s to the present day. The journey is not only a journey through time but also through different approaches. It ranges from the initial experience focusing on health and safety problems at the workplace involving the workers as co-designers of new working environments to today’s search conference experience. For each phase there is a full description and comment on the (...) methods utilised by the research group. The main methodological shift described in the paper is the one from discussion groups, based on Bion’s thinking, to the search conferences, based on Emery’s line of thinking. Both are oriented to the subjectivity of the people involved, although in the discussion group experience the research groups considered the subjectivity of the people involved as the subject of the observation. The researchers’ aim of was to acquire a reliable knowledge of what was at stake and to pass it on to the union that organised the research in order to promote actions. Hence, the action-research circuit is based upon different actors and the process is integrated only from the point of view of the union. In the search conference experience the researchers are involved in a co-design process and so the action-research circuit is really integrated from the researchers’ perspective; there are, of course, multiple perspectives in this case and this opens up epistemological problems that are not discussed in the paper. (shrink)
Three experiments were used to investigate individuals' hypothesis-testing process as a function of moral perceived utilities , which in turn depend on perceived responsibility and fear of guilt. Moral perceived utilities are related to individuals' moral standards and specifically to people's attempt to face up to their own responsibilities, and to avoid feeling guilty of irresponsibility. The results showed that responsibility and fear of guilt in testing hypotheses involved a process defined as prudential mode , which entails focusing on and (...) confirming the worst hypothesis , and then reiterating the testing process. In particular, the results showed that responsible and guilt-fearing individuals: (1) tended to search prudentially for examples confirming the worst hypothesis and to search for counter-examples falsifying the positive hypothesis; (2) focused on the worst alternative, and tended to confirm it; (3) prudentially kept up the testing process, even if faced with initial positive evidence. Our discussion of the results emphasises how people are largely pragmatic in their hypothesis testing, using efficient cognitive strategies that focus on error minimisation rather than on truth detection. In a context of responsibility and guilt, the errors are linked to people's failure to face up to their own responsibilities, and are thus moral errors. (shrink)
After reading Barbara William’s picture book Albert’s Impossible Toothache, Jana Mohr Lone’s fourth grade students at Whittier Elementary School in Seattle discussed the relationship between telling a lie, telling the truth, and making a mistake, and how we know that we are talking about the same thing when we talk with someone. The discussion led to an exploration of why the things children say are often less likely to be believed than what adults say. This section contains six fourth grade (...) students’ responses to the question: “Are children more or less trustworthy than adults?” These answers, the question they are responding to, and the book which inspired the discussion, all offer possibilities for further discussion. (shrink)
The article show that the purpose of the final elaboration of Merleau-Ponty is thus to find a new idea of philosophy in which both Hegelian and Husserlian phenomenology can converge. But this tension in no way constitutes an element of rupture in the theoretical continuity of the Merleau-Pontian philosophy.
The essay analyzes the relation between Law and Communication from a philosophical point of view. The Author criticizes the position which considers Law just a deductive structure bounded in its definitions. Law is – on the contrary – an expression of social life, and so Law itself is not only a whole of apodictic proposition, but it is also the world of persuasion and probability: this means that Logic and Rhetoric are both parts of Law. Communication – thus – is (...) not a technique employed in Law: it is an essential share of Law as it is a Human product. (shrink)
The author starts by noting a discourse that is widespread but more or less diffuse in the media and certain contemporary political and intellectual quarters, and which has to do with ‘the permanence of the religious’: according to an idea now current, the religious might be resistant to the process of secularization of civil society, because of its psychological and existential implications, or if seen as a universal, irreducible component of human culture. The author analyses the different aspects of this (...) discourse, puts them into perspective in order to draw out their intellectual and political elements and attempts to reconstruct their historical and cultural origins and show how the refusal to historicize ‘religion’ is expressed today through various types of scientific argument coming out of the human and social sciences (arguments which appeal, for example, to the Latin concept of ‘civilization’, or the Germanic one of ( ‘Kultur’ ). (shrink)
Ancient Egyptian Wisdom for the Internet demonstrates that the legal philosophy and knowledge of ancient civilizations are of great value in helping us deal with the Internet. Through a challenging exploration of ancient legal knowledge this book offers new perspective on how to deal with, and best profit from the Internet.