Results for 'science policy'

997 found
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  1. Public Value Mapping and Science Policy Evaluation.Barry Bozeman & Daniel Sarewitz - 2011 - Minerva 49 (1):1-23.
    Here we present the framework of a new approach to assessing the capacity of research programs to achieve social goals. Research evaluation has made great strides in addressing questions of scientific and economic impacts. It has largely avoided, however, a more important challenge: assessing (prospectively or retrospectively) the impacts of a given research endeavor on the non-scientific, non-economic goals—what we here term public values —that often are the core public rationale for the endeavor. Research programs are typically justified in terms (...)
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  2.  35
    The Rise and Demise of the International Council for Science Policy Studies (ICSPS) as a Cold War Bridging Organization.Aant Elzinga - 2012 - Minerva 50 (3):277-305.
    When the journal Minerva was founded in 1962, science and higher educational issues were high on the agenda, lending impetus to the interdisciplinary field of “Science Studies” qua “Science Policy Studies.” As government expenditures for promoting various branches of science increased dramatically on both sides of the East-West Cold War divide, some common issues regarding research management also emerged and with it an interest in closer academic interaction in the areas of history and policy (...)
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  3.  67
    Different Motivations, Similar Proposals: Objectivity in Scientific Community and Democratic Science Policy.Jaana Eigi - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4657-4669.
    The aim of the paper is to discuss some possible connections between philosophical proposals about the social organisation of science and developments towards a greater democratisation of science policy. I suggest that there are important similarities between one approach to objectivity in philosophy of science—Helen Longino’s account of objectivity as freedom from individual biases achieved through interaction of a variety of perspectives—and some ideas about the epistemic benefits of wider representation of various groups’ perspectives in (...) policy, as analysed by Mark Brown. Given these similarities, I suggest that they allow one to approach developments in science policy as if one of their aims were epistemic improvement that can be recommended on the basis of the philosophical account; analyses of political developments inspired by these ideas about the benefits of inclusive dialogue can then be used for understanding the possibility to implement a philosophical proposal for improving the objectivity of science in practice. Outlining this suggestion, I also discuss the possibility of important differences between the developments in the two spheres and show how the concern about the possible divergence of politically motivated and epistemically motivated changes may be mitigated. In order to substantiate further the suggestion I make, I discuss one example of a development where politically motivated and epistemically motivated changes converge in practice—the development of professional ethics in American archaeology as analysed by Alison Wylie. I suggest that analysing such specific developments and getting involved with them can be one of the tasks for philosophy of science. In the concluding part of the paper I discuss how this approach to philosophy of science is related to a number of arguments about a more politically relevant philosophy of science. (shrink)
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  4.  13
    Cross-Field Effects of Science Policy on the Biosciences: Using Bourdieu’s Relational Methodology to Understand Change.Wendy McGuire - 2016 - Minerva 54 (3):325-351.
    This paper is based on a study that explored the responses of bioscientists to changes in national science policy and research funding in Canada. In the late 1990s, a range of new science policies and funding initiatives were implemented, linking research funding to Canada’s competitiveness in the ‘global knowledge economy’. Bourdieu’s theory of practice is used to explore the multi-scalar, cross-field effects of global economic policy and national science policy on scientific practice. While most (...)
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  5.  18
    Minerva and the Development of Science (Policy) Studies.Niels C. Taubert - 2012 - Minerva 50 (3):261-275.
    This article analyzes the transformation of Minerva from an intellectual towards a scholarly journal by making use of bibliometric methods. The aim is to provide some empirical insights that help to understand what properties of the journal changed in the course of this transformation process. Minerva was one of the first journals that reflected on science and its role in society and science policy in particular. Analyzing the development of the journal sheds light on the emergence of (...)
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  6.  36
    “Once Upon a Time” Philosophy of Science: STS, Science Policy and the Semantic View of Scientific Theories. [REVIEW]Enrico Viola - 2009 - Axiomathes 19 (4):465-480.
    Is a policy-friendly philosophy of science possible? In order to respond this question, I consider a particular instance of contemporary philosophy of science, the semantic view of scientific theories, by placing it in the broader methodological landscape of the integration of philosophy of science into STS (Science and Technology Studies) as a component of the overall contribution of the latter to science policy. In that context, I defend a multi-disciplinary methodological integration of the (...)
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  7.  7
    Science Policy and Concomitant Research in Synthetic Biology—Some Critical Thoughts.Kristin Hagen - 2016 - NanoEthics 10 (2):201-213.
    In science policy, public controversy around synthetic biology has often been presented as a major risk because it could deter innovation. The following inter-related strategies for avoiding contestation have been observed: There have been attempts to close down debates by alluding to the importance and legitimacy of reliance on scientific evidence as input to regulatory processes. Scientific policy advice has stressed sufficiency of existing regulation, economic risks of additional regulation and/or suggestions for monitoring that are limited in (...)
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  8. De-Facto Science Policy in the Making: How Scientists Shape Science Policy and Why It Matters (or, Why STS and STP Scholars Should Socialize).Thaddeus R. Miller & Mark W. Neff - 2013 - Minerva 51 (3):295-315.
    Science and technology (S&T) policy studies has explored the relationship between the structure of scientific research and the attainment of desired outcomes. Due to the difficulty of measuring them directly, S&T policy scholars have traditionally equated “outcomes” with several proxies for evaluation, including economic impact, and academic output such as papers published and citations received. More recently, scholars have evaluated science policies through the lens of Public Value Mapping, which assesses scientific programs against societal values. Missing (...)
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  9.  28
    Redefining Ecological Ethics: Science, Policy, and Philosophy at Cape Horn.Robert Frodeman - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):597-610.
    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of “applied” philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This “field” (rather than (...)
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  10.  58
    Review of Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal. [REVIEW]Nicholas Maxwell - 2010 - Metapsychology 14 (10).
    In this book Heather Douglas argues that widespread acceptance of the value-free ideal for science adversely affects the way science is used in policy making. The book is about an important issue. It is clearly written, and is a pleasure to read. I must confess, however that, as the author of at least four books that cover some of the same ground, and in many ways develop the argument much further than the author does here, I was (...)
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  11.  17
    Experiments in Science Policy: An Autobiographical Note.Jack Stilgoe - 2012 - Minerva 50 (2):197-204.
    In this paper, I offer a personal account of a journey through a world of science governance that is in flux. I reflect on three levels of experimentation: first, the intermingling of social scientists with scientists and policymakers; second, the creation of new forms of public dialogue; and third, the blurring of technical and social experiment with geoengineering as a case in point. My conclusion is that social scientists can both gain and contribute a great deal through engaging with, (...)
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  12.  42
    Leading with Ethics, Aiming for Policy: New Opportunities for Philosophy of Science.Nancy Tuana - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):471 - 492.
    The goal of this paper is to articulate and advocate for an enhanced role for philosophers of science in the domain of science policy as well as within the science curriculum. I argue that philosophy of science as a field can learn from the successes as well as the mistakes of bioethics and begin to develop a new model that includes robust contributions to the science classroom, research collaborations with scientists, and a role for (...)
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  13. Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal.Heather Douglas - 2009 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Douglas proposes a new ideal in which values serve an essential function throughout scientific inquiry, but where the role values play is constrained at key points, protecting the integrity and objectivity of science.
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  14.  30
    The Value of Weather Event Science for Pending UN Climate Policy Decisions.Justin Donhauser - 2017 - Ethics, Policy and Environment (3):263-278.
    This essay furthers debate about the burgeoning science of Probabilistic Event Attribution (PEA) and its relevance to imminent climate policy decisions. It critically examines Allen Thompson and Friederike Otto’s recent arguments concerning the implications of PEA studies for how the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) policy framework should be revised during the 2016 ‘review and decision.’ I show that their contention that PEA studies cannot usefully inform decision-making about adaptation policies and strategies is misguided (...)
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  15. Fish-Farming and the Precautionary Principle: Context and Values in Environmental Science for Policy[REVIEW]Matthias Kaiser - 1997 - Foundations of Science 2 (2):307-341.
    The paper starts with the assumption that the Precautionary Principle (PP) is one of the most important elements of the concept of sustainability. It is noted that PP has entered international treaties and national law. PP is widely referred to as a central principle of environmental policy. However, the precise content of PP remains largely unclear. In particular it seems unclear how PP relates to science. In section 2 of the paper a general overview of some historical and (...)
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  16.  32
    The Ethics of Doing Policy Relevant Science: The Precautionary Principle and the Significance of Non-Significant Results. [REVIEW]Stellan Welin & Lene Buhl-Mortensen - 1998 - Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (4):401-412.
    The precautionary principle is a widely accepted policy norm for decision making under uncertainty in environmental management, However, some of the traditional ways of ensuring trustworthy results used in environmental science and of communicating them work contrary to the general goal of providing the political system and the public with as good an input as possible in the decision making process. For example, it is widely accepted that scientists should only communicate results fulfilling the traditional scientific standard for (...)
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  17. Divergent Perspectives on Expert Disagreement: Preliminary Evidence From Climate Science, Climate Policy, Astrophysics, and Public Opinion.James R. Beebe, Maria Baghramian, Luke Drury & Finnur Dellsén - 2019 - Environmental Communication 13:35-50.
    We report the results of an exploratory study that examines the judgments of climate scientists, climate policy experts, astrophysicists, and non-experts (N = 3367) about the factors that contribute to the creation and persistence of disagreement within climate science and astrophysics and about how one should respond to expert disagreement. We found that, as compared to non-experts, climate experts believe that within climate science (i) there is less disagreement about climate change, (ii) methodological factors play less of (...)
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  18.  83
    The Role of Science in Public Policy: Higher Reason, or Reason for Hire? [REVIEW]Stephen F. Haller & James Gerrie - 2007 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (2):139-165.
    The traditional vision of the role science should play in policy making is of a two stage process of scientists first finding out the facts, and then policy makers making a decision about what to do about them. We argue that this two stage process is a fiction and that a distinction must be drawn between pure science and science in the service of public policy. When science is transferred into the policy (...)
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  19.  15
    Virology Experts in the Boundary Zone Between Science, Policy and the Public: A Biographical Analysis.Erwin van Rijswoud - 2010 - Minerva 48 (2):145-167.
    This article aims to open up the biographical black box of three experts working in the boundary zone between science, policy and public debate. A biographical-narrative approach is used to analyse the roles played by the virologists Albert Osterhaus, Roel Coutinho and Jaap Goudsmit in policy and public debate. These figures were among the few leading virologists visibly active in the Netherlands during the revival of infectious diseases in the 1980s. Osterhaus and Coutinho in particular are still (...)
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  20.  14
    Nanoethics and Policy Education: A Case Study of Social Science Coursework and Student Engagement with Emerging Technologies.Jessica Smith Rolston, Skylar Huzyk Zilliox, Corinne Packard, Carl Mitcham & Brian Zaharatos - 2014 - NanoEthics 8 (3):217-225.
    The article analyzes the integration of a module on nanotechnology, ethics, and policy into a required second-year social science course at a technological university. It investigates not simply the effectiveness of student learning about the technical aspects of nanotechnology but about how issues explored in an interdisciplinary social science course might influence student opinions about the potential of nanotechnology to benefit the developing world. The authors find a correlation between student opinions about the risks and benefits of (...)
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  21.  19
    Meanings and Policy Implications of “Transformative Research”: Frontiers, Hot Science, Evolution, and Investment Risk. [REVIEW]James S. Dietz & Juan D. Rogers - 2012 - Minerva 50 (1):21-44.
    In recent times there has been a surge in interest on policy instruments to stimulate scientific and engineering research that is of greater consequence, advancing our knowledge in leaps rather than steps and is therefore more “creative” or, in the language of recent reports, “transformative.” Associated with the language of “transformative research” there appears to be much enthusiasm and conviction that the future of research is tied to it. However, there is very little clarity as to what exactly it (...)
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  22.  12
    Science Policy From a Naturalistic Sociological Epistemology.Donald T. Campbell - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:14 - 29.
    If philosophers of science advise government on science policy, it will have to be from a descriptive theory of scientific validity taken as hypothetically normative, as in naturalized epistemology. While logical positivism denied any normative import for the practice of science, in the area of "operational definitions" it had an unfortunate influence in psychology and sociology, and one that persists in the accountability movement. Not all philosophy of science issues have implications for the justificatory practice (...)
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  23.  17
    The Price of Success: Sociologist Harry Alpert, the NSF's First Social Science Policy Architect.Mark Solovey & Jefferson D. Pooley - 2011 - Annals of Science 68 (2):229-260.
    Summary Harry Alpert (1912?1977), the US sociologist, is best-known for his directorship of the National Science Foundation's social science programme in the 1950s. This study extends our understanding of Alpert in two main ways: first, by examining the earlier development of his views and career. Beginning with his 1939 biography of Emile Durkheim, we explore the early development of Alpert's views about foundational questions concerning the scientific status of sociology and social science more generally, proper social (...) methodology, the practical value of social science, the academic institutionalisation of sociology, and the unity-of-science viewpoint. Second, this paper illuminates Alpert's complex involvement with certain tensions in mid-century US social science that were themselves linked to major transformations in national science policy, public patronage, and unequal relations between the social and natural sciences. We show that Alpert's views about the intellectual foundations, practical relevance, and institutional standing of the social sciences were, in some important respects, at odds with his NSF policy work. Although remembered as a quantitative evangelist and advocate for the unity-of-science viewpoint, Alpert was in fact an urbane critic of natural-science envy, social scientific certainty, and what he saw as excessive devotion to quantitative methods. (shrink)
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  24.  11
    Science Outside the Lab: Helping Graduate Students in Science and Engineering Understand the Complexities of Science Policy.Michael J. Bernstein, Kiera Reifschneider, Ira Bennett & Jameson M. Wetmore - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):861-882.
    Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. “Science Outside the Lab” is a program designed to (...)
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  25.  5
    History of Science and American Science Policy.Zuoyue Wang & Naomi Oreskes - 2008 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 99:365-373.
    Historians of science have participated actively in debates over American science policy in the post–World War II period in a variety of ways, but their impact has been more to elucidate general concepts than to effect specific policy changes. Personal experiences, in the case of the debate over global warming, have demonstrated both the value and the limits of such involvement for the making of public policy. To be effective, historians of science need to (...)
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  26.  4
    The Grand Challenges Discourse: Transforming Identity Work in Science and Science Policy.David Kaldewey - 2018 - Minerva 56 (2):161-182.
    This article analyzes the concept of “grand challenges” as part of a shift in how scientists and policymakers frame and communicate their respective agendas. The history of the grand challenges discourse helps to understand how identity work in science and science policy has been transformed in recent decades. Furthermore, the question is raised whether this discourse is only an indicator, or also a factor in this transformation. Building on conceptual history and historical semantics, the two parts of (...)
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  27.  25
    On the Philosophical Roots of Today’s Science Policy: Any Lessons From the “Lysenko Affair”?Nils Roll-Hansen - 2015 - Studies in East European Thought 67 (1-2):91-109.
    Present science policy discourse is focused on a broad concept of “techno-science” and emphasizes practical economic goals and gains. At the same time scientists are worried about the freedom of research and the autonomy of science. Half a century ago the difference between basic and applied science was widely taken for granted and autonomy was a value in high esteem. Most recent accounts of the history of science policy start abruptly from World War (...)
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  28.  9
    Being Expert: L’Aquila and Issues of Inclusion in Science-Policy Decision Making.Danielle DeVasto - 2016 - Social Epistemology 30 (4):372-397.
    Responding to the call to provide guidance for incorporating diverse perspectives in science-policy debate, Collins and Evans’ normative model of expertise provides a useful starting point for deciding who gets to come to the table—expertise and experience. However, new materialist critiques highlight the epistemic challenges of such an approach. Drawing on the work of Annemarie Mol, I propose that the theory of multiple ontologies and a practise-based orientation can enrich conversations about expertise and inclusion in science-policy (...)
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  29.  42
    A Social Justice Framework For Health And Science Policy.Ruth Faden & Madison Powers - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (4):596-604.
    The goal of this article is to explore how a social justice framework can help illuminate the role that consent should play in health and science policy. In the first section, we set the stage for our inquiry with the important case of Henrietta Lacks. Without her knowledge or consent, or that of her family, Mrs. Lacks’s cells gave rise to an enormous advance in biomedical science—the first immortal human cell line, or HeLa cells.
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  30.  43
    Science, Policy, Values: Exploring the Nexus.Heather E. Douglas - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):475-480.
    The importance of science for guiding policy decisions has been an increasingly central feature of policy-making for much of the past century. But which science we have available to us and what counts as adequate science for policy-making shapes substantially the specific impact science has on policy decisions. Policy influences which science we pursue and how we pursue it in practice, as well as how science ultimately informs policy. (...)
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  31.  45
    New Directions in the Philosophy of Science: Toward a Philosophy of Science Policy.Carl Mitcham & Robert Frodeman - 2004 - Philosophy Today 48 (5):3-15.
    This is the introduction to a special, guest-edited issue of Philosophy Today. It lays out the extent to which the philosophy of science has ignored science policy and argues that policy issues deserve attention in parallel with epistemological ones. It further reviews the historical development of science policy in the United States since World War II, identifies some recent contributions to critical reflection on basic science policy assumptions, and outlines a set of (...)
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  32.  22
    Research Portfolio Analysis in Science Policy: Moving From Financial Returns to Societal Benefits.Matthew L. Wallace & Ismael Rafols - 2015 - Minerva 53 (2):89-115.
    Funding agencies and large public scientific institutions are increasingly using the term “research portfolio” as a means of characterizing their research. While portfolios have long been used as a heuristic for managing corporate R&D, they remain ill-defined in a science policy context where research is aimed at achieving societal outcomes. In this article we analyze the discursive uses of the term “research portfolio” and propose some general considerations for their application in science policy. We explore the (...)
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  33.  48
    Public Participation in the Making of Science Policy.Darrin Durant - 2010 - Perspectives on Science 18 (2):pp. 189-225.
    This paper argues that, because Science and Technology Studies lost contact with political philosophy, its defense of public participation in policy-making involving technical claims is normatively unsatisfactory. Current penchants for political under-laboring and normative individualism are critiqued, and the connections between STS and theorists of deliberative democracy are explored. A conservative normativity is proposed, and STS positions on public participation are discussed in relation to current questions about individual and group rights in a liberal democracy. The result is (...)
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  34.  38
    Participation as Post-Fordist Politics: Demos, New Labour, and Science Policy[REVIEW]Charles Thorpe - 2010 - Minerva 48 (4):389-411.
    In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift ‘from deficit to dialogue’ in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the (...)
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  35.  28
    Congressmen and Scientists in the Making of Science Policy: The Allison Commission, 1884–1886. [REVIEW]David H. Guston - 1994 - Minerva 32 (1):25-52.
    The Allison Commission focused attention on the administration of the scientific bureaux and its relation to the jurisdictional system in the Congress. The commission also had a more considerable influence on congressional policy towards the scientific bureaux than was previously thought. Legislative recommendations offered by the Allison Commission became law, even if they avoided the notice of congressional opponents through the strategic manipulation of the appropriations process. Hilary Herbert was not a crude enemy of science, but a staunch (...)
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  36.  58
    “Media, Politics and Science Policy: MS and Evidence From the CCSVI Trenches”. [REVIEW]Daryl Pullman, Amy Zarzeczny & André Picard - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundIn 2009, Dr. Paolo Zamboni proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although his theory and the associated treatment (“liberation therapy”) received little more than passing interest in the international scientific and medical communities, his ideas became the source of tremendous public and political tension in Canada. The story moved rapidly from mainstream media to social networking sites. CCSVI and liberation therapy swiftly garnered support among patients and triggered remarkable and relentless advocacy efforts. (...)
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  37.  5
    Responsible Innovation Through Conscious Contestation at the Interface of Agricultural Science, Policy, and Civil Society.Laxmi Prasad Pant - 2019 - Agriculture and Human Values 36 (2):183-197.
    This research examines a series of case studies from the agricultural sector to illustrate how various models of innovation embrace value proposition. A conscious value contestation at the interface of science, policy and civil society requires transformations in the triple-helix model of university-government-industry collaboration, because reiterations in the triple-helix model of innovation, such as quadruple, quintuple and higher helices, do not necessarily address civil society concerns for human values and science ethics. This research develops and tests a (...)
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  38.  9
    Why the Realism Debate Matters for Science Policy: The Case of the Human Brain Project.Jamie Craig Owen Shaw - 2018 - Spontaneous Generations 9 (1):82-98.
    There has been a great deal of skepticism towards the value of the realism/anti-realism debate. More specifically, many have argued that plausible formulations of realism and anti-realism do not differ substantially in any way. In this paper, I argue against this trend by demonstrating how a hypothetical resolution of the debate, through deeper engagement with the historical record, has important implications for our criterion of theory pursuit and science policy. I do this by revisiting Arthur Fine’s ‘small handful’ (...)
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  39.  36
    Full Transcript of Inaugural AARST Science Policy Forum, New York Hilton, Friday 20 November 1998, 7?9 Pm.James E. Hansen & Patrick J. Michaels - 2000 - Social Epistemology 14 (2-3):131-180.
    (2000). Full transcript of inaugural AARST Science Policy Forum, New York Hilton, Friday 20 November 1998, 7?9 pm. Social Epistemology: Vol. 14, No. 2-3, pp. 131-180.
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  40.  14
    The Emperor has No Clothes... Let Us Paint Our Loincloths Rainbow: A Classical and Feminist Critique of Contemporary Science Policy.Alistair McIntosh - 1996 - Environmental Values 5 (1):3-30.
    The British government's White Paper on science together with government research council reports are used as a basis for critiquing current science policy and its intensifying orientation, British and worldwide, towards industrial and military development. The critique draws particulary on Plato and Bacon as yardsticks to address who science is for, what values it honours and where current policy departs from imperatives of socio-ecological justice. Metaphors of the ' Emperor 's new clothes' and incremental spectral (...)
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  41.  11
    Science Policy and Politics in Post-War Japan: The Establishment of the KEK High Energy Physics Laboratory.Satio Hayakawa & Morris F. Low - 1991 - Annals of Science 48 (3):207-229.
    This paper provides a detailed account of the prehistory of the KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics at Tsukuba in Japan. Attempts to establish Japan's first truly national laboratory marked the beginning of ‘big science’ in Japan. An examination of the debate and decision-making processes, which spanned over a decade, provide insight into the political aspects of policy making in the post-war period. History shows that even in Japan, self-interest has taken precedence over group interests in lobbying (...)
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  42.  8
    Beginning Science Policy Research in Europe: The Studiengruppe Für Systemforschung, 1957–1973. [REVIEW]Helmut Krauch - 2006 - Minerva 44 (2):131-142.
    I am pleased to offer this translation of a lecture by Helmut Krauch, both because he is an old friend, whom I have known for more than forty years, and because it fills a gap in the history of science policy research. As this lecture makes clear, the Studiengruppe, led by Krauch, was the first in Europe to measure the share of nuclear and military research in total R&D expenditure and to make systematic technology assessments to guide government (...)
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  43.  6
    Science Advising and Science Policy in Post-War West Germany: The Example of the Deutscher Forschungsrat. [REVIEW]Cathryn Carson & Michael Gubser - 2002 - Minerva 40 (2):147-179.
    The Deutscher Forschungsrat (GermanResearch Council) attempted to anchor scienceadvising and science policy in West Germanyafter the Second World War. Promoted by acircle of élite scientists, the councilaimed to establish institutions and mechanismscomparable to those in Great Britain, theUnited States, and other scientific powers.After a two-and-a-half year existence, iteventually failed. The reasons for its failure,some local, some global, display thedifficulties facing research policy in theearly years of the Federal Republic.
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  44.  1
    Engaging Experts: Science-Policy Interactions and the Introduction of Congestion Charging in Stockholm.Anders Broström & Maureen McKelvey - 2018 - Minerva 56 (2):183-207.
    This article analyzes the conditions for mobilizing the science base for development of public policy. It does so by focusing upon the science-policy interface, specifically the processes of direct interaction between scientists and scientifically trained experts, on the one hand, and agents of policymaking organizations, on the other. The article defines two dimensions – cognitive distance and expert autonomy – which are argued to influence knowledge exchange, in such a way as to shape the outcome. A (...)
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  45.  16
    Bovine Tuberculosis and Badger Control in Britain: Science, Policy and Politics.Steven P. McCulloch & Michael J. Reiss - 2017 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30 (4):469-484.
    Bovine tuberculosis is the most economically important animal health policy issue in Britain. The problem of what to do about badgers has plagued successive governments since a dead badger was discovered with bovine TB in 1971. Successive Labour governments oversaw the Randomised Badger Culling Trial from 1998 to 2006. Despite the RBCT recommendation against culling, the 2010–2015 Coalition government implemented pilot badger culls. This paper provides an account of the evolution of bovine TB and badger control policy, focusing (...)
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  46.  8
    Science Policy in Action: Policy and the Researcher. [REVIEW]Norma Morris - 2000 - Minerva 38 (4):425-451.
    Government policies for science, usually incorporatingeconomic and social aims, are increasingly influencing the contentand management of university research. This essay discusses theinfluence of selected science policies on individual researchersand group leaders. Within the limitations of a case study, itargues that policies that steer the content of research have agreater influence on research behaviour, than do policies relatedto overall research management. Increasing pressures for compliancewith mission-objectives point to the need for closer discussionbetween those who make policy decisions, and (...)
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  47.  55
    Rethinking the Science-Policy Nexus: From Knowledge Utilization and Science Technology Studies to Types of Boundary Arrangements. [REVIEW]Robert Hoppe - 2005 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (3):199-215.
    The relationship between political judgment and science-based expertise is a troubled one. In the media three cliché images compete. The business-as-usual political story is that, in spite of appearances to the contrary, politics is safely ‘on top’ and experts are still ‘on tap’. The story told by scientists is that power-less but inventive scholars only ‘speak truth to power’. But there is plenty of room for a more cynical interpretation. It sees scientific advisers as following their own interests, unless (...)
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  48. Science, Policy, and Politics: Comparing and Contrasting Issues in Energy and the Environment.Paul Gilman - 2006 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (3):1001-1010.
    Scientific and technical information is only part of the calculus of policymaking. How voters view the importance of societal issues with significant science and engineering content will drive how policy-makers weigh scientific and technical information. In many cases, as issues become more embroiled in partisan politics, the use of scientific and technical information declines. The use of science and technical information and its weight in environmental and energy policy has differed because of differences in how voters (...)
     
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  49.  15
    Science Policy and Moral Purity: The Case of Animal Biotechnology.Paul B. Thompson - 1997 - Agriculture and Human Values 14 (1):11-27.
    Public controversy over animalbiotechnology is analyzed as a case that illustratestwo broad theoretical approaches for linking science,political or ethical theory, and public policy. Moralpurification proceeds by isolating the social,environmental, animal, and human health impacts ofbiotechnology from each other in terms of discretecategories of moral significance. Each of thesecategories can also be isolated from the sense inwhich biotechnology raises religious or metaphysicalissues. Moral purification yields a comprehensive andsystematic account of normative issues raised bycontroversial science. Hybridization proceeds bytaking concern (...)
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  50. Science Policy in the United States: A Commentary on the State of the Art.Henry Kelly - 2006 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (3):737-752.
    Timely, unbiased scientific advice is essential for effective public policy, but the system now operating in the United States is in a state of dangerous disrepair. The danger takes two forms. First, we are missing critical benefits in health, education, economic productivity, national security, and many other areas that more effective management of science could deliver. Second, we risk being overtaken by dangers that could have been avoided or for which we could have been much better prepared, given (...)
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