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Bernard Gert [108]Bernard M. Gert [2]
  1.  246 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1967). Hobbes and Psychological Egoism. Journal of the History of Ideas 28 (4):503-520.
    Hobbes has served for both philosophers and political scientists as the paradigm case of someone who held an egoistic view of human nature. In this article I shall attempt to show that the almost unanimous view that Hobbes held psychological egoism is mistaken, and further that Hobbes's political theory does not demand an egoistic psychology, but on the contrary is incompatible with psychological egoism. I do not maintain that Hobbes was completely consistent; in fact, I shall show that there was (...)
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  2.  131 DLs
    Bernard Gert, The Definition of Morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  3.  106 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2010). Moral Disagreement Concerning Abortion. Diametros 26:23-43.
    I use the example of abortion to show that there are some unresolvable moral disagreements. I list four sources of unresolvable moral disagreement: 1) differences in the rankings of the basic evils of death, pain, disability, loss of freedom, and loss of pleasure, 2) differences in the interpretation of moral rules, 3) ideological differences in the view of human nature and human societies, and 4) differences concerning who is impartially protected by the moral rules. It is this last difference that (...)
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  4.  82 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1990). A Critique of Principlism. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (2):219-236.
    The authors use the term "principlism" to refer to the practice of using "principles" to replace both moral theory and particular moral rules and ideals in dealing with the moral problems that arise in medical practice. The authors argue that these "principles" do not function as claimed, and that their use is misleading both practically and theoretically. The "principles" are in fact not guides to action, but rather they are merely names for a collection of sometimes superficially related matters for (...)
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  5.  78 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1965). Hobbes, Mechanism, and Egoism. Philosophical Quarterly 15 (61):341-349.
  6.  51 DLs
    Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver & K. Danner Clouser (2000). Common Morality Versus Specified Principlism: Reply to Richardson. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (3):308 – 322.
    In his article 'Specifying, balancing and interpreting bioethical principles' (Richardson, 2000), Henry Richardson claims that the two dominant theories in bioethics - principlism, put forward by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Bioethics , and common morality, put forward by Gert, Culver and Clouser in Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals - are deficient because they employ balancing rather than specification to resolve disputes between principles or rules. We show that, contrary to Richardson's claim, the major problem with principlism, either the (...)
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  7.  49 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2010). F. M. Kamm, Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harms (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007) Pp. X + 509. [REVIEW] Utilitas 22 (2):234-238.
  8.  41 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2004/2007). Common Morality: Deciding What to Do. Oxford University Press.
    Moral problems do not always come in the form of great social controversies. More often, the moral decisions we make are made quietly, constantly, and within the context of everyday activities and quotidian dilemmas. Indeed, these smaller decisions are based on a moral foundation that few of us ever stop to think about but which guides our every action. Here distinguished philosopher Bernard Gert presents a clear and concise introduction to what he calls "common morality" -- the moral system that (...)
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  9.  40 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1998). Morality: Its Nature and Justification. Oxford University Press.
    This book offers the fullest and most sophisticated account of Gert's influential moral theory, a model first articulated in the classic work The Moral Rules: A New Rational Foundation for Morality, published in 1970. In this final revision, Gert makes clear that the moral rules are only one part of an informal system that does not provide unique answers to every moral question but does always provide a range of morally acceptable options. A new chapter on reasons includes an account (...)
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  10.  37 DLs
    Bernard Gert & Timothy J. Duggan (1979). Free Will as the Ability to Will. Noûs 13 (2):197-217.
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  11.  36 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1969). Justifying Violence. Journal of Philosophy 66 (19):616-628.
  12.  33 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1986). Wittgenstein's Private Language Arguments. Synthese 68 (3):409-39.
  13.  33 DLs
    Bernard Gert, James A. Martin & P. T. Geach (1973). Outcomes and Abilities. Analysis 33 (6):188 - 192.
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  14.  32 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1995). Moral Impartiality. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 20 (1):102-128.
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  15.  31 DLs
    Bernard Gert & Charles M. Culver (1979). The Justification of Paternalism. Ethics 89 (2):199-210.
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  16.  31 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1999). Common Morality and Computing. Ethics and Information Technology 1 (1):53-60.
    This article shows how common morality can be helpful in clarifying the discussion of ethical issues that arise in computing. Since common morality does not always provide unique answers to moral questions, not all such issues can be resolved, however common morality does provide a clear answer to the question whether one can illegally copy software for a friend.
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  17.  27 DLs
    Bernard Gert & Charles M. Culver (1976). Paternalistic Behavior. Philosophy and Public Affairs 6 (1):45-57.
  18.  27 DLs
    John W. Hennessey & Bernard Gert (1985). Moral Rules and Moral Ideals: A Useful Distinction in Business and Professional Practice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 4 (2):105 - 115.
    The distinction between moral rules and moral ideals is presented and explained in various ways. The authors propose that people in business are required to obey the moral rules and have a choice with respect to ideals. Thus, they are not in a different position from that of anyone else in society.Four case studies are presented and discussed. The analytical approaches used by the authors' students are summarized and evaluated. The moral rules/ideals paradigm is described as helping discussants of the (...)
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  19.  26 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1965). Imagination and Verifiability. Philosophical Studies 16 (3):44-47.
  20.  26 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2005). Moral Arrogance and Moral Theories. Philosophical Issues 15 (1):368–385.
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  21.  22 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2006). Bioethics: A Systematic Approach. Oxford University Press.
    This book is the result of over 30 years of collaboration among its authors. It uses the systematic account of our common morality developed by one of its authors to provide a useful foundation for dealing with the moral problems and disputes that occur in the practice of medicine. The analyses of impartiality, rationality, and of morality as a public system not only explain why some bioethical questions, such as the moral acceptability of abortion, cannot be resolved, but also provide (...)
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  22.  21 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1967). Can a Brain Have a Pain? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 27 (March):432-436.
  23.  19 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1988). The Law of Nature as the Moral Law. Hobbes Studies 1 (1):26-44.
    Although Hobbes talks about the laws of nature as prescribing the virtues, it is easier to think of them as proscribing the vices. The nine vices that are proscribed by the laws of nature are injustice, ingratitude, greed or inhumanity, vindictiveness , cruelty, incivility or contumely, pride, arrogance, and unfairness . The corresponding virtues that are prescribed by the laws of nature are justice, gratitude, humanity or complaisance, mercy, , civility, humility, , modesty, and equity. The difficulty of coming up (...)
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  24.  18 DLs
    Bernard M. Gert (1991). Genetic Disorders and the Ethical Status of Germ-Line Gene Therapy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 16 (6):667-683.
    Recombinant DNA technology will soon allow physicians an opportunity to carry out both somatic cell- and Germ-Line gene therapy. While somatic cell gene therapy raises no new ethical problems, gene therapy of gametes, fertilized eggs or early embryos does raise several novel concerns. The first issue discussed here relates to making a distinction between negative and positive eugenics; the second issue deals with the evolutionary consequences of lost genetic diversity. In distinguishing between positive and negative eugenics, the concept of malady (...)
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  25.  18 DLs
    Stephen D. Mallary, Bernard Gert & Charles M. Culver (1986). Family Coercion and Valid Consent. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 7 (2).
    Coercion is commonly said to invalidate consent, and that is always true if the source of the coercion is the physician. However, if it is a family member who coerces the patient to consent, the resultant consent may be quite valid and treatment should proceed.
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  26.  17 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1999). Acting Irrationally Versus Acting Contrary to What is Required by Reason. Journal of Social Philosophy 30 (3):379–386.
  27.  17 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1998). Virtues and Moral Rules — a Reply. Philosophia 26 (3-4):489-494.
    In his article, Are Virtues No More than Dispositions to Obey Moral Rules (Philosophia, Vol. 20, Nos. 1-2 (July 1990), pp. 195-207), Walter E. Schaller lists three theses that he characterizes as the Standard View of the connection between the virtues and the moral rules and criticizes me for holding two of them. I show that this claim ignores my distinction between moral rules and moral ideals and involves a widespread misunderstanding of what is meant by moral rules.
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  28.  16 DLs
    Bernard Gert & James A. Martin (1973). 'What a Man Does He Can Do'? Analysis 33 (5):168 - 173.
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  29.  16 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2006). A Reply to Carson Strong. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (2):195-197.
    : Carson Strong's reply to my response to his article demonstrates what happens when there is unacknowledged disagreement about the facts of a case or about the meaning of the terms used to describe those facts. I hope that our dialogue will help reduce this disagreement.
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  30.  15 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2006). Making the Morally Relevant Features Explicit: A Response to Carson Strong. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (1):59-71.
    : Carson Strong criticizes the application of my moral theory to bioethics cases. Some of his criticisms are due to my failure to make explicit that both the irrationality or rationality of a decision and the irrationality or rationality of the ranking of evils are part of morally relevant feature 3. Other criticisms are the result of his not using the two-step procedure in a sufficiently rigorous way. His claim that I come up with a wrong answer depends upon his (...)
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  31.  15 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1990). Rationality, Human Nature, and Lists. Ethics 100 (2):279-300.
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  32.  15 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2001). Précis of Morality: Its Nature and Justification. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 62 (2):421–426.
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  33.  14 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2006). Response to Wade Robison. Teaching Ethics 7 (1):101-105.
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  34.  13 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1988). Morality: A New Justification of the Moral Rules. Oxford University Press.
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  35.  13 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2001). Hobbes on Language, Metaphysics, and Epistemology. Hobbes Studies 14 (1):40-58.
  36.  13 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1989). Book Review:Desert. George Sher. [REVIEW] Ethics 99 (2):426-.
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  37.  12 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1971). Personal Identity and the Body. Dialogue 10 (3):458-478.
  38.  12 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1997). Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals. Oxford University Press.
    An updated and expanded successor to Culver and Gert's Philosophy in Medicine, this book integrates moral philosophy with clinical medicine to present a comprehensive summary of the theory, concepts, and lines of reasoning underlying the ...
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  39.  12 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1993). Defending Irrationality and Lists. Ethics 103 (2):329-336.
  40.  12 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1992). Morality, Moral Theory, and Applied and Professional Ethics. Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 1 (1-2):5-24.
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  41.  12 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1979). Hobbes's Account of Reason. Journal of Philosophy 76 (10):559-561.
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  42.  12 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2011). The Usefulness of a Comprehensive Systematic Moral Theory. Teaching Ethics 12 (1):25-38.
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  43.  10 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2008). Review of Quentin Skinner, Hobbes and Republican Liberty. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (7).
  44.  10 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1989). Psychological Terms and Criteria. Synthese 80 (2):201-222.
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  45.  10 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2004). Comments on Cahn's "the Happy Immoralist". Journal of Social Philosophy 35 (1):18–19.
  46.  10 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1999). Morally Relevant Features. Metaphilosophy 30 (1&2):13-24.
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  47.  9 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2001). Avoiding Moral Cynicism. Teaching Ethics 1 (1):1-17.
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  48.  8 DLs
    Bernard Gert (2007). Reply to Julia Driver, Timm Triplett, and Kathleen Wallace. Metaphilosophy 38 (4):404-419.
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  49.  8 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1984). Moral Theory and Applied Ethics. The Monist 67 (4):532-548.
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  50.  8 DLs
    Bernard Gert (1970). The Moral Rules. New York,Harper & Row.
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