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Profile: Ingar Brinck (Lund University)
  1.  13
    Ingar Brinck, Developing an Understanding of Social Norms and Games : Emotional Engagement, Nonverbal Agreement, and Conversation.
    The first part of the article examines some recent studies on the early development of social norms that examine young children’s understanding of codified rule games. It is argued that the constitutive rules than define the games cannot be identified with social norms and therefore the studies provide limited evidence about socio-normative development. The second part reviews data on children’s play in natural settings that show that children do not understand norms as codified or rules of obligation, and that the (...)
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  2.  23
    Ingar Brinck, Vasu Reddy & Dan Zahavi, The Primacy of the We?
    How should we conceive of the foundations of sociality? A much debated question concerns whether it is concrete interpersonal encounters or the existence of a primitive plural self, a we, which constitutes the basis for joint action and intending together. A related question concerns whether intersubjectivity or the sharing of a common world is more fundamental for making sense of the notions of joint agency and collective intentionality. In other words, to use locutions employed by classical phenomenologists, is ‘being-for-others’ or (...)
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  3.  14
    Ingar Brinck, Vasudevi Reddy & Dan Zahavi, The Primacy of the We?
    The question of the relation between the collective and the individual has had a long but patchy history within both philosophy and psychology. In this chapter we consider some arguments that could be adopted for the primacy of the we, and examine their conceptual and empirical implications. We argue that the we needs to be seen as a developing and dynamic identity, not as something that exists fully fledged from the start. The concept of we thus needs more nuanced and (...)
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  4.  15
    Ingar Brinck, Investigating the Development of Creativity : The Sahlin Hypothesis.
    How should the development of creativity be approached? Many accounts of children’s creativity focus on the relation between creativity and pretend play, placing make-believe and the mental exploration of possible scenarios about the world at the fore. Often divergent thinking and story-telling are used to measure creativity with fluency, originality, and flexibility as indicators. I will argue that the strong focus on conceptual processes and higher-order thought leaves procedural forms of creativity in the dark and hinders a proper investigation of (...)
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  5. Gustaf Arrhenius, Ingar Brinck, Kathrin Glüer-Pagin, Lena Halldenius, Anna-Sofia Maurin, Folke Tersman & Åsa Wikforss (2011). To the Editor of Theoria. Theoria 77 (3):198-198.
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  6.  4
    Ingar Brinck (2015). Understanding Social Norms and Constitutive Rules: Perspectives From Developmental Psychology and Philosophy. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (4):699-718.
    An experimental paradigm that purports to test young children’s understanding of social norms is examined. The paradigm models norms on Searle’s notion of a constitutive rule. The experiments and the reasons provided for their design are discussed. It is argued that the experiments do not provide direct evidence about the development of social norms and that the concepts of a social norm and constitutive rule are distinct. The experimental data are re-interpreted, and suggestions for how to deal with the present (...)
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  7.  38
    Ingar Brinck & Peter Gärdenfors (2003). Co–Operation and Communication in Apes and Humans. Mind and Language 18 (5):484–501.
    We trace the difference between the ways in which apes and humans co–operate to differences in communicative abilities, claiming that the pressure for future–directed co–operation was a major force behind the evolution of language. Competitive co–operation concerns goals that are present in the environment and have stable values. It relies on either signalling or joint attention. Future–directed co–operation concerns new goals that lack fixed values. It requires symbolic communication and context–independent representations of means and goals. We analyse these ways of (...)
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  8.  18
    Ingar Brinck (2001). Attention and the Evolution of Intentional Communication. Pragmatics and Cognition 9 (2):259-277.
    Intentional communication is perceptually based and about attentional objects. Three attention mechanisms are distinguished: scanning, attention attraction, and attention-focusing. Attention-focusing directs the subject towards attentional objects. Attention-focusing is goal-governed (controlled by stimulus) or goal-intended (under the control of the subject). Attentional objects are perceptually categorised functional entities that emerge in the interaction between subjects and environment. Joint attention allows for focusing on the same attentional object simultaneously (mutual object-focused attention), provided that the subjects have focused on each other beforehand (subject-subject (...)
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  9.  16
    Ingar Brinck, Göran Hermerén, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin, Why Metaphysicians Do Not Explain.
    The paper discusses the concept of explanation in metaphysics. Different types of explanation are identified and explored. Scientific explanation is compared with metaphysical explanation. The comparison illustrates the difficulties with applying the concept of explanation in metaphysics.
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  10.  27
    Ingar Brinck (1998). Self-Identification and Self-Reference. Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 6.
    [1] To know who one is, and also know whether one's experiences really belong to oneself, do not normally present any problem. It nevertheless happens that people do not recognise themselves as they walk by a mirror or do not understand that they fit some particular description. But there are situations in which it really seems impossible to be wrong about oneself. Of that, Ludwig Wittgenstein once wrote: " It is possible that, say in an accident, I should feel pain (...)
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  11.  69
    Ingar Brinck (1999). Nonconceptual Content and the Distinction Between Implicit and Explicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):760-761.
    The notion of nonconceptual content in Dienes & Perner's theory is examined. A subject may be in a state with nonconceptual content without having the concepts that would be used to describe the state. Nonconceptual content does not seem to be a clear-cut case of either implicit or explicit knowledge. It underlies a kind of practical knowledge, which is not reducible to procedural knowledge, but is accessible to the subject and under voluntary control.
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  12.  55
    Ingar Brinck & G. (1999). Representation and Self-Awareness in Intentional Agents. Synthese 118 (1):89-104.
    Several conditions for being an intrinsically intentional agent are put forward. On a first level of intentionality the agent has representations. Two kinds are described: cued and detached. An agent with both kinds is able to represent both what is prompted by the context and what is absent from it. An intermediate level of intentionality is achieved by having an inner world, that is, a coherent system of detached representations that model the world. The inner world is used, e.g., for (...)
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  13.  46
    Ingar Brinck (2004). Joint Attention, Triangulation and Radical Interpretation: A Problem and its Solution. Dialectica 58 (2):179–206.
    By describing the aim of triangulation as locating the object of thoughts and utterances, Davidson has given it the double role of accounting for both the individuation of content and the sense in which content necessarily is public. The focus of this article is on how triangulation may contribute to the individuation of content. I maintain that triangulation may serve to break into the intentional circle of meaning and belief, yet without forcing us to renounce the claims concerning the interdependence (...)
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  14.  9
    Ingar Brinck (1999). Procedures and Strategies: Context-Dependence in Creativity. Philosophica 64 (2):33-47.
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  15.  8
    Ingar Brinck (2007). Situated Cognition, Dynamic Systems, and Art: On Artistic Creativity and Aesthetic Experience. Janus Head 9 (2):407-431.
    It is argued that the theory of situated cognition together with dynamic systems theory can explain the core of artistic practice and aesthetic experience, and furthermore paves the way for an account of how artist and audience can meet via the artist’s work. The production and consumption of art is an embodied practice, firmly based in perception and action, and supported by features of the local, agent-centered and global, socio-cultural contexts. Artistic creativity and aesthetic experience equally result from the dynamic (...)
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  16.  24
    Martin L. Jönsson & Ingar Brinck (2005). Compositionality and Other Issues in the Philosophy of Mind and Language An Interview with Jerry Fodor. Theoria 71 (4):294-308.
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  17.  25
    Anna-Sofia Maurin & Ingar Brinck (2005). Revisionary Metaphysics An Interview with D. M. Armstrong. Theoria 71 (1):3-19.
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  18.  6
    Ingar Brinck (2008). The Role of Intersubjectivity for the Development of Intentional Communication. In J. Zlatev, T. Racine, C. Sinha & E. Itkonen (eds.), The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity. John Benjamins 115--140.
    The present account explains (i) which elements of nonverbal reference are intersubjective, (ii) what major effects intersubjectivity has on the general development of intentional communication and at what stages, and (iii) how intersubjectivity contributes to triggering the general capacity for nonverbal reference in the second year of life. First, intersubjectivity is analysed in terms of a sharing of experiences that is either mutual or individual, and either dyadic or triadic. Then it is shown that nonverbal reference presupposes intersubjectivity in communicative (...)
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  19.  2
    Ingar Brinck (2001). Attention and the Evolution of Intentional Communication. Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 9 (2):259-277.
    Intentional communication is perceptually based and about attentional objects. Three attention mechanisms are distinguished: scanning, attention attraction, and attention-focusing. Attention-focusing directs the subject towards attentional objects. Attention-focusing is goal-governed or goal-intended. Attentional objects are perceptually categorised functional entities that emerge in the interaction between subjects and environment. Joint attention allows for focusing on the same attentional object simultaneously, provided that the subjects have focused on each other beforehand. It results in intentional communication if the subjects attend to each other as (...)
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  20.  6
    Ingar Brinck & Peter Gärdenfors (1999). Representation and Self-Awareness in Intentional Agents. Synthese 118 (1):89 - 104.
    Several conditions for being an intrinsically intentional agent are put forward. On a first level of intentionality the agent has representations. Two kinds are described: cued and detached. An agent with both kinds is able to represent both what is prompted by the context and what is absent from it. An intermediate level of intentionality is achieved by having an inner world, that is, a coherent system of detached representations that model the world. The inner world is used, e.g., for (...)
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  21.  3
    Ingar Brinck, Review of Campbell: Reference and Consciousness. [REVIEW]
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  22.  21
    Ingar Brinck (2000). José Luis Bermúdez, the Paradox of Self-Consciousness. Theoria 66 (3):299-306.
  23.  7
    Ingar Brinck (2003). Review of Time and Memory: Hoerl and McCormack. [REVIEW] Theoria 69 (3):249-253.
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  24.  4
    Ingar Brinck (2003). Evaluation and Testing in Creativity. In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers 331--344.
    In situations that require creative thinking, there is no well-known procedure for how to reach the goal, or the solution. Among other things, it is not clear how choices between outcomes are made, or when the search for a solution should terminate. The article focusses on the evaluation of solutions that are generated during the search. The general question concerns the standards according to which evaluation is made. Are they at all similar to those that are used in normal problem-solving? (...)
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  25.  24
    Ingar Brinck (2003). The Objects of Attention: Causes and Targets. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):287-288.
    The objects of attention can be located anywhere along the causal link from the source of stimuli to the final output of the vision system. As causes, they attract and control attention, and as products, they constitute targets of analysis and explicit comments. Stimulus-driven indexing creates pointers that support fast and frugal cognition.
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  26.  5
    Ingar Brinck (2001). Review of Fred Dretske's Perception, Knowledge and Belief. [REVIEW] Theoria 67 (3):264-267.
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  27.  1
    Ingar Brinck, From Intuition to Insight.
    The article discusses the role of intuition for insight. Creativity provides heuristic solutions to problems that are intractable if approached in standard, algorithmic ways. Intuition is claimed to occur during the incubation phase and to crucially depend on embodied memory and unconscious processing of memories, such as reconstruction and recreation. Two suggestions as to how memory contributes to intuition, and by which processes are analysed and compared: Barsalou & Prinz’ and Langley & Jones’.
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  28.  1
    Ingar Brinck, Metaphor, Similarity and Semantics Fields.
    A variant of the compatrison theory of metaphor is put forward. The main points are a theory of metaphor belongs to semantics, not pragmatics, a metaphorical statement is a similarity statement, usually comparing descriptions of objects, a metaphor is a constellation of words connected by a certain kind of relation - the metaphorical link, metaphors are not necessarily asymmetric, what expressions copunt as metaphors in a certain language has to do with the semantic fields of the language in question.
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  29.  2
    Ingar Brinck (1997). The Indexical 'I' the First Person in Thought and Language.
    The subjct of this book is the first person in thought and language. The main question is what we mean when we say 'I'. Related to it are questions about what kinds of self-consciousness and self-knowledge are needed in order for us to have the capacity to talk about ourselves. The emphasis is on theories of meaning and reference for 'I', but a fair amount of space is devoted to 'I'-thoughts and the role of the concept of the self in (...)
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  30. Ingar Brinck, Avoiding the Prisoner's Dilemma? Reply to Hurley.
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  31. Ingar Brinck, Contexts of Language Diversity.
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  32. Ingar Brinck (2005). Critical Review of John Campbell: Reference and Consciousness. Theoria 3:266-276.
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  33. Ingar Brinck, Declarative Pointing and Theory of Mind. Comment on Diesendruck.
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  34. Ingar Brinck, Grasping Social Intentions. Comment on Jacob & Jeannerod.
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  35. Ingar Brinck (1995). Indexikal kunskap och social mening: om ordet ’jag’. Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 4.
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  36. Ingar Brinck (2000). Om ickebegreppsligt innehåll hos perceptuella tillstånd. Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 4.
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  37. Ingar Brinck (2000). Review. [REVIEW] Theoria 66 (3):299-306.
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  38. Ingar Brinck & Rikard Liljenfors, Reply to Commentaries.
    In our response, we address four themes arising from the commentaries. First, we discuss the distinction between cognition and metacognition and show how to draw it within our framework. Next, we explain how metacognition differs from social cognition. The underlying mechanisms of metacognitive development are then elucidated in terms of interaction patterns. Finally, we consider measures of metacognition and suitable methods for investigating it.
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  39. Ingar Brinck, Simulating Different Kinds of Action. Reply to Alvin Goldman.
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  40. Ingar Brinck, Simulation of Individual and Social Action. Reply to Hurley.
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  41. Ingar Brinck & Rikard Liljenfors, The Developmental Origin of Metacognition.
    We explain metacognition as a management of cognitive resources that does not necessitate algorithmic strategies or metarepresentation. When pragmatic, world-directed actions cannot reduce the distance to the goal, agents engage in epistemic action directed at cognition. Such actions often are physical and involve other people, and so are open to observation. Taking a dynamic systems approach to development, we suggest that implicit and perceptual metacognition emerges from dyadic reciprocal interaction. Early intersubjectivity allows infants to internalize and construct rudimentary strategies for (...)
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  42. Ingar Brinck, The Gist of Creativity.
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