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  1.  3
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1991). Risk and Rationality. University of California Press.
    Who is right? In Risk and Rationality, Kristin Shrader-Frechette argues that neither charges of irresponsible endangerment nor countercharges of scientific illiteracy frame the issues properly.
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  2. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2005). Environmental Justice: Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy. OUP Usa.
    A leading international expert on environmental issues, Shrader-Frechette brings a new standard of rigor to philosophical discussions of environmental justice in her latest work. Observing that environmental activists often value environmental concerns over basic human rights, she points out the importance of recognising that minority groups and the poor in general are frequently the biggest victims of environmental degradation, a phenomenon with serious social and political implications that the environmental movement has failed to adequately address. She argues for their equal (...)
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  3.  25
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2007). Nanotoxicology and Ethical Conditions for Informed Consent. NanoEthics 1 (1):47-56.
    While their strength, electrical, optical, or magnetic properties are expected to contribute a trillion dollars in global commerce before 2015, nanomaterials also appear to pose threats to human health and safety. Nanotoxicology is the study of these threats. Do nanomaterial benefits exceed their risks? Should all nanomaterials be regulated? Currently nanotoxicologists cannot help answer these questions because too little is known about nanomaterials, because their properties differ from those of bulk materials having the same chemical composition, and because they differ (...)
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  4.  15
    Naomi Oreskes, Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Kenneth Belitz (1994). Verification, Validation, and Confirmation of Numerical Models in the Earth Sciences. Science 263 (5147):641-646.
    Verification and validation of numerical models of natural systems is impossible. This is because natural systems are never closed and because model results are always nonunique. Models can be confirmed by the demonstration of agreement between observation and prediction, but confirmation is inherently partial. Complete confirmation is logically precluded by the fallacy of affirming the consequent and by incomplete access to natural phenomena. Models can only be evaluated in relative terms, and their predictive value is always open to question. The (...)
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  5.  23
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1993). Method in Ecology: Strategies for Conservation. Cambridge University Press.
    In this volume, the authors discuss what practical contributions ecology can and can't make in applied science and environmental problem solving. In the first section, they discuss conceptual problems that have often prevented the formulation and evaluation of powerful, precise, general theories, explain why island biogeography is still beset with controversy and examine the ways that science is value laden. In the second section, they describe how ecology can give us specific answers to practical environmental questions posed in individual case (...)
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  6.  23
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2011). What Will Work: Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power. OUP Usa.
    What Will Work makes a rigorous and compelling case that energy efficiencies and renewable energy-and not nuclear fission or "clean coal"-are the most effective, cheapest, and equitable solutions to the pressing problem of climate change.
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  7. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2007). Taking Action, Saving Lives: Our Duties to Protect Environmental and Public Health. OUP Usa.
    In this book Shrader-Frechette reveals how politicians, campaign contributors, and lobbyists--and their power over media, advertising, and public relations--have conspired to cover up environmental disease and death.
     
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  8.  3
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1996). Ethics of Scientific Research. Noûs 30 (1):133-143.
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  9.  28
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Measurement Problems and Florida Panther Models.
    Conservation planning is only as good as the science on which it relies. This paper evaluates the science underlying the least-cost-path model, developed by Meegan and Maehr (2002) , for the Florida panther, Puma concolor coryi. It also assesses the resulting claim that private lands in central Florida are desirable for panther colonization (Maehr et al. 2002a , p. 187; Maehr 2001 , pp. 3–4; Maehr and Deason 2002 , p. 400). The paper argues that panther conservation planning, as proposed (...)
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  10.  45
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2013). Answering "Scientific" Attacks on Ethical Imperatives: Wind and Solar Versus Nuclear Solutions to Climate Change. Ethics and the Environment 18 (1):1-17.
    Scientists and engineers often are not much interested in theoretical-ethics discussions. Frequently, like Harvard’s Cass Sunstein (2002), they propose “freemarket environmentalism,” basing environmental decisions on cost-benefit analysis and on saving the greatest number of lives for the fewest number of dollars. They say that when society overregulates, by emotively and irrationally rejecting environmental-risk decisions based only on cost-benefit analysis (CBA), it reduces manufacturing jobs, shrinks the economic pie, makes people poorer, and thus causes unnecessary deaths. To avoid these economic problems—that (...)
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  11.  16
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2008). Statistical Significance in Biology: Neither Necessary nor Sufficient for Hypothesis Acceptance. Biological Theory 3 (1):12-16.
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  12.  55
    Kristin Sharon Shrader-Frechette (2009). Data Trimming, Nuclear Emissions, and Climate Change. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):19-23.
    Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is “carbon free” and “releases no greenhouse gases.” However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They (...)
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  13. K. Shrader-Frechette (2013). Sandra D. Mitchell Unsimple Truths: Science, Complexity, and Policy. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (2):449-453.
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  14. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2011). What Will Work: Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power. Oxford University Press Usa.
    What Will Work makes a rigorous and compelling case that energy efficiencies and renewable energy -- and not nuclear fission or "clean coal" -- are the most effective, cheapest, and equitable solutions to the pressing problem of climate change. Kristin Shrader-Frechette, a respected environmental ethicist and scientist, makes a damning case that the only reason that debate about climate change continues is because fossil-fuel interests pay non-experts to confuse the public. She then builds a comprehensive case against the argument made (...)
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  15.  28
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Evidentiary Standards and Animal Data.
    Those who wish to deny some instance of environmental injustice often attempt to place inappropriate evidentiary burdens on scientists who show disproportionate pollution effects on vulnerable populations. One such evidentiary standard is the epidemiological-evidence rule (EER). According to EER, legitimate causal inferences about pollution-related harm (and actions to reduce probable environmental injustice) require human-epidemiological data, not merely good animal or laboratory data. This article summarizes the grounds for supporting EER, evaluates central scientific problems with EER, assesses key ethical difficulties with (...)
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  16.  57
    John Lemons, Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Carl Cranor (1997). The Precautionary Principle: Scientific Uncertainty and Type I and Type II Errors. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 2 (2):207-236.
    We provide examples of the extent and nature of environmental and human health problems and show why in the United States prevailing scientific and legal burden of proof requirements usually cannot be met because of the pervasiveness of scientific uncertainty. We also provide examples of how may assumptions, judgments, evaluations, and inferences in scientific methods are value-laden and that when this is not recognized results of studies will appear to be more factual and value-neutral than warranted. Further, we show that (...)
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  17. Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Earl D. Mccoy (1994). Applied Ecology and the Logic of Case Studies. Philosophy of Science 61 (2):228-249.
    Because of the problems associated with ecological concepts, generalizations, and proposed general theories, applied ecology may require a new "logic" of explanation characterized neither by the traditional accounts of confirmation nor by the logic of discovery. Building on the works of Grunbaum, Kuhn, and Wittgenstein, we use detailed descriptions from research on conserving the Northern Spotted Owl, a case typical of problem solving in applied ecology, to (1) characterize the method of case studies; (2) survey its strengths; (3) summarize and (...)
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  18.  22
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1996). Individualism, Holism, and Environmental Ethics. Ethics and the Environment 1 (1):55 - 69.
    Neoclassical economists have been telling us for years that if we behave in egoistic, individualistic ways, the invisible hand of the market will guide us to efficient and sustainable futures. Many contemporary Greens also have been assuring us that if we behave in holistic ways, the invisible hand of ecology will guide us to health and sustainable futures. This essay argues that neither individualism nor holism will provide environmental sustainability. There is no invisible hand, either in economics or in ecology. (...)
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  19.  11
    K. Shrader-Frechette (1977). Atomism in Crisis: An Analysis of the Current High Energy Paradigm. Philosophy of Science 44 (3):409-440.
    Since the appearance of T. S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, scholars from various fields have sought to evaluate their disciplines in the light of Kuhnian criteria for scientific change. In this paper I argue that a new paradigm seems needed in high energy physics, and that there is no more reason to say that matter is made of elementary particles, than to say that it is not. My argument, that high energy physics is approaching a state of crisis, (...)
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  20.  45
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2010). Conceptual Analysis and Special-Interest Science: Toxicology and the Case of Edward Calabrese. Synthese 177 (3):449 - 469.
    One way to do socially relevant investigations of science is through conceptual analysis of scientific terms used in special-interest science (SIS). SIS is science having welfare-related consequences and funded by special interests, e.g., tobacco companies, in order to establish predetermined conclusions. For instance, because the chemical industry seeks deregulation of toxic emissions and avoiding costly cleanups, it funds SIS that supports the concept of "hormesis" (according to which low doses of toxins/carcinogens have beneficial effects). Analyzing the hormesis concept of its (...)
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  21. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2001). Radiobiological Hormesis, Methodological Value Judgments, and Metascience. Perspectives on Science 8 (4):367-379.
    Scientists are divided on the status of hypothesis H that low doses of ionizing radiation (under 20 rads) cause hormetic (or non-harmful) effects. Military and industrial scientist s tend to accept H, while medical and environmental scientists tend to reject it. Proponents of the strong programme claim this debate shows that uncertain science can be clari ed only by greater attention to the social values in uencing it. While they are in part correct, this paper argues that methodological analyses (not (...)
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  22.  39
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2004). Comparativist Rationality And. Topoi 23 (2):153-163.
    US testing of nuclear weapons has resulted in about 800,000 premature fatal cancers throughout the globe, and the nuclear tests of China, France, India, Russia, and the UK have added to this total. Surprisingly, however, these avoidable deaths have not received much attention, as compared, for example, to the smaller number of US fatalities on 9-11-01. This essay (1) surveys the methods and models used to assess effects of low-dose ionizing radiation from above-ground nuclear weapons tests and (2) explains some (...)
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  23. Hussein M. Adam, Elizabeth Bell, Robert D. Bullard, Robert Melchior Figueroa, Clarice E. Gaylord, Segun Gbadegesin, R. J. A. Goodland, Howard McCurdy, Charles Mills, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Peter S. Wenz & Daniel C. Wigley (2001). Faces of Environmental Racism: Confronting Issues of Global Justice. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  24.  18
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette & Earl D. McCoy (1994). How the Tail Wags the Dog: How Value Judgments Determine Ecological Science. Environmental Values 3 (2):107-120.
    Philosophers, policymakers, and scientists have long asserted that ecological science – and especially notions of homeostasis, balance, or stability – help to determine environmental values and to supply imperatives for environmental ethics and policy. We argue that this assertion is questionable. There are no well developed general ecological theories having predictive power, and fundamental ecological concepts, such as 'community' and 'stability', are used in inconsistent and ambiguous ways. As a consequence, the contribution of ecology to environmental ethics and values lies (...)
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  25.  23
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2005). Mortgaging the Future: Dumping Ethics with Nuclear Waste. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (4):518-520.
    On August 22, 2005 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued proposed new regulations for radiation releases from the planned permanent U.S. nuclear-waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The goal of the new standards is to provide public-health protection for the next million years — even though everyone admits that the radioactive wastes will leak. Regulations now guarantee individual and equal protection against all radiation exposures above the legal limit. Instead E.P.A. recommended different radiation exposure-limits for different time periods. It also (...)
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  26.  51
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Quark Quantum Numbers and the Problem of Microphysical Observation. Synthese 50 (1):125 - 145.
    The main question addressed in this essay is whether quarks have been observed in any sense and, if so, what might be meant by this use of the term, observation. In the first (or introductory) section of the paper, I explain that well-known researchers are divided on the answers to these important questions. In the second section, I investigate microphysical observation in general. Here I argue that Wilson's analogy between observation by means of high-energy accelerators and observation by means of (...)
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  27.  11
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1993). Locke and Limits on Land Ownership. Journal of the History of Ideas 54 (2):201-19.
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  28.  73
    Daniel C. Wigley & Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1996). Environmental Justice: A Louisiana Case Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9 (1):61-82.
    The paper begins with a brief analysis of the concepts of environmental justice and environmental racism and classism. The authors argue that pollution- and environment-related decision-making is prima facie wrong whenever it results in inequitable treatment of individuals on the basis of race or socio-economic status. The essay next surveys the history of the doctrine of free informed consent and argues that the consent of those affected is necessary for ensuring the fairness of decision-making for siting hazardous facilities. The paper (...)
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  29. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1986). Science Policy, Ethics and Economic Methodology. Philosophical Review 95 (4):633-636.
  30.  3
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2005). Flawed Attacks on Contemporary Human Rights: Laudan, Sunstein, and the Cost-Benefit State. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 7 (1):92-110.
    After giving a brief account of human rights, the paper investigates five contemporary attacks on them. All of the attacks come from two contemporary proponents of the cost-benefit state, attorney Cass Sunstein and philosopher Larry Laudan. These attacks may be called, respectively, the rationality, objectivity, permission, voluntariness, and comparativism claims. Laudan's and Sunstein's rationality claim (RC) ist that only policy decisions passing cost-benefit tests are rational. Their objectivity presupposition (OP) is that only acute, deterministic threats to life are objective. Sunstein’s (...)
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  31.  32
    K. Shrader-Frechette, Ideological Toxicology: Invalid Logic, Science, Ethics About Low-Dose Pollution.
    If scientists rely on assumptions rather than logic, empirical confirmation, and falsification, they are no longer doing science but ideology – which is, by definition, unethical. As a recent US National Academy of Sciences report put it, “bad science is always unethical.”1 This article discusses several ways in which toxicologists can fall into ideology – bad, therefore unethical, science. In part because of the increasing expense of pollution control, some toxicologists have been reexamining pollution dose-response curves that are non-monotonic, that (...)
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  32.  44
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2000). Reductionist Philosophy of Technology. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 5 (1):21-28.
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  33.  28
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Consensus and the Visual Acuity of Quark Hunters — a Response. Synthese 50 (1):153 - 155.
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  34.  16
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Laura Westra (eds.) (1997). Technology and Values. Rowman & Littlefield.
    Technology and Values provides a highly useful collection of essays organized around issues related to science, technology, public health, economics, the environment, and ethical theory.
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  35.  5
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2004). Using Metascience to Improve Dose-Response Curves in Biology: Better Policy Through Better Science. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1026-1037.
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  36.  97
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (2000). Radiobiogical Hormesis, Methodological Value Judgments, and Metascience. Perspectives on Science 8 (4):367-379.
    : Scientists are divided on the status of hypothesis H that low doses of ionizing radiation (under 20 rads) cause hormetic (or non-harmful) effects. Military and industrial scientists tend to accept H, while medical and environmental scientists tend to reject it. Proponents of the strong programme claim this debate shows that uncertain science can be clarified only by greater attention to the social values in(integral)uencing it. While they are in part correct, this paper argues that methodological analyses (not merely attention (...)
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  37.  18
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2001). Non-Indigenous Species and Ecological Explanation. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):507-519.
    Within the last 20 years, the US has mounted amassive campaign against invasions bynon-indigenous species (NIS) such as zebramussels, kudzu, water hyacinths, and brown treesnakes. NIS have disrupted native ecosystemsand caused hundreds of billions of dollars ofannual damage. Many in the scientificcommunity say the problem of NIS is primarilypolitical and economic: getting governments toregulate powerful vested interests thatintroduce species through such vehicles asships' ballast water. This paper argues that,although politics and economics play a role,the problem is primarily one of scientificmethod. (...)
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  38.  38
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2005). Property Rights and Genetic Engineering: Developing Nations at Risk. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):137-149.
    Eighty percent of (commercial) genetically engineered seeds (GES) are designed only to resist herbicides. Letting farmers use more chemicals, they cut labor costs. But developing nations say GES cause food shortages, unemployment, resistant weeds, and extinction of native cultivars when “volunteers” drift nearby. While GES patents are reasonable, this paper argues many patent policies are not. The paper surveys GE technology, outlines John Locke’s classic account of property rights, and argues that current patent policies must be revised to take account (...)
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  39.  15
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2007). Relative Risk and Methodological Rules for Causal Inferences. Biological Theory 2 (4):332-336.
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  40.  27
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1991). Ethical Dilemmas and Radioactive Waste: A Survey of the Issues. Environmental Ethics 13 (4):327-343.
    The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chemobyl have slowed the development of commercial nuclear fission in most industrialized countries , although nuclear proponents are trying to develop smaller, allegedly “fail-safe” reactors. Regardless of whether or not they succeed, we will face the problem of radioactive wastes for the next million years. After a brief, “revisionist” history of the radwaste problem, Isurvey some of the major epistemological and ethical difficulties with storing nuclear wastes and outline four ethical dilemmas common to (...)
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  41. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1993). Consent and Nuclear Waste Disposal. Public Affairs Quarterly 7 (4):363-377.
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  42. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1988). Review of Harding, The Science Question in Feminism. [REVIEW] Synthese 76:444.
     
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  43.  18
    K. Shrader-Frechette (1975). Contemporary Moral Issues, Third Edition. Teaching Philosophy 1 (1):87-89.
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  44.  22
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1979). High-Energy Models and the Ontological Status of the Quark. Synthese 42 (1):173 - 189.
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  45.  10
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1997). Hydrogeology and Framing Questions Having Policy Consequences. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):160.
    Assessing the hydrogeological modeling at the Yucca Mountain and Maxey Flats nuclear repositories reveals a number of important ways in which theory choice can go wrong. The two cases suggest that there are at least six important criteria for evaluating the suitability of scientific models to be used for predictions intended to serve public policy. More generally, the paper argues that applied philosophy of science, as practiced in environmental policymaking, requires one to employ ethical rationality as well as scientific rationality, (...)
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  46.  26
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Comments on Cushing's Essay. Synthese 50 (1):103 - 108.
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  47.  35
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1985). Technological Risk and Small Probabilities. Journal of Business Ethics 4 (6):431 - 445.
    Many scientists, businessmen, and government regulators believe that the criteria for acceptable societal risk are too stringent. Those who subscribe to this belief often accept the view which I call the probability-threshold position. Proponents of this stance maintain that society ought to ignore very small risks, i.e., those causing an average annual probability of fatality of less than 10–6.After examining the three major views in the risk-evaluation debate, viz., the probability-threshold position, the zero-risk position, and the weighted-risk position, I focus (...)
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  48.  24
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1979). Philosophy and Science. Teaching Philosophy 3 (2):260-262.
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  49.  24
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1980). The Scientific Imagination. Teaching Philosophy 3 (4):499-501.
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  50.  7
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2002). Natural Rights and Human Vulnerability: Aquinas, MacIntyre, and Rawls. Public Affairs Quarterly 16 (2):99-124.
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