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Profile: Zenon Pylyshyn (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
  1. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1984). Computation and Cognition. MIT Press.
  2. Jerry A. Fodor & Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1988). Connectionism and Cognitive Architecture. Cognition 28 (1-2):3-71.
    This paper explores the difference between Connectionist proposals for cognitive a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d t h e s o r t s o f m o d e l s t hat have traditionally been assum e d i n c o g n i t i v e s c i e n c e . W e c l a i m t h a t t h (...)
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  3.  42
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1980). Computation and Cognition: Issues in the Foundation of Cognitive Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):111-32.
    The computational view of mind rests on certain intuitions regarding the fundamental similarity between computation and cognition. We examine some of these intuitions and suggest that they derive from the fact that computers and human organisms are both physical systems whose behavior is correctly described as being governed by rules acting on symbolic representations. Some of the implications of this view are discussed. It is suggested that a fundamental hypothesis of this approach is that there is a natural domain of (...)
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  4. Zenon Pylyshyn, Tracking Multiple Independent Targets: Evidence for a Parallel Tracking Mechanism.
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  5.  4
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2003). Seeing and Visualizing: It's Not What You Think. A Bradford Book.
    How we see and how we visualize: why the scientific account differs from our experience.
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  6. Jerry A. Fodor & Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1981). How Direct is Visual Perception? Some Reflections on Gibson's 'Ecological Approach'. Cognition 9 (2):139-96.
    Examines the theses that the postulation of mental processing is unnecessary to account for our perceptual relationship with the world, see turvey etal. for a criticque.
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  7. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1999). Is Vision Continuous with Cognition? The Case for Cognitive Impenetrability of Visual Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):341-365.
    Although the study of visual perception has made more progress in the past 40 years than any other area of cognitive science, there remain major disagreements as to how closely vision is tied to general cognition. This paper sets out some of the arguments for both sides and defends the position that an important part of visual perception, which may be called early vision or just vision, is prohibited from accessing relevant expectations, knowledge and utilities - in other words it (...)
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  8. Brian J. Scholl & Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Tracking Multiple Items Through Occlusion: Clues to Visual Objecthood.
    In three experiments, subjects attempted to track multiple items as they moved independently and unpredictably about a display. Performance was not impaired when the items were briefly (but completely) occluded at various times during their motion, suggesting that occlusion is taken into account when computing enduring perceptual objecthood. Unimpaired performance required the presence of accretion and deletion cues along fixed contours at the occluding boundaries. Performance was impaired when items were present on the visual field at the same times and (...)
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  9.  62
    Zenon Pylyshyn (2004). Imagery. In R. L. Gregory (ed.), Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford University Press
    In Gregory, Richard. Oxford Companion to the Mind (Second Edition, 2006) Oxford University Press.
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  10.  2
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2007). Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World. The MIT Press.
    In "Things and Places," Zenon Pylyshyn argues that the process of incrementally constructing perceptual representations, solving the binding problem (determining which properties go together), and, more generally, grounding perceptual ...
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  11.  94
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2000). Is Vision Continuous with Cognition? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):341-365.
    Although the study of visual perception has made more progress in the past 40 years than any other area of cognitive science, there remain major disagreements as to how closely vision is tied to cognition. This target article sets out some of the arguments for both sides (arguments from computer vision, neuroscience, psychophysics, perceptual learning, and other areas of vision science) and defends the position that an important part of visual perception, corresponding to what some people have called early vision, (...)
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  12.  20
    Zenon Pylyshyn (1989). The Role of Location Indexes in Spatial Perception: A Sketch of the FINST Spatial-Index Model. Cognition 32 (1):65-97.
    Marr (1982) may have been one of the rst vision researchers to insist that in modeling vision it is important to separate the location of visual features from their type. He argued that in early stages of visual processing there must be “place tokens” that enable subsequent stages of the visual system to treat locations independent of what specic feature type was at that location. Thus, in certain respects a collinear array of diverse features could still be perceived as a (...)
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  13. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2003). Return of the Mental Image: Are There Really Pictures in the Brain? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):113-118.
    In the past decade there has been renewed interest in the study of mental imagery. Emboldened by new findings from neuroscience, many people have revived the idea that mental imagery involves a special format of thought, one that is pictorial in nature. But the evidence and the arguments that exposed deep conceptual and empirical problems in the picture theory over the past 300 years have not gone away. I argue that the new evidence from neural imaging and clinical neuropsychology does (...)
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  14. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2002). Mental Imagery: In Search of a Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):157-182.
    It is generally accepted that there is something special about reasoning by using mental images. The question of how it is special, however, has never been satisfactorily spelled out, despite more than thirty years of research in the post-behaviorist tradition. This article considers some of the general motivation for the assumption that entertaining mental images involves inspecting a picture-like object. It sets out a distinction between phenomena attributable to the nature of mind to what is called the cognitive architecture, and (...)
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  15. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2001). Visual Indexes, Preconceptual Objects, and Situated Vision. Cognition 80 (1-2):127-158.
    This paper argues that a theory of situated vision, suited for the dual purposes of object recognition and the control of action, will have to provide something more than a system that constructs a conceptual representation from visual stimuli: it will also need to provide a special kind of direct (preconceptual, unmediated) connection between elements of a visual representation and certain elements in the world. Like natural language demonstratives (such as `this' or `that') this direct connection allows entities to be (...)
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  16. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1973). What the Mind's Eye Tells the Mind's Brain: A Critique of Mental Imagery. Psychology Bulletin 80:1-24.
     
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  17.  62
    Harry Haladjian, Manish Singh, Zenon Pylyshyn & Randy Gallistel (2010). The Encoding of Spatial Information During Small-Set Enumeration. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society
    Using a novel enumeration task, we examined the encoding of spatial information during subitizing. Observers were shown masked presentations of randomly-placed discs on a screen and were required to mark the perceived locations of these discs on a subsequent blank screen. This provided a measure of recall for object locations and an indirect measure of display numerosity. Observers were tested on three stimulus durations and eight numerosities. Enumeration performance was high for displays containing up to six discs—a higher subitizing range (...)
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  18.  16
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1980). The ‘Causal Power’ of Machines. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):442.
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  19.  4
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1980). Cognitive Representation and the Process-Architecture Distinction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):154.
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  20.  19
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2000). Situating Vision in the World. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (5):197-207.
  21.  31
    Zenon Pylyshyn, Some Puzzling Findings in Multiple Object Tracking: I. Tracking Without Keeping Track of Object Identities.
    The task of tracking a small number (about four or five) visual targets within a larger set of identical items, each of which moves randomly and independently, has been used extensively to study object-based attention. Analysis of this multiple object tracking (MOT) task shows that it logically entails solving the correspondence problem for each target over time, and thus that the individuality of each of the targets must be tracked. This suggests that when successfully tracking objects, observers must also keep (...)
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  22. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1981). The Imagery Debate: Analog Media Vs. Tacit Knowledge. Psychological Review 88 (December):16-45.
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  23.  41
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (ed.) (1986). Meaning And Cognitive Structure: Issues In The Computational Theory Of Mind. Norwood: Ablex.
  24.  47
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (ed.) (1987). The Robot's Dilemma. Ablex.
  25.  46
    Zenon Pylyshyn, Perception, Representation and the World: The FINST That Binds.
    I recently discovered that work I was doing in the laboratory and in theoretical writings was implicitly taking a position on a set of questions that philosophers had been worrying about for much of the past 30 or more years. My clandestine involvement in philosophical issues began when a computer science colleague and I were trying to build a model of geometrical reasoning that would draw a diagram and notice things in the diagram as it drew it (Pylyshyn, Elcock, Marmor, (...)
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  26.  81
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1989). Computing and Cognitive Science. In Michael I. Posner (ed.), Foundations of Cognitive Science. MIT Press
    influence. One of the principal characteristics that distinguishes Cognitive Science from more traditional studies of cognition within Psychology, is the extent to which it has been influenced by both the ideas and the techniques of computing. It may come as a surprise to the outsider, then, to discover that there is no unanimity within the discipline on either (a) the nature (and in some cases the desireabilty) of the influence and (b) what computing is –- or at least on its.
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  27.  2
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1979). Do Mental Events Have Durations? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):277-278.
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  28.  26
    Zenon Pylyshyn (1994). Some Primitive Mechanisms of Spatial Attention. Cognition 50 (1-3):363-384.
  29.  80
    Ernest Lepore & Zenon Pylyshyn (eds.) (1999). What is Cognitive Science. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Written by an assembly of leading researchers in the field, this volume provides an innovative and non-technical introduction to cognitive science, and the key issues that animate the field.
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  30.  15
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1978). When is Attribution of Beliefs Justified? [P&W]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):592.
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  31.  18
    Zenon Pylyshyn, Some Puzzling Findings in Multiple Object Tracking (MOT): II. Inhibition of Moving Nontargets.
    We present three studies examining whether multiple-object tracking (MOT) benefits from the active inhibition of nontargets, as proposed in (Pylyshyn, 2004). Using a probedot technique, the first study showed poorer probe detection on nontargets than on either the targets being tracked or in the empty space between objects. The second study used a matching nontracking task to control for possible masking of probes, independent of target tracking. The third study examined how localized the inhibition is to individual nontargets. The result (...)
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  32.  22
    J. A. Fodor & Z. W. Pylyshyn (1981). How Direct is Visual Perception?: Some Reflections on Gibson's “Ecological Approach”. Cognition 9 (2):139-196.
    Establishment holds that thc psychological mechanism of inference is the ment psychological thcorizing. Moreover, given this conciliatory reading, transformation of mental representations, it follows that perception is in.
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  33.  23
    Zenon Pylyshyn, Franconeri, Lin, Fisher & Enns, Evidence Against a Speed Limit in Multiple Object Tracking.
    in press, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.
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  34.  11
    Z. W. Pylyshyn, Dynamics of Target Selection in Multiple Object Tracking (MOT).
    ��In four experiments we address the question whether several visual objects can be selected voluntarily (exogenously) and then tracked in a Multiple Object Tracking paradigm and, if so, whether the selection involves a different process. Experiment 1 showed that items can indeed be selected based on their labels. Experiment 2 showed that to select the complement set to a set that is automatically (exogenously) selected — e.g. to select all objects not flashed — observers require additional time and that given (...)
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  35.  67
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Rules and Representations: Chomsky and Representational Realism.
    called,_ Cognitive Science_ was to bring back scienti?c realism. This may strike you as a very odd claim, for one does not usually think of science as needing to be talked into scienti?c realism. Science is, after all, the study of reality by the most precise instruments of measurement and.
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  36. Zenon Pylyshyn, The Medium of Thought: Do We Think in Pictures, Words, Concepts, or What?
    People have always wondered how thinking takes place and what thoughts are constructed from. We typically experience our thoughts as involving pictorial (or sensory) contents or as being in words. Although this idea has been enshrined in psychology as the “dual code” theory of reasoning and memory, serious questions have been raised concerning this view. It appears that whatever the form of our thoughts it is unlikely that it is anything like our experience of them. But if thought is not (...)
     
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  37.  78
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2001). Connecting Vision with the World: Tracking the Missing Link. In Joao Branquinho (ed.), The Foundations of Cognitive Science. Oxford: Clarendon Press 183.
    You might reasonably surmise from the title of this paper that I will be discussing a theory of vision. After all, what is a theory of vision but a theory of how the world is connected to our visual representations? Theories of visual perception universally attempt to give an account of how a proximal stimulus (presumably a pattern impinging on the retina) can lead to a rich representation of a three dimensional world and thence to either the recognition of known (...)
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  38.  81
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Visual Indexes and Nonconceptual Reference.
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  39.  26
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2001). Seeing, Acting, and Knowing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):999-999.
    The target article proposes that visual experience arises when sensorimotor contingencies are exploited in perception. This novel analysis of visual experience fares no better than the other proposals that the article rightly dismisses, and for the same reasons. Extracting invariants may be needed for recognition, but it is neither necessary nor sufficient for having a visual experience. While the idea that vision involves the active extraction of sensorimotor invariants has merit, it does not replace the need for perceptual representations. Vision (...)
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  40. Zenon Pylyshyn (2002). Is the "Imagery Debate" Over? If so, What Was It About? In E. Dupoux, S. Dehane & L. Cohen (eds.), Cognition: A Critical Look. Advances, Questions and Controversies in Honor of J. Mehler. MIT Press
    Jacques Mehler was notoriously charitable in embracing a diversity of approaches to science and to the use of many different methodologies. One place where his ecumenism brought the two of us into disagreement is when the evidence of brain imaging was cited in support of different psychological doctrines, such as the picture-theory of mental imagery. Jacques remained steadfast in his faith in the ability of neuroscience data (where the main source of evidence has been from clinical neurology and neuro-imaging) to (...)
     
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  41.  53
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1987). What's in a Mind? Synthese 70 (January):97-122.
  42.  54
    Zenon Pylyshyn (1996). The Frame Problem Blues. Once More, with Feeling. In K. M. Ford & Z. W. Pylyshyn (eds.), The Robot's Dilemma Revisited: The Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence. Ablex
    For many of the authors in this volume, this is the second attempt to explore what McCarthy and Hayes (1969) first called the “Frame Problem”. Since the first compendium (Pylyshyn, 1987), nicely summarized here by Ronald Loui, there have been several conferences and books on the topic. Their goals range from providing a clarification of the problem by breaking it down into subproblems (and sometimes declaring the hard subproblems to not be the_ real_ Frame Problem), to providing formal “solutions” to (...)
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  43.  47
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1975). Minds, Machines and Phenomenology: Some Reflections on Dreyfus' What Computers Can't Do. Cognition 3 (1):57-77.
  44.  6
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1978). Computational Models and Empirical Constraints. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):98-128.
    It is argued that the traditional distinction between artificial intelligence and cognitive simulation amounts to little more than a difference in style of research - a different ordering in goal priorities and different methodological allegiances. Both enterprises are constrained by empirical considerations and both are directed at understanding classes of tasks that are defined by essentially psychological criteria. Because of the different ordering of priorities, however, they occasionally take somewhat different stands on such issues as the power/generality trade-off and on (...)
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  45.  21
    Zenon Pylyshyn (1999). Vision and Cognition: How Do They Connect? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):401-414.
    The target article claimed that although visual apprehension involves all of general cognition, a significant component of vision (referred to as early vision) works independently of cognition and yet is able to provide a surprisingly high level interpretation of visual inputs, roughly up to identifying general shape-classes. The commentators were largely sympathetic, but frequently disagreed on how to draw the boundary, on exactly what early vision delivers, on the role that attention plays, and on how to interpret the neurophysiological data (...)
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  46.  8
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2003). Explaining Mental Imagery: Now You See It, Now You Don't. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):111-112.
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  47.  5
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2001). Why the Mind is Not a Network. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (11):499.
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  48.  17
    Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Charles E. King & James E. Reilly, Selective Nontarget Inhibition in Multiple Object Tracking (MOT).
    We previously reported that in the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) task, which requires tracking several identical targets moving unpredictably among identical nontargets, the nontargets appear to be inhibited, as measured by a probe-dot detection method. The inhibition appears to be local to nontargets and does not extend to the space between objects – dropping off very rapidly away from targets and nontargets. In the present three experiments we show that (1) nontargets that are identical to targets but remain in a (...)
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  49.  27
    Zenon Pylyshyn, S Eeingand Visualizing: I T' S N Otwhaty Ou T Hink.
    6. Seeing With the Mind’s Eye 1: The Puzzle of Mental Imagery .................................................6-1 6.1 What is the puzzle about mental imagery?..............................................................................6-1 6.2 Content, form and substance of representations ......................................................................6-6 6.3 What is responsible for the pattern of results obtained in imagery studies?.................................6-8..
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  50. Ernest Lepore & Zenon Pylyshyn (eds.) (1999). What is Cognitive Science. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Written by an assembly of leading researchers in the field, this volume provides an innovative and non-technical introduction to cognitive science, and the key issues that animate the field.
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