Philosophy and Technology

ISSNs: 2210-5433, 2210-5441

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  1.  1
    Materiality Versus Metabolism in the Hybrid World: Towards a Dualist Concept of Materialism as Limit of Post-humanism in the Technical Era.Vincent Blok - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (60):1-22.
    The point of departure of this article is the trend towards hybridisation in new technology development, which makes classical dichotomies between machines, human life and the environment obsolete and leads to the post-human world we live in today. We critically reflect on the post-human concept of the hybrid world. Although we agree with post-humanists that human life can no longer be opposed to machines but appears as a decentralized human-technology relation, alliance or network that constitutes a hybrid world, we ask (...)
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  2. ChatGPT and the Technology-Education Tension: Applying Contextual Virtue Epistemology to a Cognitive Artifact.Guido Cassinadri - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (14):1-28.
    According to virtue epistemology, the main aim of education is the development of the cognitive character of students (Pritchard, 2014, 2016). Given the proliferation of technological tools such as ChatGPT and other LLMs for solving cognitive tasks, how should educational practices incorporate the use of such tools without undermining the cognitive character of students? Pritchard (2014, 2016) argues that it is possible to properly solve this ‘technology-education tension’ (TET) by combining the virtue epistemology framework with the theory of extended cognition (...)
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  3.  86
    Digital distraction, attention regulation, and inequality.Kaisa Kärki - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (8):1-21.
    In the popular and academic literature on the problems of the so-called attention economy, the cost of attention grabbing, sustaining, and immersing digital medias has been addressed as if it touched all people equally. In this paper I ask whether everyone has the same resources to respond to the recent changes in their stimulus environments caused by the attention economy. I argue that there are not only differences but disparities between people in their responses to the recent, significant increase in (...)
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  4. AI or Your Lying Eyes: Some Shortcomings of Artificially Intelligent Deepfake Detectors.Keith Raymond Harris - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (7):1-19.
    Deepfakes pose a multi-faceted threat to the acquisition of knowledge. It is widely hoped that technological solutions—in the form of artificially intelligent systems for detecting deepfakes—will help to address this threat. I argue that the prospects for purely technological solutions to the problem of deepfakes are dim. Especially given the evolving nature of the threat, technological solutions cannot be expected to prevent deception at the hands of deepfakes, or to preserve the authority of video footage. Moreover, the success of such (...)
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  5.  37
    The Age of the Intelligent Machine: Singularity, Efficiency, and Existential Peril.Alexander Amigud - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-20.
    Machine learning, and more broadly artificial intelligence (AI), is a fascinating technology and can be considered as the closest approximation to the Cartesian “thinking thing” that humans have ever created. Just as the industrial revolution required a new ethos, the age of intelligent machines will create its own, challenging the established moral, economic, and political presuppositions. This paper discusses the relationship between AI and society; it presents several thought experiments to explore the complexity of the relationship and highlights the insufficiency (...)
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  6.  16
    AI as Philosophical Ideology: A Critical look back at John McCarthy’s Program.Marc M. Anderson - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-24.
    AI has become the poster child for a certain kind of thinking which holds that some technologies can become objective, independent and emergent entities which can evolve beyond the control of their creators. This thinking is not new however. It is a product of certain philosophical ideas such as materialism, a common-sense world of objective and independent objects, a correspondence theory of truth, and so forth, which are centered around the pre-eminence of science, epistemology, and logical reasoning, among others, as (...)
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  7. Creativity and Style in GAN and AI Art: Some Art-historical Reflections.Jim Berryman - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-17.
    This paper explores the intersection of art history and AI technology. Special attention is paid to Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), a machine learning technology widely used in AI art. This technology is particularly interesting to art history and the philosophy of art because it raises enduring questions about the creative process of artmaking, especially what constitutes a new and original work of art. While this is a relatively new area, it is possible to discern emerging directions where art and AI (...)
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  8. Materiality Versus Metabolism in the Hybrid World: Towards a Dualist Concept of Materialism as Limit of Post-humanism in the Technical Era.Vincent Blok - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-22.
    The point of departure of this article is the trend towards hybridisation in new technology development, which makes classical dichotomies between machines, human life and the environment obsolete and leads to the post-human world we live in today. We critically reflect on the post-human concept of the hybrid world. Although we agree with post-humanists that human life can no longer be opposed to machines but appears as a decentralized human-technology relation, alliance or network that constitutes a hybrid world, we ask (...)
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  9.  1
    Quasi-Metacognitive Machines: Why We Don’t Need Morally Trustworthy AI and Communicating Reliability is Enough.John Dorsch & Ophelia Deroy - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-21.
    Many policies and ethical guidelines recommend developing “trustworthy AI”. We argue that developing morally trustworthy AI is not only unethical, as it promotes trust in an entity that cannot be trustworthy, but it is also unnecessary for optimal calibration. Instead, we show that reliability, exclusive of moral trust, entails the appropriate normative constraints that enable optimal calibration and mitigate the vulnerability that arises in high-stakes hybrid decision-making environments, without also demanding, as moral trust would, the anthropomorphization of AI and thus (...)
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  10.  43
    Comment on Article: ‘Authorship and Chat GPT’ (PHTE D 23 -00197).Elizabeth Fricker - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-5.
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  11.  2
    Not Ecological Enough: A Commentary on an Eco-Relational Approach in Robot Ethics.Joshua C. Gellers - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-6.
    This Commentary offers a critique of an eco-relational approach in robot ethics, highlighting the importance of articulating an ecologically-sensitive ethical orientation that incorporates the entire more-than-human world, including technological entities like forms of artificial intelligence. While the eco-relational approach enhances our understanding of the complex way in which morally significant properties operate on a phenomenological level, it is not without its flaws. In particular, this perspective focuses on ethical concepts when it needs to be rooted in ethical systems, misrepresents the (...)
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  12. Griefbots, Deadbots, Postmortem Avatars: on Responsible Applications of Generative AI in the Digital Afterlife Industry.Tomasz Hollanek & Katarzyna Nowaczyk-Basińska - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-22.
    To analyze potential negative consequences of adopting generative AI solutions in the digital afterlife industry (DAI), in this paper we present three speculative design scenarios for AI-enabled simulation of the deceased. We highlight the perspectives of the data donor, data recipient, and service interactant – terms we employ to denote those whose data is used to create ‘deadbots,’ those in possession of the donor’s data after their death, and those who are meant to interact with the end product. We draw (...)
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  13.  4
    Extremely Relational Robots: Implications for Law and Ethics.Nancy S. Jecker - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-6.
    This Commentary critiques an extremely relational view of robot moral status, drawing out its practical implications for ethics and law. It also suggests next steps for AI ethics if extremely relational reasoning is compelling. Section I introduces the topic, distinguishing an ‘extremely relational’ view from more moderate relational views. Section II illustrates extremely relational views using the example of embodiment. Section III explores practical implications of extremely relational views for ethics and law. Section IV offers possible responses to extreme relationism. (...)
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  14.  7
    Liberty, Manipulation, and Algorithmic Transparency: Reply to Franke.Michael Klenk - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-8.
    Franke, in Philosophy & Technology, 37(1), 1–6, (2024), connects the recent debate about manipulative algorithmic transparency with the concerns about problematic pursuits of positive liberty. I argue that the indifference view of manipulative transparency is not aligned with positive liberty, contrary to Franke’s claim, and even if it is, it is not aligned with the risk that many have attributed to pursuits of positive liberty. Moreover, I suggest that Franke’s worry may generalise beyond the manipulative transparency debate to AI ethics (...)
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  15.  1
    That’s Why is Worth Continuing to Think About Our Successors – A Reply to Erler.Andrea Lavazza & Murilo Vilaça - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-3.
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  16. Hypersuasion – On AI’s Persuasive Power and How to Deal with It.Floridi Luciano - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-10.
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  17.  21
    Toxic Online Environments are what Makes Rational Persuasion Become Wrongful.Lavinia Marin - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-4.
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  18.  10
    Expropriated Minds: On Some Practical Problems of Generative AI, Beyond Our Cognitive Illusions.Fabio Paglieri - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-30.
    This paper discusses some societal implications of the most recent and publicly discussed application of advanced machine learning techniques: generative AI models, such as ChatGPT (text generation) and DALL-E (text-to-image generation). The aim is to shift attention away from conceptual disputes, e.g. regarding their level of intelligence and similarities/differences with human performance, to focus instead on practical problems, pertaining the impact that these technologies might have (and already have) on human societies. After a preliminary clarification of how generative AI works (...)
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  19.  3
    Commentary by Dr D J Pell on: ‘The Age of the Intelligent Machine: Singularity, Efficiency and Existential Peril’, Dr A. Amigud.David Pell - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-4.
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  20.  29
    From Boredom to Authenticity Bubbles: The Implication of Boredom-Induced Social Media Use for Individual Autonomy.Frodo Podschwadek & Annie Runkel - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-16.
    In this paper, we argue that boredom can be an important experience that contributes to personal autonomous agency by providing authentic motivation, and that strategies of social media providers to bind users’ attention to their platforms undermine this authenticity. As discussed in social epistemology and media ethics for a while now, such strategies can lead to so-called epistemic or filter bubbles. Our analysis of the relation between boredom and social media use focuses on a similarly impairing effect of social media (...)
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  21.  2
    Not Relational Enough? Towards an Eco-Relational Approach in Robot Ethics.Anna Puzio - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-24.
    With robots increasingly integrated into various areas of life, the question of relationships with them is gaining prominence. Are friendship and partnership with robots possible? While there is already extensive research on relationships with robots, this article critically examines whether the relationship with non-human entities is sufficiently explored on a deeper level, especially in terms of ethical concepts such as autonomy, agency, and responsibility. In robot ethics, ethical concepts and considerations often presuppose properties such as consciousness, sentience, and intelligence, which (...)
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  22.  11
    The Moral Status of Social Robots: A Pragmatic Approach.Paul Showler - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-22.
    Debates about the moral status of social robots (SRs) currently face a second-order, or metatheoretical impasse. On the one hand, moral individualists argue that the moral status of SRs depends on their possession of morally relevant properties. On the other hand, moral relationalists deny that we ought to attribute moral status on the basis of the properties that SRs instantiate, opting instead for other modes of reflection and critique. This paper develops and defends a pragmatic approach which aims to reconcile (...)
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  23.  1
    Uncovering Digital Platforms’ Ethics and Politics: The Case of Airbnb.Shaked Spier - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-27.
    The paper deploys the disclosive computer ethics (DCE) approach to reconstruct the ethics and politics of one of the sharing economy’s flagships—Airbnb. I investigate Airbnb’s technical design to identify the moral and political values that are embedded in the platform’s technology. I then analyze the platform’s ethics and politics towards a generalization of relevant ethical and political aspects by reconnecting them to the mechanisms, operations, rationales, and ideologies of the sharing economy in general. The paper contributes to the existing literature (...)
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  24.  1
    Reply to “Collective Responsibility and Artificial Intelligence”.Nathan Gabriel Wood - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-3.
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  25.  11
    Proxy Assertions and Agency: The Case of Machine-Assertions.Chirag Arora - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-19.
    The world is witnessing a rise in speech-enabled devices serving as epistemic informants to their users. Some philosophers take the view that because the utterances produced by such machines can be phenomenologically similar to an equivalent human speech, and they may deliver the same function in terms of delivering content to their audience, such machine utterances should be conceptualized as “assertions”. This paper argues against this view and highlights the theoretical and pragmatic challenges faced by such a conceptualization which seems (...)
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  26.  79
    Immersive Experience and Virtual Reality.Magdalena Balcerak Jackson & Brendan Balcerak Jackson - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-24.
    Much of the excitement about virtual reality and its potential for things like entertainment, art, education, and activism is its ability to generate experiences that are powerfully immersive. However, discussions of VR tend to invoke the notion of immersive experience without subjecting it to closer scrutiny; and discussions often take it for granted that immersive experience is a single unified phenomenon. Against this, we argue that there are four distinct types or aspects of immersive experience that should be distinguished: representational (...)
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  27.  26
    Helping and not Harming Animals with AI.Simon Coghlan & Christine Parker - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-7.
    Ethical discussions about Artificial Intelligence (AI) often overlook its potentially large impact on nonhuman animals. In a recent commentary on our paper about AI’s possible harms, Leonie Bossert argues for a focus not just on the possible negative impacts but also the possible beneficial outcomes of AI for animals. We welcome this call to increase awareness of AI that helps animals: developing and using AI to improve animal wellbeing and promote positive dimensions in animal lives should be a vital ethical (...)
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  28.  13
    State-Run Dating Apps: Are They Morally Desirable?Bouke de Vries - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-21.
    In a bid to boost fertility levels, Iran and Japan have recently launched their own dating apps, with more countries likely to follow. The aim of this article is to consider whether state-run dating apps are morally desirable, which is a question that has not received any scholarly attention. It finds that such apps have at least two benefits that collectively, if not individually, render their introduction to be welcomed provided certain conditions are met. These benefits are that they are (...)
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  29.  30
    Criteria for Assessing AI-Based Sentencing Algorithms: A Reply to Ryberg.Thomas Douglas - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-4.
  30.  96
    AI Successors Worth Creating? Commentary on Lavazza & Vilaça.Alexandre Erler - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-5.
    This is a commentary on Andrea Lavazza and Murilo Vilaça's article "Human Extinction and AI: What We Can Learn from the Ultimate Threat" (Lavazza & Vilaça, 2024). I discuss the potential concern that their proposal to create artificial successors to "insure" against the tragedy of human extinction might mean being too quick to accept that catastrophic prospect as inevitable, rather than single-mindedly focusing on avoiding it. I also consider the question of the value that we might reasonably assign to such (...)
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  31.  20
    The Hardware Turn in the Digital Discourse: An Analysis, Explanation, and Potential Risk.Luciano Floridi - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-7.
  32.  12
    Algorithmic Transparency, Manipulation, and Two Concepts of Liberty.Ulrik Franke - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-6.
    As more decisions are made by automated algorithmic systems, the transparency of these systems has come under scrutiny. While such transparency is typically seen as beneficial, there is a also a critical, Foucauldian account of it. From this perspective, worries have recently been articulated that algorithmic transparency can be used for manipulation, as part of a disciplinary power structure. Klenk (Philosophy & Technology 36, 79, 2023) recently argued that such manipulation should not be understood as exploitation of vulnerable victims, but (...)
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  33.  9
    Imagining sustainable futures: a response to Buhr.Alessio Gerola - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-3.
    In this response, I express sympathy for Buhr's proposal to expand our typology into an ethical framework of eco-normative profiling of (sustainable) technologies. I reflect on crucial issues that this framework should include, offering some words of caution against taking concepts such as Anthropocene and sustainability too lightly. I end with an invitation to include multiple and diverse perspectives about what sustainable futures could look like.
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  34.  10
    Commentary on “Human Extinction and AI: What We Can Learn From the Ultimate Threat”.Walter Glannon - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-4.
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  35.  38
    Human Enhancement and Augmented Reality.Emma C. Gordon - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-15.
    Bioconservative bioethicists (e.g., Kass, 2002, Human Dignity and Bioethics, 297–331, 2008; Sandel, 2007; Fukuyama, 2003) offer various kinds of philosophical arguments against cognitive enhancement—i.e., the use of medicine and technology to make ourselves “better than well” as opposed to merely treating pathologies. Two notable such bioconservative arguments appeal to ideas about (1) the value of achievement, and (2) authenticity. It is shown here that even if these arguments from achievement and authenticity cut ice against specifically pharmacologically driven cognitive enhancement, they (...)
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  36.  29
    Large Language Models, Agency, and Why Speech Acts are Beyond Them (For Now) – A Kantian-Cum-Pragmatist Case.Reto Gubelmann - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-24.
    This article sets in with the question whether current or foreseeable transformer-based large language models (LLMs), such as the ones powering OpenAI’s ChatGPT, could be language users in a way comparable to humans. It answers the question negatively, presenting the following argument. Apart from niche uses, to use language means to act. But LLMs are unable to act because they lack intentions. This, in turn, is because they are the wrong kind of being: agents with intentions need to be autonomous (...)
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  37. Against the Double Standard Argument in AI Ethics.Scott Hill - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-5.
    In an important and widely cited paper, Zerilli, Knott, Maclaurin, and Gavaghan (2019) argue that opaque AI decision makers are at least as transparent as human decision makers and therefore the concern that opaque AI is not sufficiently transparent is mistaken. I argue that the concern about opaque AI should not be understood as the concern that such AI fails to be transparent in a way that humans are transparent. Rather, the concern is that the way in which opaque AI (...)
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  38.  6
    Comments on Maximilian Pieper, ‘Technology as a Strategy of the Human? A Comparison Between the Extension Concept and the Fetish Concept of Technology’.Alf Hornborg - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-4.
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  39.  10
    The Incalculability of the Generated Text.Alžbeta Kuchtová - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-20.
    In this paper, I explore Derrida’s concept of exteriorization in relation to texts generated by machine learning. I first discuss Heidegger’s view of machine creation and then present Derrida’s criticism of Heidegger. I explain the concept of iterability, which is the central notion on which Derrida’s criticism is based. The thesis defended in the paper is that Derrida’s account of iterability provides a helpful framework for understanding the phenomenon of machine learning–generated literature. His account of textuality highlights the incalculability and (...)
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  40.  26
    Human Extinction and AI: What We Can Learn from the Ultimate Threat.Andrea Lavazza & Murilo Vilaça - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-21.
    Human extinction is something generally deemed as undesirable, although some scholars view it as a potential solution to the problems of the Earth since it would reduce the moral evil and the suffering that are brought about by humans. We contend that humans collectively have absolute intrinsic value as sentient, conscious and rational entities, and we should preserve them from extinction. However, severe threats, such as climate change and incurable viruses, might push humanity to the brink of extinction. Should that (...)
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  41.  21
    Track Thyself? The Value and Ethics of Self-knowledge Through Technology.Muriel Leuenberger - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-22.
    Novel technological devices, applications, and algorithms can provide us with a vast amount of personal information about ourselves. Given that we have ethical and practical reasons to pursue self-knowledge, should we use technology to increase our self-knowledge? And which ethical issues arise from the pursuit of technologically sourced self-knowledge? In this paper, I explore these questions in relation to bioinformation technologies (health and activity trackers, DTC genetic testing, and DTC neurotechnologies) and algorithmic profiling used for recommender systems, targeted advertising, and (...)
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  42.  8
    Algorithms Don’t Have A Past: Beyond Gadamer’s Alterity of the Text and Stader’s Reflected Prejudiced Use.Matthew S. Lindia - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-6.
    This commentary on Daniel Stader's recent article, “Algorithms Don't Have a Future: On the Relation of Judgement and Calculation” develops and complicates his argument by suggesting that algorithms ossify multiple kinds of prejudices, namely, the structural prejudices of the programmer and the exemplary prejudices of the dataset. This typology at once suggests that the goal of transparency may be impossible, but this impossibility enriches the possibilities for developing Stader's concept of reflected prejudiced use.
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  43.  27
    Anthropological Crisis or Crisis in Moral Status: a Philosophy of Technology Approach to the Moral Consideration of Artificial Intelligence.Joan Llorca Albareda - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-26.
    The inquiry into the moral status of artificial intelligence (AI) is leading to prolific theoretical discussions. A new entity that does not share the material substrate of human beings begins to show signs of a number of properties that are nuclear to the understanding of moral agency. It makes us wonder whether the properties we associate with moral status need to be revised or whether the new artificial entities deserve to enter within the circle of moral consideration. This raises the (...)
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  44.  10
    Fairness Hacking: The Malicious Practice of Shrouding Unfairness in Algorithms.Kristof Meding & Thilo Hagendorff - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-22.
    Fairness in machine learning (ML) is an ever-growing field of research due to the manifold potential for harm from algorithmic discrimination. To prevent such harm, a large body of literature develops new approaches to quantify fairness. Here, we investigate how one can divert the quantification of fairness by describing a practice we call “fairness hacking” for the purpose of shrouding unfairness in algorithms. This impacts end-users who rely on learning algorithms, as well as the broader community interested in fair AI (...)
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  45.  25
    Enhancing Deliberation with Digital Democratic Innovations.Anna Mikhaylovskaya - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1).
    Democratic innovations have been widely presented by both academics and practitioners as a potential remedy to the crisis of representative democracy. Many argue that deliberation should play a pivotal role in these innovations, fostering greater citizen participation and political influence. However, it remains unclear how digitalization affects the quality of deliberation—whether digital democratic innovations (DDIs) undermine or enhance deliberation. This paper takes an inductive approach in political theory to critically examine three features of online deliberation that matter for deliberative democracy: (...)
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  46.  30
    Wrongful Rational Persuasion Online.Thomas Mitchell & Thomas Douglas - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-25.
    In this article, we argue that rational persuasion can be a _pro tanto_ wrong and that online platforms possess features that are especially conducive to this wrong. We begin by setting out an account of rational persuasion. This consists of four jointly sufficient conditions for rational persuasion and is intended to capture the core, uncontroversial cases of such persuasion. We then discuss a series of wrong-making features which are present in methods of influence commonly thought of as _pro tanto_ wrong, (...)
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  47.  9
    The Concept of Property Between Technology, Anthropology and Ontology.Giacomo Pezzano - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-7.
    The article _Anthropological crisis or crisis in moral __status: a philosophy of technology approach to the moral consideration of artificial intelligence_ questions the anthropology of properties commonly assumed in philosophical discussions about the relationship between humans and technologies and the attribution of moral status. By beginning to develop the possible link between the ontology of properties and the anthropological question aptly outlined by that contribution, this short commentary suggests that the adoption of a truly relational or non-proprietary approach in the (...)
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  48.  18
    Technology as a Strategy of the Human? A Comparison Between the Extension Concept and the Fetish Concept of Technology.Maximilian Pieper - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-27.
    Discussions on the Anthropocene as the geology of mankind imply the question whether globalized technology such as energy technologies or A.I. ought to be first and foremost conceptualized as a strategy of the human in relation to nature or as a strategy of some humans over others. I argue that both positions are mirrored in the philosophy and sociology of technology through the concepts of technology as an extension and as a fetish. The extension concept understands technology as an extension (...)
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  49.  20
    Why Care About Sustainable AI? Some Thoughts From The Debate on Meaning in Life.Markus Rüther - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-19.
    The focus of AI ethics has recently shifted towards the question of whether and how the use of AI technologies can promote sustainability. This new research question involves discerning the sustainability of AI itself and evaluating AI as a tool to achieve sustainable objectives. This article aims to examine the justifications that one might employ to advocate for promoting sustainable AI. Specifically, it concentrates on a dimension of often disregarded reasons — reasons of “meaning” or “meaningfulness” — as discussed more (...)
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  50.  60
    Criminal Justice and Artificial Intelligence: How Should we Assess the Performance of Sentencing Algorithms?Jesper Ryberg - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-15.
    Artificial intelligence is increasingly permeating many types of high-stake societal decision-making such as the work at the criminal courts. Various types of algorithmic tools have already been introduced into sentencing. This article concerns the use of algorithms designed to deliver sentence recommendations. More precisely, it is considered how one should determine whether one type of sentencing algorithm (e.g., a model based on machine learning) would be ethically preferable to another type of sentencing algorithm (e.g., a model based on old-fashioned programming). (...)
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  51.  34
    Algorithms Don’t Have A Future: On the Relation of Judgement and Calculation.Daniel Stader - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-29.
    This paper is about the opposite of judgement and calculation. This opposition has been a traditional anchor of critiques concerned with the rise of AI decision making over human judgement. Contrary to these approaches, it is argued that human judgement is not and cannot be replaced by calculation, but that it is human judgement that contextualises computational structures and gives them meaning and purpose. The article focuses on the epistemic structure of algorithms and artificial neural networks to find that they (...)
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  52.  19
    Collective Responsibility and Artificial Intelligence.Isaac Taylor - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-18.
    The use of artificial intelligence (AI) to make high-stakes decisions is sometimes thought to create a troubling responsibility gap – that is, a situation where nobody can be held morally responsible for the outcomes that are brought about. However, philosophers and practitioners have recently claimed that, even though no individual can be held morally responsible, groups of individuals might be. Consequently, they think, we have less to fear from the use of AI than might appear to be the case. This (...)
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  53.  43
    From AI Ethics Principles to Practices: A Teleological Methodology to Apply AI Ethics Principles in The Defence Domain.Christopher Thomas, Alexander Blanchard & Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-21.
    This article provides a methodology for the interpretation of AI ethics principles to specify ethical criteria for the development and deployment of AI systems in high-risk domains. The methodology consists of a three-step process deployed by an independent, multi-stakeholder ethics board to: (1) identify the appropriate level of abstraction for modelling the AI lifecycle; (2) interpret prescribed principles to extract specific requirements to be met at each step of the AI lifecycle; and (3) define the criteria to inform purpose- and (...)
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  54.  18
    Authorship and ChatGPT: a Conservative View.René van Woudenberg, Chris Ranalli & Daniel Bracker - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-26.
    Is ChatGPT an author? Given its capacity to generate something that reads like human-written text in response to prompts, it might seem natural to ascribe authorship to ChatGPT. However, we argue that ChatGPT is not an author. ChatGPT fails to meet the criteria of authorship because it lacks the ability to perform illocutionary speech acts such as promising or asserting, lacks the fitting mental states like knowledge, belief, or intention, and cannot take responsibility for the texts it produces. Three perspectives (...)
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  55.  27
    Would John Dewey Wear a Fitbit? A Pragmatist Analysis of Self-Tracking Technologies’ Impact on Habit Formation.Michał Wieczorek - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-24.
    In this paper, I discuss the formation of habits with the help of self-tracking technologies. Although devices like Fitbit smart bands come with promises of empowerment through the means of increased control over users’ habits, existing literature does not provide conclusive findings about the validity of such claims. I contribute to the ongoing debate by relying on John Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy and its notion of intelligent habit. I demonstrate that from a pragmatist standpoint, habits that are the most likely to (...)
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  56.  7
    Building Perfectionist Ethics into Action-theoretic Accounts of Function: A Beginner’s Guide.Ryan Mitchell Wittingslow - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-5.
    In her paper “Human Flourishing and Technology Affordances”, Avigail Ferdman argues that our descriptions and analyses of the relationship between digital technology, and the capacities approach to human flourishing, can be enriched by building ‘affordances’ into those descriptions and analyses. This commentary article serves as a supplement to Ferdman’s paper. Here I argue that, in building affordances into the capacities approach, Ferdman has developed the foundations of a method by which perfectionist ethics can be built into action-theoretic accounts of technical (...)
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