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  1.  42
    Types of Technological Innovation in the Face of Uncertainty.Daniele Chiffi, Stefano Moroni & Luca Zanetti - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-17.
    Technological innovation is almost always investigated from an economic perspective; with few exceptions, the specific technological and social nature of innovation is often ignored. We argue that a novel way to characterise and make sense of different types of technological innovation is to start considering uncertainty. This seems plausible since technological development and innovation almost always occur under conditions of uncertainty. We rely on the distinction between, on the one hand, uncertainty that can be quantified and, on the other, deep (...)
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  2.  1
    Introduction to the Topical Collection on AI and Responsibility.Niël Conradie, Hendrik Kempt & Peter Königs - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-6.
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  3.  2
    Does AI Debias Recruitment? Race, Gender, and AI’s “Eradication of Difference”.Eleanor Drage & Kerry Mackereth - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-25.
    In this paper, we analyze two key claims offered by recruitment AI companies in relation to the development and deployment of AI-powered HR tools: recruitment AI can objectively assess candidates by removing gender and race from their systems, and this removal of gender and race will make recruitment fairer, help customers attain their DEI goals, and lay the foundations for a truly meritocratic culture to thrive within an organization. We argue that these claims are misleading for four reasons: First, attempts (...)
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  4. How Much Should You Care About Algorithmic Transparency as Manipulation?Ulrik Franke - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-7.
    Wang introduces a Foucauldian power account of algorithmic transparency. This short commentary explores when this power account is appropriate. It is first observed that the power account is a constructionist one, and that such accounts often come with both factual and evaluative claims. In an instance of Hume’s law, the evaluative claims do not follow from the factual claims, leaving open the question of how much constructionist commitment one should have. The concept of acts in equilibrium is then used to (...)
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  5.  3
    Escaping the Impossibility of Fairness: From Formal to Substantive Algorithmic Fairness.Ben Green - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-32.
    Efforts to promote equitable public policy with algorithms appear to be fundamentally constrained by the “impossibility of fairness”. This technical limitation raises a central question about algorithmic fairness: How can computer scientists and policymakers support equitable policy reforms with algorithms? In this article, I argue that promoting justice with algorithms requires reforming the methodology of algorithmic fairness. First, I diagnose the problems of the current methodology for algorithmic fairness, which I call “formal algorithmic fairness.” Because formal algorithmic fairness restricts analysis (...)
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  6. The Unique and Practical Advantages of Applying A Capability Approach to Brain Computer Interface.Andrew Ko & Nancy S. Jecker - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4).
    Intelligent neurotechnology is an emerging field that combines neurotechnologies like brain-computer interface (BCI) with artificial intelligence. This paper introduces a capability framework to assess the responsible use of intelligent BCI systems and provide practical ethical guidance. It proposes two tests, the threshold and flourishing tests, that BCI applications must meet, and illustrates them in a series of cases. After a brief introduction (Section 1), Section 2 sets forth the capability view and the two tests. It illustrates the threshold test using (...)
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  7. Justice and the Normative Standards of Explainability in Healthcare.Saskia K. Nagel, Nils Freyer & Hendrik Kempt - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4).
    AbstractProviding healthcare services frequently involves cognitively demanding tasks, including diagnoses and analyses as well as complex decisions about treatments and therapy. From a global perspective, ethically significant inequalities exist between regions where the expert knowledge required for these tasks is scarce or abundant. One possible strategy to diminish such inequalities and increase healthcare opportunities in expert-scarce settings is to provide healthcare solutions involving digital technologies that do not necessarily require the presence of a human expert, e.g., in the form of (...)
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  8. The Golem and The Leviathan: Two Guiding Images of Irresponsible Technology.Eugen Octav Popa - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-17.
    What does it mean to be irresponsible in developing or using a technology? There are two fundamentally different answers to this question and they each generate research strands that differ in scope, style and applicability. To capture this difference, I make use of two mythical creatures of Jewish origin that have been employed in the past to represent relationships between man and man-made entities: the Golem and the Leviathan. The Golem is the traditional image of technology as a creature that (...)
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  9.  6
    Virtual Reality, Embodiment, and Allusion: an Ecological-Enactive Approach.Giovanni Rolla, Guilherme Vasconcelos & Nara M. Figueiredo - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-23.
    It is common in the cognitive and computational sciences to regard virtual reality as composed of illusory experiences, given its immersive character. In this paper, we adopt an ecological-enactive perspective on cognition to evaluate the nature of VR and one’s engagement with it. Based on a post-cognitivist conception of illusion, we reject the commonly held assumption that virtual reality experiences are illusory. Our positive take on this issue is that VR devices, like other technological devices, can be embodied during use, (...)
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  10.  1
    Ethical Redress of Racial Inequities in AI: Lessons From Decoupling Machine Learning From Optimization in Medical Appointment Scheduling.Robert Shanklin, Michele Samorani, Shannon Harris & Michael A. Santoro - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-19.
    An Artificial Intelligence algorithm trained on data that reflect racial biases may yield racially biased outputs, even if the algorithm on its own is unbiased. For example, algorithms used to schedule medical appointments in the USA predict that Black patients are at a higher risk of no-show than non-Black patients, though technically accurate given existing data that prediction results in Black patients being overwhelmingly scheduled in appointment slots that cause longer wait times than non-Black patients. This perpetuates racial inequity, in (...)
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  11.  65
    Minds in the Metaverse: Extended Cognition Meets Mixed Reality.Paul Smart - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1–29.
    Examples of extended cognition typically involve the use of technologically low-grade bio-external resources. The present paper describes a putative case of extended cognizing based around a technologically advanced mixed reality device, namely, the Microsoft HoloLens. The case is evaluated from the standpoint of a mechanistic perspective. In particular, it is suggested that a combination of organismic and extra-organismic resources form part of a common mechanism that realizes a bona fide cognitive routine. In addition to demonstrating how the theoretical resources of (...)
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  12. Alienation in a World of Data. Toward a Materialist Interpretation of Digital Information Technologies.Michael Steinmann - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4).
    The essay proposes to use alienation as a heuristic and conceptual tool for the analysis of the impact of digital information and communication technologies on users. It follows a historical materialist understanding, according to which data can be considered as things produced in an industrial fashion. A representational interpretation, according to which data would merely reflect a given reality, is untenable. It will be argued instead to understand data as an additional layer which has a transformative impact on reality as (...)
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  13.  5
    To Each Technology Its Own Ethics: The Problem of Ethical Proliferation.Henrik Skaug Sætra & John Danaher - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-26.
    Ethics plays a key role in the normative analysis of the impacts of technology. We know that computers in general and the processing of data, the use of artificial intelligence, and the combination of computers and/or artificial intelligence with robotics are all associated with ethically relevant implications for individuals, groups, and society. In this article, we argue that while all technologies are ethically relevant, there is no need to create a separate ‘ethics of X’ or ‘X ethics’ for each and (...)
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  14.  53
    AI, Opacity, and Personal Autonomy.Bram Vaassen - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-20.
    Advancements in machine learning have fuelled the popularity of using AI decision algorithms in procedures such as bail hearings, medical diagnoses and recruitment. Academic articles, policy texts, and popularizing books alike warn that such algorithms tend to be opaque: they do not provide explanations for their outcomes. Building on a causal account of transparency and opacity as well as recent work on the value of causal explanation, I formulate a moral concern for opaque algorithms that is yet to receive a (...)
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  15.  1
    Perceptions of Beauty in Security Ceremonies.Giampaolo Bella, Jacques Ophoff, Karen Renaud, Diego Sempreboni & Luca Viganò - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-34.
    When we use secure computer systems, we engage with carefully orchestrated and ordered interactions called “security ceremonies”, all of which exist to assure security. A great deal of attention has been paid to improving the usability of these ceremonies over the last two decades, to make them easier for end-users to engage with. Yet, usability improvements do not seem to have endeared end users to ceremonies. As a consequence, human actors might subvert the ceremony’s processes or avoid engaging with it. (...)
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  16.  1
    AI Ethics and the Automation Industry: How Companies Respond to Questions About Ethics at the Automatica Trade Fair 2022.Maximilian Braun, Daniel Tigard, Franziska Schönweitz, Laura Lucaj & Alexander von Janowski - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-6.
    Against the backdrop of a recent history of ongoing efforts to institutionalize ethics in ways that also target corporate environments, we asked ourselves: How do company representatives at the automatica 2022 trade fair in Munich respond to questions around ethics? To this end, we started an exploratory survey at the automatica 2022 in Munich, asking 22 company representatives at various booths from various industrial sectors the basic question: “Is there somebody in your company working on ethics?” Most representatives were responding (...)
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  17.  3
    Ethical Idealism, Technology and Practice: a Manifesto.Joan Casas-Roma - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-24.
    Technology has become one of the main channels through which people engage in most of their everyday activities. When working, learning, or socializing, the affordances created by technological tools determine the way in which users interact with one another and their environment, thus favoring certain actions and behaviors, while discouraging others. The ethical dimension behind the use of technology has been already studied in recent works, but the question is often formulated in a protective way that focuses on shielding the (...)
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  18.  3
    Moral Reasons Not to Posit Extended Cognitive Systems: a Reply to Farina and Lavazza.Guido Cassinadri - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-20.
    Given the metaphysical and explanatory stalemate between Embedded and Extended cognition, different authors proposed moral arguments to overcome such a deadlock in favor of EXT. Farina and Lavazza attribute to EXT and EMB a substantive moral content, arguing in favor of the former by virtue of its progressiveness and inclusiveness. In this treatment, I criticize four of their moral arguments. In Sect. 2, I focus on the argument from legitimate interventions and on the argument from extended agency. Section 3 concerns (...)
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  19.  1
    Correction to: Autonomous Artificial Intelligence and Liability: a Comment on List.Michael Da Silva - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-1.
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  20.  6
    Intelligence as a Social Concept: a Socio-Technological Interpretation of the Turing Test.Shlomo Danziger - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-26.
    Alan Turing’s 1950 imitation game has been widely understood as a means for testing if an entity is intelligent. Following a series of papers by Diane Proudfoot, I offer a socio-technological interpretation of Turing’s paper and present an alternative way of understanding both the imitation game and Turing’s concept of intelligence. Turing, I claim, saw intelligence as a social concept, meaning that possession of intelligence is a property determined by society’s attitude toward the entity. He realized that as long as (...)
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  21.  19
    Metaverse: a Matter of Experience.Luciano Floridi - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-7.
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  22.  2
    Algorithmic Political Bias—an Entrenchment Concern.Ulrik Franke - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-6.
    This short commentary on Peters identifies the entrenchment of political positions as one additional concern related to algorithmic political bias, beyond those identified by Peters. First, it is observed that the political positions detected and predicted by algorithms are typically contingent and largely explained by “political tribalism”, as argued by Brennan. Second, following Hacking, the social construction of political identities is analyzed and it is concluded that algorithmic political bias can contribute to such identities. Third, following Nozick, it is argued (...)
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  23.  3
    A Virtue-Based Framework to Support Putting AI Ethics into Practice.Thilo Hagendorff - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-24.
    Many ethics initiatives have stipulated sets of principles and standards for good technology development in the AI sector. However, several AI ethics researchers have pointed out a lack of practical realization of these principles. Following that, AI ethics underwent a practical turn, but without deviating from the principled approach. This paper proposes a complementary to the principled approach that is based on virtue ethics. It defines four “basic AI virtues”, namely justice, honesty, responsibility and care, all of which represent specific (...)
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  24.  4
    Real Fakes: The Epistemology of Online Misinformation.Keith Raymond Harris - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-24.
    Many of our beliefs are acquired online. Online epistemic environments are replete with fake news, fake science, fake photographs and videos, and fake people in the form of trolls and social bots. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the threat that such online fakes pose to the acquisition of knowledge. I argue that fakes can interfere with one or more of the truth, belief, and warrant conditions on knowledge. I devote most of my attention to the effects of (...)
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  25.  9
    The Ethics of AI Ethics. A Constructive Critique.Jan-Christoph Heilinger - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-20.
    The paper presents an ethical analysis and constructive critique of the current practice of AI ethics. It identifies conceptual substantive and procedural challenges and it outlines strategies to address them. The strategies include countering the hype and understanding AI as ubiquitous infrastructure including neglected issues of ethics and justice such as structural background injustices into the scope of AI ethics and making the procedures and fora of AI ethics more inclusive and better informed with regard to philosophical ethics. These measures (...)
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  26.  14
    Responsible AI Through Conceptual Engineering.Johannes Himmelreich & Sebastian Köhler - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-30.
    The advent of intelligent artificial systems has sparked a dispute about the question of who is responsible when such a system causes a harmful outcome. This paper champions the idea that this dispute should be approached as a conceptual engineering problem. Towards this claim, the paper first argues that the dispute about the responsibility gap problem is in part a conceptual dispute about the content of responsibility and related concepts. The paper then argues that the way forward is to evaluate (...)
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  27.  9
    What is Techno-Optimism?Peter Königs - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-5.
  28.  1
    Why There Are Still Moral Reasons to Prefer Extended Over Embedded: A (Short) Reply to Cassinadri.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-7.
    In a recent paper, Cassinadri raised substantial criticism about the possibility of using moral reasons to endorse the hypothesis of extended cognition over its most popular alternative, the embedded view. In particular, Cassinadri criticized 4 of the arguments we formulated to defend EXT and argued that our claim that EXT might be preferable to EMB does not stand close scrutiny. In this short reply, we point out—contra Cassinadri—why we still believe that there are moral reasons to prefer EXT over EMB, (...)
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  29.  2
    Innovation, From Industrial Consumption to the Reinvention of Socialization: A Reflection on a Recent Semantic Enrichment.Thierry Ménissier - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-17.
    In this paper, we observe an undergoing transformation in the qualification of the processes of emergence that we call ‘innovation’. First conceived in the industrial mode defined by Schumpeter within the consumer economy context, innovation has now acquired a more general meaning and has been transformed in the understanding of collective action. Against the backdrop of transformations in the industrial reality, the crisis of desire in consumer societies, and the impoverishment of the imaginary, ‘social innovation’ appears to be a new (...)
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  30.  6
    Contextual Integrity as a General Conceptual Tool for Evaluating Technological Change.Elizabeth O’Neill - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-25.
    The fast pace of technological change necessitates new evaluative and deliberative tools. This article develops a general, functional approach to evaluating technological change, inspired by Nissenbaum’s theory of contextual integrity. Nissenbaum introduced the concept of contextual integrity to help analyze how technological changes can produce privacy problems. Reinterpreted, the concept of contextual integrity can aid our thinking about how technological changes affect the full range of human concerns and values—not only privacy. I propose a generalized concept of contextual integrity that (...)
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  31.  9
    Algorithmic Political Bias Can Reduce Political Polarization.Uwe Peters - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-7.
    Does algorithmic political bias contribute to an entrenchment and polarization of political positions? Franke argues that it may do so because the bias involves classifications of people as liberals, conservatives, etc., and individuals often conform to the ways in which they are classified. I provide a novel example of this phenomenon in human–computer interactions and introduce a social psychological mechanism that has been overlooked in this context but should be experimentally explored. Furthermore, while Franke proposes that algorithmic political classifications entrench (...)
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  32.  6
    Self-driving Cars and the Right to Drive.William Ratoff - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-15.
    Every year, 1.35 million people are killed on roads worldwide and even more people are injured. Emerging self-driving car technology promises to cut this statistic down to a fraction of the current rate. On the face of it, this consideration alone constitutes a strong reason to legally require — once self-driving car technology is widely available and affordable — that all vehicles on public roads be self-driving. Here I critically investigate the question of whether self-driving, or autonomous, vehicles should be (...)
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  33.  9
    Integrating Artificial Intelligence in Scientific Practice: Explicable AI as an Interface.Emanuele Ratti - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-5.
    A recent article by Herzog provides a much-needed integration of ethical and epistemological arguments in favor of explicable AI in medicine. In this short piece, I suggest a way in which its epistemological intuition of XAI as “explanatory interface” can be further developed to delineate the relation between AI tools and scientific research.
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  34.  34
    Metabolism Instead of Machine: Towards an Ontology of Hybrids.Julia Rijssenbeek, Vincent Blok & Zoë Robaey - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-23.
    The emerging field of synthetic biology aims to engineer novel biological entities. The envisioned future bio-based economy builds largely on “cell factories”: organisms that have been metabolically engineered to sustainably produce substances for human ends. In this paper, we argue that synthetic biology’s goal of creating efficient production vessels for industrial applications implies a set of ontological assumptions according to which living organisms are machines. Traditionally, a machine is understood as a technological, isolated and controllable production unit consisting of parts. (...)
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  35.  56
    Social Media and its Negative Impacts on Autonomy.Siavosh Sahebi & Paul Formosa - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-24.
    How social media impacts the autonomy of its users is a topic of increasing focus. However, much of the literature that explores these impacts fails to engage in depth with the philosophical literature on autonomy. This has resulted in a failure to consider the full range of impacts that social media might have on autonomy. A deeper consideration of these impacts is thus needed, given the importance of both autonomy as a moral concept and social media as a feature of (...)
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  36.  1
    On Making Phenomenologies of Technology More Phenomenological.Robert C. Scharff - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-22.
    Phenomenologists usually insist that their approach involves going “back” to and “starting” with technoscientific experience—that is, returning to the actual existing or living through of technoscientific life—after centuries of privileging the analysis of how things are “objectively” known and denigrating accounts of how they are “subjectively” lived with. But then who says this and how is this understood? “Who” is really a phenomenologist, when so many diverse thinkers claim the title? This paper considers some of the reasons why this is (...)
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  37.  2
    Technology and French Thought: a Dialogue Between Jean-Luc Nancy and François-David Sebbah.François-David Sebbah & Jean-Luc Nancy - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-14.
    This paper is not an article in a regular sense. It is a dialogue between François-David Sebbah, one of the two editors of this topical collection, and Jean-Luc Nancy, one of the most eminent representatives of the contemporary French Thought. This dialogue took place in the first half of 2022 in a written form, because of the sanitary restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic and because Nancy was heavily sick. Sebbah sent to Nancy a text, corresponding to Section 2.1, and (...)
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  38.  2
    Democracy in the Time of “Hyperlead”: Knowledge Acquisition via Algorithmic Recommendation and Its Political Implication in Comparison with Orality, Literacy, and Hyperlink.Wha-Chul Son - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-21.
    Why hasn’t democracy been promoted by nor ICT been controlled by democratic governance? To answer this question, this research begins its investigation by comparing knowledge acquisition systems throughout history: orality, literacy, hyperlink, and hyperlead. “Hyperlead” is a newly coined concept to emphasize the passivity of people when achieving knowledge and information via algorithmic recommendation technologies. Subsequently, the four systems are compared in terms of their epistemological characteristics and political implications. It is argued that, while literacy and hyperlink contributed to the (...)
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  39.  1
    Accepting Moral Responsibility for the Actions of Autonomous Weapons Systems—a Moral Gambit.Mariarosaria Taddeo & Alexander Blanchard - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-24.
    In this article, we focus on the attribution of moral responsibility for the actions of autonomous weapons systems. To do so, we suggest that the responsibility gap can be closed if human agents can take meaningful moral responsibility for the actions of AWS. This is a moral responsibility attributed to individuals in a justified and fair way and which is accepted by individuals as an assessment of their own moral character. We argue that, given the unpredictability of AWS, meaningful moral (...)
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  40.  1
    Socially Disruptive Technologies, Contextual Integrity, and Conservatism About Moral Change.Ibo van de Poel - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-6.
    This commentary is a response to Contextual Integrity as a General Conceptual Tool for Evaluating Technological Change by Elizabeth O’Neill ). It argues that while contextual integrity might be an useful addition to the toolkit of approaches for ethical technology assessment, a CI approach might not be able to uncover all morally relevant impacts of technological change. Moreover, the inherent conservatism of a CI approach might be problematic in cases in which we encounter new kinds of morally problematic situations, such (...)
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  41.  27
    Technology as Driver for Morally Motivated Conceptual Engineering.Herman Veluwenkamp, Marianna Capasso, Jonne Maas & Lavinia Marin - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-25.
    New technologies are the source of uncertainties about the applicability of moral and morally connotated concepts. These uncertainties sometimes call for conceptual engineering, but it is not often recognized when this is the case. We take this to be a missed opportunity, as a recognition that different researchers are working on the same kind of project can help solve methodological questions that one is likely to encounter. In this paper, we present three case studies where philosophers of technology implicitly engage (...)
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  42.  7
    Transparency as Manipulation? Uncovering the Disciplinary Power of Algorithmic Transparency.Hao Wang - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-25.
    Automated algorithms are silently making crucial decisions about our lives, but most of the time we have little understanding of how they work. To counter this hidden influence, there have been increasing calls for algorithmic transparency. Much ink has been spilled over the informational account of algorithmic transparency—about how much information should be revealed about the inner workings of an algorithm. But few studies question the power structure beneath the informational disclosure of the algorithm. As a result, the information disclosure (...)
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  43.  3
    Big Tech and Antitrust: An Ordoliberal Analysis.Manuel Wörsdörfer - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-39.
    The past few years have seen the opening of several antitrust investigations against some of the most dominant and powerful companies in the world—e.g., the U.S. Department of Justice, numerous states, and the Federal Trade Commission have sued Google, Facebook, and Amazon, and the E.U. has launched additional proceedings against Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google. This paper looks at the latest trends and developments in the E.U. and the USA and analyzes the different regulatory approaches taken from a distinct business (...)
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  44.  7
    The Democratic Inclusion of Artificial Intelligence? Exploring the Patiency, Agency and Relational Conditions for Demos Membership.Ludvig Beckman & Jonas Hultin Rosenberg - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-24.
    Should artificial intelligences ever be included as co-authors of democratic decisions? According to the conventional view in democratic theory, the answer depends on the relationship between the political unit and the entity that is either affected or subjected to its decisions. The relational conditions for inclusion as stipulated by the all-affected and all-subjected principles determine the spatial extension of democratic inclusion. Thus, AI qualifies for democratic inclusion if and only if AI is either affected or subjected to decisions by the (...)
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  45.  33
    Blame It on the AI? On the Moral Responsibility of Artificial Moral Advisors.Mihaela Constantinescu, Constantin Vică, Radu Uszkai & Cristina Voinea - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-26.
    Deep learning AI systems have proven a wide capacity to take over human-related activities such as car driving, medical diagnosing, or elderly care, often displaying behaviour with unpredictable consequences, including negative ones. This has raised the question whether highly autonomous AI may qualify as morally responsible agents. In this article, we develop a set of four conditions that an entity needs to meet in order to be ascribed moral responsibility, by drawing on Aristotelian ethics and contemporary philosophical research. We encode (...)
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  46.  4
    The Virtuous Data Scientist and the Ethics of Good Science.Howard J. Curzer & Anne C. Epstein - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-5.
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  47.  9
    Autonomous Artificial Intelligence and Liability: a Comment on List.Michael Da Silva - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-6.
    Christian List argues that responsibility gaps created by viewing artificial intelligence as intentional agents are problematic enough that regulators should only permit the use of autonomous AI in high-stakes settings where AI is designed to be moral or a liability transfer agreement will fill any gaps. This work challenges List’s proposed condition. A requirement for “moral” AI is too onerous given technical challenges and other ways to check AI quality. Moreover, transfer agreements only plausibly fill responsibility gaps by applying independently (...)
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  48. Techno-optimism: an Analysis, an Evaluation and a Modest Defence.John Danaher - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-29.
    What is techno-optimism and how can it be defended? Although techno-optimist views are widely espoused and critiqued, there have been few attempts to systematically analyse what it means to be a techno-optimist and how one might defend this view. This paper attempts to address this oversight by providing a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of techno-optimism. It is argued that techno-optimism is a pluralistic stance that comes in weak and strong forms. These vary along a number of key dimensions but each (...)
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  49. Tragic Choices and the Virtue of Techno-Responsibility Gaps.John Danaher - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-26.
    There is a concern that the widespread deployment of autonomous machines will open up a number of ‘responsibility gaps’ throughout society. Various articulations of such techno-responsibility gaps have been proposed over the years, along with several potential solutions. Most of these solutions focus on ‘plugging’ or ‘dissolving’ the gaps. This paper offers an alternative perspective. It argues that techno-responsibility gaps are, sometimes, to be welcomed and that one of the advantages of autonomous machines is that they enable us to embrace (...)
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  50.  54
    Interpretability and Unification.Adrian Erasmus & Tyler D. P. Brunet - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-6.
    In a recent reply to our article, “What is Interpretability?,” Prasetya argues against our position that artificial neural networks are explainable. It is claimed that our indefeasibility thesis—that adding complexity to an explanation of a phenomenon does not make the phenomenon any less explainable—is false. More precisely, Prasetya argues that unificationist explanations are defeasible to increasing complexity, and thus, we may not be able to provide such explanations of highly complex AI models. The reply highlights an important lacuna in our (...)
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  51.  3
    Two Problems of the Biological Philosophy of Technology.Martino Maria Feyles - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-18.
    The aim of this article is to highlight and discuss two problems of the biological philosophy of technology. In particular, I will analyse the work of André Leroi-Gourhan and Gilbert Simondon, and I will show that the meaning of the analogy between technical and natural objects that underlies the approach of the biological philosophy of technology remains problematic and the biological approach to technology is very effective for analysing tools and machines, but is not sufficient to describe the so-called information (...)
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  52.  5
    The Economy of Waste.Luciano Floridi - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-4.
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  53.  3
    First- and Second-Level Bias in Automated Decision-making.Ulrik Franke - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-20.
    Recent advances in artificial intelligence offer many beneficial prospects. However, concerns have been raised about the opacity of decisions made by these systems, some of which have turned out to be biased in various ways. This article makes a contribution to a growing body of literature on how to make systems for automated decision-making more transparent, explainable, and fair by drawing attention to and further elaborating a distinction first made by Nozick between first-level bias in the application of standards and (...)
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  54.  23
    Ethics of Nuclear Energy in Times of Climate Change: Escaping the Collective Action Problem.Simon Friederich & Maarten Boudry - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-27.
    In recent years, there has been an intense public debate about whether and, if so, to what extent investments in nuclear energy should be part of strategies to mitigate climate change. Here, we address this question from an ethical perspective, evaluating different strategies of energy system development in terms of three ethical criteria, which will differentially appeal to proponents of different normative ethical frameworks. Starting from a standard analysis of climate change as arising from an intergenerational collective action problem, we (...)
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  55.  5
    The African Relational Account of Social Robots: a Step Back?John-Stewart Gordon - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-6.
  56.  4
    Who Is a Good Data Scientist? A Reply to Curzer and Epstein.Mark Graves & Emanuele Ratti - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-5.
  57.  3
    Promises and Pitfalls of Algorithm Use by State Authorities.Maryam Amir Haeri, Kathrin Hartmann, Jürgen Sirsch, Georg Wenzelburger & Katharina A. Zweig - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-31.
    Algorithmic systems are increasingly used by state agencies to inform decisions about humans. They produce scores on risks of recidivism in criminal justice, indicate the probability for a job seeker to find a job in the labor market, or calculate whether an applicant should get access to a certain university program. In this contribution, we take an interdisciplinary perspective, provide a bird’s eye view of the different key decisions that are to be taken when state actors decide to use an (...)
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  58.  6
    On the Ethical and Epistemological Utility of Explicable AI in Medicine.Christian Herzog - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-31.
    In this article, I will argue in favor of both the ethical and epistemological utility of explanations in artificial intelligence -based medical technology. I will build on the notion of “explicability” due to Floridi, which considers both the intelligibility and accountability of AI systems to be important for truly delivering AI-powered services that strengthen autonomy, beneficence, and fairness. I maintain that explicable algorithms do, in fact, strengthen these ethical principles in medicine, e.g., in terms of direct patient–physician contact, as well (...)
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  59.  26
    The Moral Standing of Social Robots: Untapped Insights from Africa.Nancy S. Jecker, Caesar A. Atiure & Martin Odei Ajei - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-22.
    This paper presents an African relational view of social robots’ moral standing which draws on the philosophy of ubuntu. The introduction places the question of moral standing in historical and cultural contexts. Section 2 demonstrates an ubuntu framework by applying it to the fictional case of a social robot named Klara, taken from Ishiguro’s novel, Klara and the Sun. We argue that an ubuntu ethic assigns moral standing to Klara, based on her relational qualities and pro-social virtues. Section 3 introduces (...)
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  60.  5
    The German Act on Autonomous Driving: Why Ethics Still Matters.Alexander Kriebitz, Raphael Max & Christoph Lütge - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-13.
    The German Act on Autonomous Driving constitutes the first national framework on level four autonomous vehicles and has received attention from policy makers, AI ethics scholars and legal experts in autonomous driving. Owing to Germany’s role as a global hub for car manufacturing, the following paper sheds light on the act’s position within the ethical discourse and how it reconfigures the balance between legislation and ethical frameworks. Specifically, in this paper, we highlight areas that need to be more worked out (...)
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  61.  2
    On Pharmacology and Multistability: a Commentary on Marco Pavanini.Pieter Lemmens - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-6.
    This is a commentary piece on Marco Pavanini's article ' ‘Multistability and Derrida’s Différance: Investigating the Relations Between Postphenomenology and Stiegler’s General Organology' in which I critically extend upon his comparative analysis of postphenomenology''s notion of multistability and Stiegler's conception of organology, focusing in particular on the pharmacological nature of Stiegler's organology and the latter's most recent re-interpretation of it in terms of entropy and negentropy. Among other things I show, and both are more intended as additions than criticisms with (...)
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  62.  6
    Gadamer in a Wired Brain: Philosophical Hermeneutics and Neuralink.Matthew S. Lindia - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-17.
    In the spirit of Slavoj Žižek’s book, Hegel in a Wired Brain, this article asks how the questions central to Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics are changed and complicated by the possibility of brain-to-brain communication and the datafication of thought made potential through brain-computer interfaces. By taking a phenomenological approach to understanding the nature of communication through a technology that does not require language for the transmission of ideas, this article explores how BCI communication confronts the ontological character of interpretation as (...)
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  63.  12
    “Google Told Me So!” On the Bent Testimony of Search Engine Algorithms.Devesh Narayanan & David De Cremer - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-19.
    Search engines are important contemporary sources of information and contribute to shaping our beliefs about the world. Each time they are consulted, various algorithms filter and order content to show us relevant results for the inputted search query. Because these search engines are frequently and widely consulted, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the distinctively epistemic role that these algorithms play in the background of our online experiences. To aid in such understanding, this paper argues that search (...)
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  64. Algorithmic Political Bias in Artificial Intelligence Systems.Uwe Peters - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-23.
    Some artificial intelligence systems can display algorithmic bias, i.e. they may produce outputs that unfairly discriminate against people based on their social identity. Much research on this topic focuses on algorithmic bias that disadvantages people based on their gender or racial identity. The related ethical problems are significant and well known. Algorithmic bias against other aspects of people’s social identity, for instance, their political orientation, remains largely unexplored. This paper argues that algorithmic bias against people’s political orientation can arise in (...)
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  65.  5
    Sources of Understanding in Supervised Machine Learning Models.Paulo Pirozelli - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-19.
    In the last decades, supervised machine learning has seen the widespread growth of highly complex, non-interpretable models, of which deep neural networks are the most typical representative. Due to their complexity, these models have showed an outstanding performance in a series of tasks, as in image recognition and machine translation. Recently, though, there has been an important discussion over whether those non-interpretable models are able to provide any sort of understanding whatsoever. For some scholars, only interpretable models can provide understanding. (...)
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  66.  60
    ANNs and Unifying Explanations: Reply to Erasmus, Brunet, and Fisher.Yunus Prasetya - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-9.
    In a recent article, Erasmus, Brunet, and Fisher (2021) argue that Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are explainable. They survey four influential accounts of explanation: the Deductive-Nomological model, the Inductive-Statistical model, the Causal-Mechanical model, and the New-Mechanist model. They argue that, on each of these accounts, the features that make something an explanation is invariant with regard to the complexity of the explanans and the explanandum. Therefore, they conclude, the complexity of ANNs (and other Machine Learning models) does not make them (...)
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  67.  2
    The centrality of the machine in the thought of Jacques Lafitte.Darío Sandrone, Andrés Vaccari & Diego Lawler - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-16.
    Jacques Lafitte occupies an odd place in the philosophy of technology. He was a French engineer who made a significant and conceptually innovative contribution to this field, yet his influence has been elusive and largely ignored until relatively recently. Many of Lafitte’s ideas find echoes in the work of later philosophers, yet, notably in the case of Simondon, apparently without any direct line of influence. Lafitte placed the machine at the centre of his thinking about technology and articulated various layers (...)
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  68.  4
    Exaptation in the Co-Evolution of Technology and Mind: New Perspectives From Some Old Literature.Oliver Schlaudt - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-26.
    The term exaptation, describing the phenomenon that an existing trait or tool proves to be of new adaptive value in a new context, is flourishing in recent literature from cultural evolution and cognitive archaeology. Yet there also exists an older literature from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which studied more or less systematically the phenomenon of “change of function” in culture and tool use. Michel Foucault and Ludwig Noiré, who devoted themselves to the history of social institutions and material tools, (...)
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  69.  2
    Machines in the Triangle: a Pragmatic Interactive Approach to Information.Nadine Schumann & Yaoli Du - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-17.
    A recurrent theme of human–machine interaction is how interaction is defined and what kind of information is relevant for successful communication. In accordance with the theoretical strategies of social cognition and technical philosophy, we propose a pragmatic interactive approach, to understand the concept of information in human–machine interaction. We start with the investigation of interpersonal interaction and human–machine interaction by concerning triangulation as guiding principle. To illustrate human–machine interaction, we will mainly focus on the interactive relationship between human cognitive skills (...)
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  70.  6
    In Defence of Principlism in AI Ethics and Governance.Elizabeth Seger - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-7.
    It is widely acknowledged that high-level AI principles are difficult to translate into practices via explicit rules and design guidelines. Consequently, many AI research and development groups that claim to adopt ethics principles have been accused of unwarranted “ethics washing”. Accordingly, there remains a question as to if and how high-level principles should be expected to influence the development of safe and beneficial AI. In this short commentary I discuss two roles high-level principles might play in AI ethics and governance. (...)
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  71.  1
    The Dialectics of Action and Technology in the Philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre.Marcel Siegler - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-28.
    This investigation provides an in-depth exploration of the dialectics of action and technology in the works of French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, both in terms of the concrete use contexts of technological artifacts and the entanglement between individual agents and their sociotechnical surroundings. Furthermore, it briefly outlines some potentials of Sartre’s thoughts for debates in contemporary philosophy of technology. Throughout his works, Sartre approaches human action from different yet dialectically interrelated perspectives that are always accompanied by and developed in relation to (...)
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  72. Jean-François Lyotard and Postmodern Technoscience.Massimiliano Simons - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-19.
    Often associated with themes in political philosophy and aesthetics, the work of Jean-François Lyotard is most known for his infamous definition of the postmodern in his best-known book, La condition postmoderne, as incredulity towards metanarratives. The claim of this article is that this famous claim of Lyotard is actually embedded in a philosophy of technology, one that is, moreover, still relevant for understanding present technoscience. The first part of the article therefore sketches Lyotard’s philosophy of technology, mainly by correcting three (...)
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  73.  8
    Emotions and Digital Well-Being: on Social Media’s Emotional Affordances.Steffen Steinert & Matthew James Dennis - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-21.
    Social media technologies are routinely identified as a strong and pervasive threat to digital well-being. Extended screen time sessions, chronic distractions via notifications, and fragmented workflows have all been blamed on how these technologies ruthlessly undermine our ability to exercise quintessential human faculties. One reason SMTs can do this is because they powerfully affect our emotions. Nevertheless, how social media technology affects our emotional life and how these emotions relate to our digital well-being remain unexplored. Remedying this is important because (...)
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  74.  9
    Understanding Technology-Induced Value Change: A Pragmatist Proposal.Ibo van de Poel & Olya Kudina - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-24.
    We propose a pragmatist account of value change that helps to understand how and why values sometimes change due to technological developments. Inspired by John Dewey’s writings on value, we propose to understand values as evaluative devices that carry over from earlier experiences and that are to some extent shared in society. We discuss the various functions that values fulfil in moral inquiry and propose a conceptual framework that helps to understand value change as the interaction between three manifestations of (...)
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  75.  52
    The Struggle for AI’s Recognition: Understanding the Normative Implications of Gender Bias in AI with Honneth’s Theory of Recognition.Rosalie Waelen & Michał Wieczorek - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2).
    AI systems have often been found to contain gender biases. As a result of these gender biases, AI routinely fails to adequately recognize the needs, rights, and accomplishments of women. In this article, we use Axel Honneth’s theory of recognition to argue that AI’s gender biases are not only an ethical problem because they can lead to discrimination, but also because they resemble forms of misrecognition that can hurt women’s self-development and self-worth. Furthermore, we argue that Honneth’s theory of recognition (...)
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  76.  4
    Becoming-Mobile: the Philosophy of Technology of Deleuze and Guattari.Galit Wellner - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-25.
    Deleuze and Guattari’s Thousand Plateaus includes some useful concepts to understand technologies and their relations to humans as individuals and as a society. This article provides an introduction to their notions of machine and becoming and places them in the context of technological use in general, with a special focus on the cellphone. The concept of machine exceeds the technological context, yet it can be still relevant to technologies, especially digital ones. The concept of becoming assists in better understanding co-shaping (...)
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  77. On the Duty to Be an Attention Ecologist.Tim Aylsworth & Clinton Castro - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-22.
    The attention economy — the market where consumers’ attention is exchanged for goods and services — poses a variety of threats to individuals’ autonomy, which, at minimum, involves the ability to set and pursue ends for oneself. It has been argued that the threat wireless mobile devices pose to autonomy gives rise to a duty to oneself to be a digital minimalist, one whose interactions with digital technologies are intentional such that they do not conflict with their ends. In this (...)
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  78.  28
    From Responsibility to Reason-Giving Explainable Artificial Intelligence.Kevin Baum, Susanne Mantel, Timo Speith & Eva Schmidt - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-30.
    We argue that explainable artificial intelligence (XAI), specifically reason-giving XAI, often constitutes the most suitable way of ensuring that someone can properly be held responsible for decisions that are based on the outputs of artificial intelligent (AI) systems. We first show that, to close moral responsibility gaps (Matthias 2004), often a human in the loop is needed who is directly responsible for particular AI-supported decisions. Second, we appeal to the epistemic condition on moral responsibility to argue that, in order to (...)
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  79.  3
    Commentary: “Whiteness and Colourblindness”.Gerd Bayer - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-5.
    This commentary argues that, in discussing the racial and cultural identities of cinematic representations of humanoid AI robots, nuances and differentiations are beneficial. It suggests that the essay on which the present text comments does not sufficiently acknowledge the range of identities found in AI films, in particular in Alex Garland's Ex Machina.
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  80.  10
    Can Robots Do Epidemiology? Machine Learning, Causal Inference, and Predicting the Outcomes of Public Health Interventions.Alex Broadbent & Thomas Grote - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-22.
    This paper argues that machine learning and epidemiology are on collision course over causation. The discipline of epidemiology lays great emphasis on causation, while ML research does not. Some epidemiologists have proposed imposing what amounts to a causal constraint on ML in epidemiology, requiring it either to engage in causal inference or restrict itself to mere projection. We whittle down the issues to the question of whether causal knowledge is necessary for underwriting predictions about the outcomes of public health interventions. (...)
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  81.  2
    Biobanks as Exteriorized Memories of Life.Emanuele Clarizio - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-18.
    The aim of this article is to consider biobanks through the conceptual tools of French Thought and twentieth-century French philosophy of technology. Firstly, two pairs of authors and their respective conceptions of the relationship between technics and memory are considered: on the one hand, Jacques Derrida and Bernard Stiegler, who thought of memory and technics on the model of writing; on the other hand, Henri Bergson and André Leroi-Gourhan, who thought of memory as linked to biological life, and of technics (...)
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  82.  17
    Incorporation, Transparency and Cognitive Extension: Why the Distinction Between Embedded and Extended Might Be More Important to Ethics Than to Metaphysics.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-21.
    We begin by introducing our readers to the Extended Mind Thesis and briefly discuss a series of arguments in its favour. We continue by showing of such a theory can be resisted and go on to demonstrate that a more conservative account of cognition can be developed. We acknowledge a stalemate between these two different accounts of cognition and notice a couple of issues that we argue have prevented further progress in the field. To overcome the stalemate, we propose to (...)
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  83.  19
    Through the Newsfeed Glass: Rethinking Filter Bubbles and Echo Chambers.Giacomo Figà Talamanca & Selene Arfini - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-34.
    In this paper, we will re-elaborate the notions of filter bubble and of echo chamber by considering human cognitive systems’ limitations in everyday interactions and how they experience digital technologies. Researchers who applied the concept of filter bubble and echo chambers in empirical investigations see them as forms of algorithmically-caused systems that seclude the users of digital technologies from viewpoints and opinions that oppose theirs. However, a significant majority of empirical research has shown that users do find and interact with (...)
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  84.  6
    How to Counter Moral Evil: Paideia and Nomos.Luciano Floridi - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-5.
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  85.  5
    Accuracy and Interpretability: Struggling with the Epistemic Foundations of Machine Learning-Generated Medical Information and Their Practical Implications for the Doctor-Patient Relationship.Florian Funer - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-20.
    The initial successes in recent years in harnessing machine learning technologies to improve medical practice and benefit patients have attracted attention in a wide range of healthcare fields. Particularly, it should be achieved by providing automated decision recommendations to the treating clinician. Some hopes placed in such ML-based systems for healthcare, however, seem to be unwarranted, at least partially because of their inherent lack of transparency, although their results seem convincing in accuracy and reliability. Skepticism arises when the physician as (...)
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  86.  9
    How to protect privacy in a datafied society? A presentation of multiple legal and conceptual approaches.Oskar J. Gstrein & Anne Beaulieu - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-38.
    The United Nations confirmed that privacy remains a human right in the digital age, but our daily digital experiences and seemingly ever-increasing amounts of data suggest that privacy is a mundane, distributed and technologically mediated concept. This article explores privacy by mapping out different legal and conceptual approaches to privacy protection in the context of datafication. It provides an essential starting point to explore the entwinement of technological, ethical and regulatory dynamics. It clarifies why each of the presented approaches emphasises (...)
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  87.  8
    People Prefer Moral Discretion to Algorithms: Algorithm Aversion Beyond Intransparency.Johanna Jauernig, Matthias Uhl & Gari Walkowitz - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-25.
    We explore aversion to the use of algorithms in moral decision-making. So far, this aversion has been explained mainly by the fear of opaque decisions that are potentially biased. Using incentivized experiments, we study which role the desire for human discretion in moral decision-making plays. This seems justified in light of evidence suggesting that people might not doubt the quality of algorithmic decisions, but still reject them. In our first study, we found that people prefer humans with decision-making discretion to (...)
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  88.  25
    Government Surveillance, Privacy, and Legitimacy.Peter Königs - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-22.
    The recent decades have seen established liberal democracies expand their surveillance capacities on a massive scale. This article explores what is problematic about government surveillance by democracies. It proceeds by distinguishing three potential sources of concern: the concern that governments diminish citizens’ privacy by collecting their data, the concern that they diminish their privacy by accessing their data, and the concern that the collected data may be used for objectionable purposes. Discussing the meaning and value of privacy, the article argues (...)
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  89.  4
    Zombies in the Loop? Humans Trust Untrustworthy AI-Advisors for Ethical Decisions.Sebastian Krügel, Andreas Ostermaier & Matthias Uhl - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-37.
    Departing from the claim that AI needs to be trustworthy, we find that ethical advice from an AI-powered algorithm is trusted even when its users know nothing about its training data and when they learn information about it that warrants distrust. We conducted online experiments where the subjects took the role of decision-makers who received advice from an algorithm on how to deal with an ethical dilemma. We manipulated the information about the algorithm and studied its influence. Our findings suggest (...)
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  90.  3
    The Technical Ob-ject at Its Limit: Derrida, Reader of Husserl.Elise Lamy-Rested - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-15.
    Bernard Stiegler was the first distinguished critic to have recognized that Derrida’s deconstruction is, concurrently, a philosophy of techniques. Stiegler’s perceptive thesis is widely endorsed by Derrida's recent commentators. It is possible to locate in Derrida’s earliest writings a reflection on the genesis of the “technical supplement,” which allows us to situate Derridan philosophy in a specific tradition concerned with the philosophy of techniques. By thinking of Life—and not Man—as a producer of “technical objects,” Derrida joins a well-established philosophical lineage, (...)
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  91.  12
    Multistability and Derrida’s Différance: Investigating the Relations Between Postphenomenology and Stiegler’s General Organology.Marco Pavanini - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-22.
    In this paper, in the first place, I aim to enquire into Bernard Stiegler’s critical appropriation of his mentor Jacques Derrida’s notion of différance, emphasizing how Stiegler’s philosophy of technology stems from an original interpretation of the main tenets of deconstruction. From this perspective, I will investigate Stiegler’s definition of technology as tertiary retention, i.e., exosomatized, artificial memory interrelating with biological memory, testing its hermeneutic strengths as well as possible weaknesses. In the second place, I aim to contrast Stiegler’s understanding (...)
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  92.  10
    Images of Artificial Intelligence: a Blind Spot in AI Ethics.Alberto Romele - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-19.
    This paper argues that the AI ethics has generally neglected the issues related to the science communication of AI. In particular, the article focuses on visual communication about AI and, more specifically, on the use of certain stock images in science communication about AI — in particular, those characterized by an excessive use of blue color and recurrent subjects, such as androgyne faces, half-flesh and half-circuit brains, and variations on Michelangelo’s The Creation of Adam. In the first section, the author (...)
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  93. Augmented Reality, Augmented Epistemology, and the Real-World Web.Cody Turner - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-28.
    Augmented reality (AR) technologies function to ‘augment’ normal perception by superimposing virtual objects onto an agent’s visual field. The philosophy of augmented reality is a small but growing subfield within the philosophy of technology. Existing work in this subfield includes research on the phenomenology of augmented experiences, the metaphysics of virtual objects, and different ethical issues associated with AR systems, including (but not limited to) issues of privacy, property rights, ownership, trust, and informed consent. This paper addresses some epistemological issues (...)
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  94.  11
    When Doctors and AI Interact: on Human Responsibility for Artificial Risks.Mario Verdicchio & Andrea Perin - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-28.
    A discussion concerning whether to conceive Artificial Intelligence systems as responsible moral entities, also known as “artificial moral agents”, has been going on for some time. In this regard, we argue that the notion of “moral agency” is to be attributed only to humans based on their autonomy and sentience, which AI systems lack. We analyze human responsibility in the presence of AI systems in terms of meaningful control and due diligence and argue against fully automated systems in medicine. With (...)
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    Why AI Ethics Is a Critical Theory.Rosalie Waelen - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-16.
    The ethics of artificial intelligence is an upcoming field of research that deals with the ethical assessment of emerging AI applications and addresses the new kinds of moral questions that the advent of AI raises. The argument presented in this article is that, even though there exist different approaches and subfields within the ethics of AI, the field resembles a critical theory. Just like a critical theory, the ethics of AI aims to diagnose as well as change society and is (...)
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  96.  22
    Causation in a Virtual World: a Mechanistic Approach.Billy Wheeler - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-26.
    Objects appear to causally interact with one another in virtual worlds, such as video games, virtual reality, and training simulations. Is this causation real or is it illusory? In this paper I argue that virtual causation is as real as physical causation. I achieve this in two steps: firstly, I show how virtual causation has all the important hallmarks of relations that are causal, as opposed to merely accidental, and secondly, I show how virtual causation is genuine according to one (...)
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    The Role of Human Creativity in Human-Technology Relations.Vincent Blok - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 1 (3):1-19.
    One of the pressing issues in philosophy of technology is the role of human creativity in human-technology relations. We first observe that a techno-centric orientation of philosophy of technology leaves open the role and contribution of human creativity in technological evolution, while an anthropocentric orientation leaves open the role of the technical milieu in technological evolution. Subsequently, we develop a concept of creation as deviation and responsiveness in response to affordances in the environment, inspired by the affordance theory by James (...)
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