Year:

  1.  9
    Digital time: latency, real-time, and the onlife experience of everyday time.Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (3):407–⁠412.
    Digital technologies create and shape our environments, the infosphere, where we spend increasingly more time. Through exploration of such concepts as "latency", "real time" and "unreal time", this article discusses how time has changed due to the digital revolution over the past half-century.
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  2.  1
    Control and Ownership of Neuroprosthetic Speech.Hannah Maslen & Stephen Rainey - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (3):425-445.
    Implantable brain-computer interfaces are being developed to restore speech capacity for those who are unable to speak. Patients with locked-in syndrome or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis could be able to use covert speech – vividly imagining saying something without actual vocalisation – to trigger neural controlled systems capable of synthesising speech. User control has been identified as particularly pressing for this type of BCI. The incorporation of machine learning and statistical language models into the decoding process introduces a contribution to the (...)
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  3.  11
    Technological Capital: Bourdieu, Postphenomenology, and the Philosophy of Technology Beyond the Empirical Turn.Alberto Romele - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (3):483-505.
    This article builds on the hypothesis that theoretical approaches to philosophy of technology are currently stuck in a false alternative: either embrace the “empirical turn” or jump back into the determinism, pessimism, and general ignorance towards specific technologies that characterized the “humanities philosophy of technology.” A third path is however possible, which consists of articulating an empirical point of view with an interest in the symbolic dimension in which technologies and technological mediations are always already embedded. Bourdieu’s sociology of the (...)
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  4.  35
    Digital Wellness and Persuasive Technologies.Laura Specker Sullivan & Peter Reiner - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (3):413-424.
    The development of personal technologies has recently shifted from devices that seek to capture user attention to those that aim to improve user well-being. Digital wellness technologies use the same attractive qualities of other persuasive apps to motivate users towards behaviors that are personally and socially valuable, such as exercise, wealth-management, and meaningful communication. While these aims are certainly an improvement over the market-driven motivations of earlier technologies, they retain their predecessors’ focus on influencing user behavior as a primary metric (...)
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  5.  11
    Is Big Data the New Stethoscope? Perils of Digital Phenotyping to Address Mental Illness.Şerife Tekin - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (3):447-461.
    Advances in applications of artificial intelligence and the use of data analytics technology in biomedicine are creating optimism, as many believe these technologies will fill the need-availability gap by increasing resources for mental health care. One resource considered especially promising is smartphone psychotherapy chatbots, i.e., artificially intelligent bots that offer cognitive behavior therapy to their users with the aim of helping them improve their mental health. While a number of studies have highlighted the positive outcomes of using smartphone psychotherapy chatbots (...)
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  6.  7
    Synergies in Innovation: Lessons Learnt from Innovation Ethics for Responsible Innovation.Michel Bourban & Johan Rochel - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):373-394.
    This paper draws on the emerging field of innovation ethics to complement the more established field of responsible innovation by focusing on key ethical issues raised by technological innovations. One key limitation of influential frameworks of RI is that they tend to neglect some key ethical issues raised by innovation, as well as major normative dimensions of the notion of responsibility. We explain how IE could enrich RI by stressing the more important role that ethical analysis should play in RI. (...)
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  7.  13
    The European Legislation on AI: A Brief Analysis of its Philosophical Approach.Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):215–⁠222.
    On 21 April 2021, the European Commission published the proposal of the new EU Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) — one of the most influential steps taken so far to regulate AI internationally. This article highlights some foundational aspects of the Act and analyses the philosophy behind its proposal.
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  8.  9
    Theorizing Digital Distraction.Mark L. Hanin - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):395-406.
    This commentary contributes to philosophical reflection on the growing challenge of digital distraction and the value of attention in the digital age. It clarifies the nature of the problem in conceptual and historical terms; analyzes “freedom of attention” as an organizing ideal for moral and political theorizing; considers some constraints of political morality on coercive state action to bolster users’ attentional resources; comments on corporate moral responsibility; and touches on some reform ideas. In particular, the commentary develops a response to (...)
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  9.  1
    Hybrids and the Boundaries of Moral Considerability or Revisiting the Idea of Non-Instrumental Value.Magdalena Holy-Luczaj & Vincent Blok - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):223-242.
    The transgressive ontological character of hybrids—entities crossing the ontological binarism of naturalness and artificiality, e.g., biomimetic projects—calls for pondering the question of their ethical status, since metaphysical and moral ideas are often inextricably linked. The example of it is the concept of “moral considerability” and related to it the idea of “intrinsic value” understood as a non-instrumentality of a being. Such an approach excludes hybrids from moral considerations due to their instrumental character. In the paper, we revisit the boundaries of (...)
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  10.  3
    Hybrids and the Boundaries of Moral Considerability or Revisiting the Idea of Non-Instrumental Value.Magdalena Holy-Luczaj & Vincent Blok - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):223-242.
    The transgressive ontological character of hybrids—entities crossing the ontological binarism of naturalness and artificiality, e.g., biomimetic projects—calls for pondering the question of their ethical status, since metaphysical and moral ideas are often inextricably linked. The example of it is the concept of “moral considerability” and related to it the idea of “intrinsic value” understood as a non-instrumentality of a being. Such an approach excludes hybrids from moral considerations due to their instrumental character. In the paper, we revisit the boundaries of (...)
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  11.  3
    Hybrids and the Boundaries of Moral Considerability or Revisiting the Idea of Non-Instrumental Value.Magdalena Holy-Luczaj & Vincent Blok - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):223-242.
    The transgressive ontological character of hybrids—entities crossing the ontological binarism of naturalness and artificiality, e.g., biomimetic projects—calls for pondering the question of their ethical status, since metaphysical and moral ideas are often inextricably linked. The example of it is the concept of “moral considerability” and related to it the idea of “intrinsic value” understood as a non-instrumentality of a being. Such an approach excludes hybrids from moral considerations due to their instrumental character. In the paper, we revisit the boundaries of (...)
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  12.  4
    Online Aristotelian Character Friendship as an Augmented Form of Penpalship.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):289-307.
    This paper adds ammunition to recent arguments for the possibility of online character friendships in the Aristotelian sense. It does so by exploring sustained and deep email correspondence or epalship as a potential venue for the creation, development and maintenance of character friendships, and by drawing an analogy with a historically famous example of penpalship: that forged between Voltaire and Catherine the Great. It is argued that epalships allow for various technological extensions in the cyberworld of today that were not (...)
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  13.  6
    Online Aristotelian Character Friendship as an Augmented Form of Penpalship.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):289-307.
    This paper adds ammunition to recent arguments for the possibility of online character friendships in the Aristotelian sense. It does so by exploring sustained and deep email correspondence or epalship as a potential venue for the creation, development and maintenance of character friendships, and by drawing an analogy with a historically famous example of penpalship: that forged between Voltaire and Catherine the Great. It is argued that epalships allow for various technological extensions in the cyberworld of today that were not (...)
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  14.  3
    Online Aristotelian Character Friendship as an Augmented Form of Penpalship.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):289-307.
    This paper adds ammunition to recent arguments for the possibility of online character friendships in the Aristotelian sense. It does so by exploring sustained and deep email correspondence or epalship as a potential venue for the creation, development and maintenance of character friendships, and by drawing an analogy with a historically famous example of penpalship: that forged between Voltaire and Catherine the Great. It is argued that epalships allow for various technological extensions in the cyberworld of today that were not (...)
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  15.  3
    Online Aristotelian Character Friendship as an Augmented Form of Penpalship.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):289-307.
    This paper adds ammunition to recent arguments for the possibility of online character friendships in the Aristotelian sense. It does so by exploring sustained and deep email correspondence or epalship as a potential venue for the creation, development and maintenance of character friendships, and by drawing an analogy with a historically famous example of penpalship: that forged between Voltaire and Catherine the Great. It is argued that epalships allow for various technological extensions in the cyberworld of today that were not (...)
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  16.  9
    Data and Temporality in the Spectral City.Nathan A. Olmstead - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):243-263.
    Rapid urbanization has meant that cities around the world must deal with problems like traffic congestion, aging infrastructure, affordable housing, and climate change. Increasingly, policymakers are turning to investments in technology and digital infrastructure to address these problems. Yet the move towards so-called smart cities is not simply responsive, and policymakers increasingly advocate for smart city initiatives as a necessary step towards objective, efficient, and rational governance. This understanding of technological interventions as inherently progressive, however, causes many to overlook the (...)
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  17.  2
    Data and Temporality in the Spectral City.Nathan A. Olmstead - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):243-263.
    Rapid urbanization has meant that cities around the world must deal with problems like traffic congestion, aging infrastructure, affordable housing, and climate change. Increasingly, policymakers are turning to investments in technology and digital infrastructure to address these problems. Yet the move towards so-called smart cities is not simply responsive, and policymakers increasingly advocate for smart city initiatives as a necessary step towards objective, efficient, and rational governance. This understanding of technological interventions as inherently progressive, however, causes many to overlook the (...)
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  18.  3
    Data and Temporality in the Spectral City.Nathan A. Olmstead - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):243-263.
    Rapid urbanization has meant that cities around the world must deal with problems like traffic congestion, aging infrastructure, affordable housing, and climate change. Increasingly, policymakers are turning to investments in technology and digital infrastructure to address these problems. Yet the move towards so-called smart cities is not simply responsive, and policymakers increasingly advocate for smart city initiatives as a necessary step towards objective, efficient, and rational governance. This understanding of technological interventions as inherently progressive, however, causes many to overlook the (...)
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  19.  12
    Technology in the Age of Innovation: Responsible Innovation as a New Subdomain Within the Philosophy of Technology.Lucien von Schomberg & Vincent Blok - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):309-323.
    Praised as a panacea for resolving all societal issues, and self-evidently presupposed as technological innovation, the concept of innovation has become the emblem of our age. This is especially reflected in the context of the European Union, where it is considered to play a central role in both strengthening the economy and confronting the current environmental crisis. The pressing question is how technological innovation can be steered into the right direction. To this end, recent frameworks of Responsible Innovation focus on (...)
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  20.  3
    Technology in the Age of Innovation: Responsible Innovation as a New Subdomain Within the Philosophy of Technology.Lucien von Schomberg & Vincent Blok - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):309-323.
    Praised as a panacea for resolving all societal issues, and self-evidently presupposed as technological innovation, the concept of innovation has become the emblem of our age. This is especially reflected in the context of the European Union, where it is considered to play a central role in both strengthening the economy and confronting the current environmental crisis. The pressing question is how technological innovation can be steered into the right direction. To this end, recent frameworks of Responsible Innovation focus on (...)
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  21.  6
    Technology in the Age of Innovation: Responsible Innovation as a New Subdomain Within the Philosophy of Technology.Lucien von Schomberg & Vincent Blok - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):309-323.
    Praised as a panacea for resolving all societal issues, and self-evidently presupposed as technological innovation, the concept of innovation has become the emblem of our age. This is especially reflected in the context of the European Union, where it is considered to play a central role in both strengthening the economy and confronting the current environmental crisis. The pressing question is how technological innovation can be steered into the right direction. To this end, recent frameworks of Responsible Innovation focus on (...)
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  22.  32
    Solving the Black Box Problem: A Normative Framework for Explainable Artificial Intelligence.Carlos Zednik - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):265-288.
    Many of the computing systems programmed using Machine Learning are opaque: it is difficult to know why they do what they do or how they work. Explainable Artificial Intelligence aims to develop analytic techniques that render opaque computing systems transparent, but lacks a normative framework with which to evaluate these techniques’ explanatory successes. The aim of the present discussion is to develop such a framework, paying particular attention to different stakeholders’ distinct explanatory requirements. Building on an analysis of “opacity” from (...)
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  23.  12
    Solving the Black Box Problem: A Normative Framework for Explainable Artificial Intelligence.Carlos Zednik - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):265-288.
    Many of the computing systems programmed using Machine Learning are opaque: it is difficult to know why they do what they do or how they work. Explainable Artificial Intelligence aims to develop analytic techniques that render opaque computing systems transparent, but lacks a normative framework with which to evaluate these techniques’ explanatory successes. The aim of the present discussion is to develop such a framework, paying particular attention to different stakeholders’ distinct explanatory requirements. Building on an analysis of “opacity” from (...)
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  24.  5
    From Curry to Haskell.Felice Cardone - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):57-74.
    We expose some basic elements of a style of programming supported by functional languages like Haskell by relating them to a coherent set of notions and techniques from Curry’s work in combinatory logic and formal systems, and their algebraic and categorical interpretations. Our account takes the form of a commentary to a simple fragment of Haskell code attempting to isolate the conceptual sources of the linguistic abstractions involved.
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  25.  2
    Middleware’s Message: the Financial Technics of Codata.Michael Castelle - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):33-55.
    In this paper, I will argue for the relevance of certain distinctive features of messaging systems, namely those in which data can be sent and received asynchronously, can be sent to multiple simultaneous recipients and is received as a “potentially infinite” flow of unpredictable events. I will describe the social technology of the stock ticker, a telegraphic device introduced at the New York Stock Exchange in the 1860s, with reference to early twentieth century philosophers of synchronous experience, simultaneous sign interpretations, (...)
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  26.  2
    Middleware’s Message: the Financial Technics of Codata.Michael Castelle - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):33-55.
    In this paper, I will argue for the relevance of certain distinctive features of messaging systems, namely those in which data can be sent and received asynchronously, can be sent to multiple simultaneous recipients and is received as a “potentially infinite” flow of unpredictable events. I will describe the social technology of the stock ticker, a telegraphic device introduced at the New York Stock Exchange in the 1860s, with reference to early twentieth century philosophers of synchronous experience, simultaneous sign interpretations, (...)
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  27.  1
    Middleware’s Message: the Financial Technics of Codata.Michael Castelle - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):33-55.
    In this paper, I will argue for the relevance of certain distinctive features of messaging systems, namely those in which data can be sent and received asynchronously, can be sent to multiple simultaneous recipients and is received as a “potentially infinite” flow of unpredictable events. I will describe the social technology of the stock ticker, a telegraphic device introduced at the New York Stock Exchange in the 1860s, with reference to early twentieth century philosophers of synchronous experience, simultaneous sign interpretations, (...)
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  28.  2
    Middleware’s Message: the Financial Technics of Codata.Michael Castelle - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):33-55.
    In this paper, I will argue for the relevance of certain distinctive features of messaging systems, namely those in which data can be sent and received asynchronously, can be sent to multiple simultaneous recipients and is received as a “potentially infinite” flow of unpredictable events. I will describe the social technology of the stock ticker, a telegraphic device introduced at the New York Stock Exchange in the 1860s, with reference to early twentieth century philosophers of synchronous experience, simultaneous sign interpretations, (...)
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  29.  2
    A Formal Framework for Computer Simulations: Surveying the Historical Record and Finding Their Philosophical Roots.Juan M. Durán - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):105-127.
    A chronicled approach to the notion of computer simulations shows that there are two predominant interpretations in the specialized literature. According to the first interpretation, computer simulations are techniques for finding the set of solutions to a mathematical model. I call this first interpretation the problem-solving technique viewpoint. In its second interpretation, computer simulations are considered to describe patterns of behavior of a target system. I call this second interpretation the description of patterns of behavior viewpoint of computer simulations. This (...)
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  30.  3
    A Formal Framework for Computer Simulations: Surveying the Historical Record and Finding Their Philosophical Roots.Juan M. Durán - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):105-127.
    A chronicled approach to the notion of computer simulations shows that there are two predominant interpretations in the specialized literature. According to the first interpretation, computer simulations are techniques for finding the set of solutions to a mathematical model. I call this first interpretation the problem-solving technique viewpoint. In its second interpretation, computer simulations are considered to describe patterns of behavior of a target system. I call this second interpretation the description of patterns of behavior viewpoint of computer simulations. This (...)
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  31.  7
    Concepts of Solution and the Finite Element Method: A Philosophical Take on Variational Crimes.Nicolas Fillion & Robert M. Corless - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):129-148.
    Despite being one of the most dependable methods used by applied mathematicians and engineers in handling complex systems, the finite element method commits variational crimes. This paper contextualizes the concept of variational crime within a broader account of mathematical practice by explaining the tradeoff between complexity and accuracy involved in the construction of numerical methods. We articulate two standards of accuracy used to determine whether inexact solutions are good enough and show that, despite violating the justificatory principles of one, the (...)
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  32.  30
    Trump, Parler, and Regulating the Infosphere as Our Commons.Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):1–⁠5.
    Following the storming of the US Capitol building, Donald Trump became digitally toxic, and was deplatformed from Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube—as well as a host of other social media networks. Subsequent debate has centred on the questions of whether these companies did the right thing and the possible ramifications of their actions for the future of digital societies along with their democratic organisation. This article seeks to answer this question through examining complex, and seemingly contradictory notions (legality and the (...)
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  33.  23
    Why Can Computers Understand Natural Language?: The Structuralist Image of Language Behind Word Embeddings.Juan Luis Gastaldi - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):149-214.
    The present paper intends to draw the conception of language implied in the technique of word embeddings that supported the recent development of deep neural network models in computational linguistics. After a preliminary presentation of the basic functioning of elementary artificial neural networks, we introduce the motivations and capabilities of word embeddings through one of its pioneering models, word2vec. To assess the remarkable results of the latter, we inspect the nature of its underlying mechanisms, which have been characterized as the (...)
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  34.  7
    Foo, Bar, Baz…: The Metasyntactic Variable and the Programming Language Hierarchy.Brian Lennon - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):13-32.
    This article argues that the English-language nonsense words “foo,” “bar,” “baz,” and others in a more or less standardized sequence of so-called metasyntactic variables commonly used in computer programming ought to be understood as meta-abstractive, re-representing a linguistically derived code’s abstraction of language and the abstraction of the programming language hierarchy itself, making it legible in a manner that rewards culturally oriented study: for example, of programming as a culture and of cultures of software development or engineering.
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  35.  1
    Foo, Bar, Baz…: The Metasyntactic Variable and the Programming Language Hierarchy.Brian Lennon - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):13-32.
    This article argues that the English-language nonsense words “foo,” “bar,” “baz,” and others in a more or less standardized sequence of so-called metasyntactic variables commonly used in computer programming ought to be understood as meta-abstractive, re-representing a linguistically derived code’s abstraction of language and the abstraction of the programming language hierarchy itself, making it legible in a manner that rewards culturally oriented study: for example, of programming as a culture and of cultures of software development or engineering.
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  36.  3
    Foo, Bar, Baz…: The Metasyntactic Variable and the Programming Language Hierarchy.Brian Lennon - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):13-32.
    This article argues that the English-language nonsense words “foo,” “bar,” “baz,” and others in a more or less standardized sequence of so-called metasyntactic variables commonly used in computer programming ought to be understood as meta-abstractive, re-representing a linguistically derived code’s abstraction of language and the abstraction of the programming language hierarchy itself, making it legible in a manner that rewards culturally oriented study: for example, of programming as a culture and of cultures of software development or engineering.
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  37.  1
    Foo, Bar, Baz…: The Metasyntactic Variable and the Programming Language Hierarchy.Brian Lennon - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):13-32.
    This article argues that the English-language nonsense words “foo,” “bar,” “baz,” and others in a more or less standardized sequence of so-called metasyntactic variables commonly used in computer programming ought to be understood as meta-abstractive, re-representing a linguistically derived code’s abstraction of language and the abstraction of the programming language hierarchy itself, making it legible in a manner that rewards culturally oriented study: for example, of programming as a culture and of cultures of software development or engineering.
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  38.  9
    Reciprocal Influences Between Proof Theory and Logic Programming.Dale Miller - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):75-104.
    The topics of structural proof theory and logic programming have influenced each other for more than three decades. Proof theory has contributed the notion of sequent calculus, linear logic, and higher-order quantification. Logic programming has introduced new normal forms of proofs and forced the examination of logic-based approaches to the treatment of bindings. As a result, proof theory has responded by developing an approach to proof search based on focused proof systems in which introduction rules are organized into two alternating (...)
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  39.  3
    Computing and Programming in Context—Introduction.Tomas Petricek - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):7-11.
    In a society where computers have become ubiquitous, it is necessary to develop a broader understanding of the nature of computing and programming, not just from a technical viewpoint but also from a historical and philosophical perspective. Computers and computer programs do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, they are a part of a rich socio-technological context that provides ways for understanding computers and reasoning about programs. This includes not only formal logic, mathematics, sciences, and technology but also cognitive sciences (...)
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  40.  2
    Technology in the Age of Innovation: Responsible Innovation as a New Subdomain Within the Philosophy of Technology.Lucien Schomberg & Vincent Blok - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34:309–323.
    Praised as a panacea for resolving all societal issues, and self-evidently presupposed as technological innovation, the concept of innovation has become the emblem of our age. This is especially reflected in the context of the European Union, where it is considered to play a central role in both strengthening the economy and confronting the current environmental crisis. The pressing question is how technological innovation can be steered into the right direction. To this end, recent frameworks of Responsible Innovation focus on (...)
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  41. Experimental Philosophy of Technology.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology:1-20.
    Experimental philosophy is a relatively recent discipline that employs experimental methods to investigate the intuitions, concepts, and assumptions behind traditional philosophical arguments, problems, and theories. While experimental philosophy initially served to interrogate the role that intuitions play in philosophy, it has since branched out to bring empirical methods to bear on problems within a variety of traditional areas of philosophy—including metaphysics, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, and epistemology. To date, no connection has been made between developments in experimental philosophy (...)
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  42.  7
    Regulations Matter: Epistemic Monopoly, Domination, Patents, and the Public Interest.Zahra Meghani - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology (tba):1-26.
    This paper argues that regulatory agencies have a responsibility to further the public interest when they determine the conditions under which new technological products may be commercialized. As a case study, this paper analyzes the US 9th Circuit Court’s ruling on the efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate an herbicide meant for use with seed that are genetically modified to be tolerant of the chemical. Using that case, it is argued that when regulatory agencies evaluate new technological (...)
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  43. Group Agency and Artificial Intelligence.Christian List - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology:1-30.
    The aim of this exploratory paper is to review an under-appreciated parallel between group agency and artificial intelligence. As both phenomena involve non-human goal-directed agents that can make a difference to the social world, they raise some similar moral and regulatory challenges, which require us to rethink some of our anthropocentric moral assumptions. Are humans always responsible for those entities’ actions, or could the entities bear responsibility themselves? Could the entities engage in normative reasoning? Could they even have rights and (...)
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