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Gyula Klima
Fordham University
  1.  53
    John Buridan.Gyula Klima - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    Buridan's life, works, and influence -- Buridan's logic and the medieval logical tradition -- The primacy of mental language -- The various kinds of concepts and the idea of a mental language -- Natural language and the idea of a formal syntax in Buridan -- Existential import and the square of opposition -- Ontological commitment -- The properties of terms (proprietates terminorum) -- The semantics of propositions -- Logical validity in a token-based, semantically closed logic -- The possibility of scientific (...)
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  2.  83
    Existence and Reference in Medieval Logic.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    “The expression ‘free logic’ is an abbreviation for the phrase ‘free of existence assumptions with respect to its terms, general and singular’.”1 Classical quantification theory is not a free logic in this sense, as its standard formulations commonly assume that every singular term in every model is assigned a referent, an element of the universe of discourse. Indeed, since singular terms include not only singular constants, but also variables2, standard quantification theory may be regarded as involving even the assumption of (...)
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  3.  62
    Medieval Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary.Gyula Klima, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Jayprakash Vaidya (eds.) - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This collection of readings with extensive editorial commentary brings together key texts of the most influential philosophers of the medieval era to provide a comprehensive introduction for students of philosophy. Features the writings of Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Boethius, John Duns Scotus and other leading medieval thinkers Features several new translations of key thinkers of the medieval era, including John Buridan and Averroes Readings are accompanied by expert commentary from the editors, who are leading scholars in the field.
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  4.  87
    The Medieval Problem of Universals.Gyula Klima - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    “The problem of universals” in general is a historically variable bundle of several closely related, yet in different conceptual frameworks rather differently articulated metaphysical, logical, and epistemological questions, ultimately all connected to the issue of how universal cognition of singular things is possible. How do we know, for example, that the Pythagorean theorem holds universally, for all possible right triangles? Indeed, how can we have any awareness of a potential infinity of all possible right triangles, given that we could only (...)
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  5.  7
    John Buridan.Gyula Klima - 2009 - In H. Lagerlund (ed.), Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Springer. pp. 597--603.
    This is a brief, accessible introduction to the thought of the philosopher John Buridan (ca. 1295-1361). Little is known about Buridan's life, most of which was spent studying and then teaching at the University of Paris. Buridan's works are mostly by-products of his teaching. They consist mainly of commentaries on Aristotle, covering the whole extent of Aristotelian philosophy, ranging from logic to metaphysics, to natural science, to ethics and politics. Gyula Klima argues that many of Buridan's academic concerns are strikingly (...)
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  6.  6
    Aquinas’s Real Distinction and Its Role in a Causal Proof of God’s Existence.Gyula Klima - 2019 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 67 (4):7-26.
    This paper is not going to offer any criticism of the way Gaven Kerr treats Aquinas’ argument. Instead, it offers an alternative way of reconstructing Aquinas’ argument, intending to strengthen especially those controversial aspects of it that Kerr’s reconstruction left untreated or in relative obscurity. Accordingly, although the paper’s treatment will have to have some overlaps with Kerr’s, it will deal with issues essential to adequate replies to certain competent criticisms of his argument untreated by Kerr. For the sake of (...)
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  7. Aquinas' Theory of the Copula and the Analogy of Being.Gyula Klima - 2002 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 5:159-176.
    This paper primarily aims to provide a coherent interpretation of several, apparently conflicting claims made by Aquinas concerning the semantic function of the copula. The paper also argues that these claims can properly be understood only if they are interpreted as forming a coherent part of Aquinas' larger theory of the analogy of being. The Appendix sketches a model theoretical semantics for the reconstruction of Aquinas' relevant ideas, providing the technical means for setting apart the various senses of the verb (...)
     
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  8.  14
    Aquinas’ Balancing Act.Gyula Klima - 2018 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 21 (1):29-48.
    In this paper, I will primarily argue for the consistency of Aquinas’ conception, according to which the human soul, uniquely in God’s creation, is both the inherent, material, substantial form of the human body, and the subsistent immaterial substance underlying the immaterial operations of its immaterial, rational powers, namely, intellect and will. In this discussion, I will point out that typical challenges to Aquinas’ conception usually rely on semantic or ontological assumptions that can plausibly be denied in Aquinas’ own conceptual (...)
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  9. Aquinas on the Materiality of the Human Soul and the Immateriality of the Human Intellect.Gyula Klima - 2009 - Philosophical Investigations 32 (2):163-182.
    This paper argues that Aquinas's conception of the human soul and intellect offers a consistent alternative to the dilemma of materialism and post-Cartesian dualism. It also argues that in their own theoretical context, Aquinas' arguments for the materiality of the human soul and immateriality of the intellect provide a strong justification of his position. However, that theoretical context is rather "alien" to ours in contemporary philosophy. The conclusion of the paper will point in the direction of what can be done (...)
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  10. Contemporary "Essentialism" Vs. Aristotelian Essentialism.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    Contemporary "essentialism", if we want to provide a succinct, yet sufficiently rigorous characterization, may be summarized in the thesis that some common terms are rigid designators. [1] By the quotation marks I intend to indicate that I regard this as a somewhat improper (though, of course, permitted) usage of the term (after all, nomina significant ad placitum [2]). In contrast to this, essentialism, properly so-called, is the Aristotelian doctrine summarizable in the thesis--as we shall see, no less rigorous in its (...)
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  11.  30
    Consequences of a Closed, Token-Based Semantics: The Case of John Buridan.Gyula Klima - 2004 - History and Philosophy of Logic 25 (2):95-110.
    This paper argues for two principal conclusions about natural language semantics based on John Buridan's considerations concerning the notion of formal consequence, that is, formally valid inference. (1) Natural languages are essentially semantically closed, yet they do not have to be on that account inconsistent. (2) Natural language semantics has to be token based, as a matter of principle. The paper investigates the Buridanian considerations leading to these conclusions, and considers some obviously emerging objections to the Buridanian approach.
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  12.  38
    Thomas of Sutton on the Nature of the Intellective Soul and the Thomistic Theory of Being.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    Thomas of Sutton was one of the earliest, and by all measures one of the most astute defenders of St. Thomas Aquinas’ characteristic theological and philosophical doctrines. As usual with medieval thinkers, we have little information regarding Sutton’s life..
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  13.  32
    On Kenny on Aquinas on Being: A Critical Review of Aquinas on Being. [REVIEW]Gyula Klima - 2004 - International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (4):567-580.
  14. Three Myths of Intentionality Versus Some Medieval Philosophers.Gyula Klima - 2013 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (3):359-376.
    This paper argues that three characteristic modern positions concerning intentionality – namely, (1) that intentionality is ‘the mark of the mental’; (2) that intentionality concerns a specific type of objects having intentional inexistence; and (3) that intentionality somehow defies logic – are just three ‘modern myths’ that medieval philosophers, from whom the modern notion supposedly originated, would definitely reject.
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  15. The Changing Role Ofentia Rationis in Mediaeval Semantics and Ontology: A Comparative Study with a Reconstruction.Gyula Klima - 1993 - Synthese 96 (1):25 - 58.
  16. The Essentialist Nominalism of John Buridan.Gyula Klima - 2005 - Review of Metaphysics 58 (4):739 - 754.
    To many contemporary philosophers, the phrase “essentialist nominalism” may appear to be an oxymoron. After all, essentialism is the doctrine that things come in natural kinds characterized by their essential properties, on account of some common nature or essence they share. But nominalism is precisely the denial of the existence, indeed, the very possibility of such shared essences. Nevertheless, despite the intuitions of such contemporary philosophers,2 John Buridan was not only a thoroughgoing nominalist, as is well-known, but also a staunch (...)
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  17. Intentionality, Cognition, and Mental Representation in Medieval Philosophy.Gyula Klima (ed.) - 2015 - Fordham University Press.
    It is supposed to be common knowledge about the history of ideas that one of the few medieval philosophical contributions preserved in modern philosophical thought is the idea that mental phenomena are distinguished from physical phenomena by their intentionality, their directedness toward some object. As is usually the case with such commonplaces about the history of ideas, this claim is not quite true. Medieval philosophers routinely described ordinary physical phenomena, such as reflections in mirrors or sounds in the air, as (...)
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  18.  10
    The Semantic Principles Underlying Saint Thomas Aquinas's Metaphysics of Being.Gyula Klima - 1996 - Medieval Philosophy and Theology 5 (1):87-141.
  19. Ars Artium: Essays in Philosophical Semantics, Mediaeval and Modern.Gyula Klima - 1988 - Institure of Philosophy, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  20. Man= Body+ Soul: Aquinas's Arithmetic of Human Nature.Gyula Klima - 2002 - In Brian Davies (ed.), Thomas Aquinas: Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 257--274.
  21.  16
    Ockham's Semantics and Ontology of the Categories.Gyula Klima - 1999 - In P. V. Spade (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 118--42.
  22.  77
    Logic Without Truth: Buridan on the Liar.Gyula Klima - 2008 - In Shahid Rahman (ed.), Unity, Truth and the Liar: The Modern Relevance of Medieval Solutions to the Liar Paradox. Springer. pp. 87-112.
  23.  22
    The Anti-Skepticism of John Buridan and Thomas Aquinas: Putting Skeptics in Their Place Versus Stopping Them in Their Tracks.Gyula Klima - 2010 - In Henrik Lagerlund (ed.), Rethinking the History of Skepticism: The Missing Medieval Background. Brill. pp. 103--145.
  24.  54
    Intentional Transfer in Averroes, Indifference of Nature in Avicenna, and the Issue of the Representationalism of Aquinas.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    Is Aquinas a representationalist or a direct realist? Max Herrera’s (and, for that matter, Claude Panaccio’s) qualified answers to each alternative show that the real significance of the question is not that if we answer it, then we can finally learn under which classification Aquinas should fall, but rather that upon considering it we can learn something about the intricacies of the question itself. In these comments I will first argue that the Averroistic notion of “intentional transfer”, combined with the (...)
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  25.  27
    Libellus Pro Sapiente.Gyula Klima - 1984 - New Scholasticism 58 (2):207-219.
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  26.  13
    Libellus Pro Sapiente: A Criticism of Allan Bäck’s Argument Against St. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of the Incarnation.Gyula Klima - 1984 - New Scholasticism 58 (2):207-219.
  27.  77
    Aquinas on One and Many.Gyula Klima - 2000 - Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 11:195-215.
    Lo studio intende mettere in evidenza l'ambiguità della nozione di unità, intesa come entità numerica, con la nozione di unità quale sinonimo di essere. Sul primo concetto verte la parte iniziale dello studio, alla quale segue l'esame del significato ontologico di «uno». Le considerazioni fatte guidano l'A. a valutare i rapporti di relazione fra le nozioni di essere e uno, e quelle di sostanzialità, identità e semplicità in Tommaso. La gerarchia ontologica che ha al vertice l'essere assoluto e l'assoluta unità (...)
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  28.  76
    Saint Anselm's Proof: A Problem of Reference, Intentional Identity and Mutual Understanding.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    Saint Anselm’s proof for God’s existence in his Proslogion, as the label “ontological” retrospectively hung on it indicates, is usually treated as involving some sophisticated problem of, or a much less sophisticated tampering with, the concept of existence. In this paper I intend to approach Saint Anselm’s reasoning from a somewhat different angle.
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  29.  74
    Thomistic “Monism” Vs. Cartesian “Dualism”.Gyula Klima - 2007 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 10:92-112.
    This paper contrasts the Thomistic and Cartesian interpretations of what the substantial unity of the body and mind can consist in. A detailed discussion of the Thomistic account of the substantial unity of body and soul identifies especially those principles of the presupposed hylomorphist metaphysical background of this account that Descartes abandoned. After arguing for the consistency of the Thomistic view, briefly outlines how certain developments in late-medieval scholasticism prepared the way for the abandonment of precisely these principles. Finally, the (...)
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  30. Quine, Wyman, and Buridan: Three Approaches to Ontological Commitment.Gyula Klima - 2005 - Korean Journal of Logic 8:1-22.
    This paper provides a comparison of three fundamentally different approaches to the issue of ontological commitment. It argues that despite superficial similarities on either side, Buridan’s approach provides an intriguing third alternative to the two commonly recognized modern approaches. Keywords: ontological commitment, existence, meaning, reference..
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  31.  40
    Ontological Alternatives Vs Alternative Semantics in Mediaeval Philosophy.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    `Realism', `conceptualism' and `nominalism' are terms that one is most likely to come across in history of philosophy textbooks, presented as ones labeling three major ontological alternatives provided by mediaeval philosophy. The general inadequacy of these labels is perhaps best shown by the desperate efforts to provide further, modified labels , the well-known `moderate' and `extreme' or `exaggerated' versions of the above, in hopes of implying at least a lesser amount of falsehood in hanging..
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  32.  34
    G. Klima: Nulla Virtus Cognoscitiva Circa Proprium Obiectum Decipitur.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    Robert Pasnau’s paper presents a strong thesis, which it does not manage to substantiate. The thesis in question is that the Aristotelian doctrine of the identity of the knower and the known, as interpreted by St. Thomas, cannot possibly be used to fend off skepticism.
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  33.  24
    Approaching Natural Language Via Mediaeval Logic.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    (Appeared in: J. Bernard-J. Kelemen: Zeichen, Denken, Praxis , Institut fur Sozio-Semiotische Studien: Vienna, 1990, pp. 249-267. To print the published version, click here.).
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  34.  2
    Thomistic “Monism” Vs. Cartesian “Dualism”.Gyula Klima - 2007 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 10 (1):92-112.
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  35.  38
    Conceptual Closure in Anselm's Proof: Reply to Tony Roark.Gyula Klima - 2003 - History and Philosophy of Logic 24 (2):131-134.
    Let me begin my reply to Professor Roark’s objections in good old scholastic fashion, by a distinction. Philosophical objections can be good in two senses. In the first, trivial sense, a good objection is one that convincingly shows the presence of a genuine error in a position or reasoning. Such objections are useful, but uninspiring. In the second, non-trivial sense, a good philosophical objection broadens and deepens our understanding of the problems at issue, whether or not they manage to refute (...)
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  36.  47
    The Changing Role of Entia Rationis in Mediaeval Semantics and Ontology.Gyula Klima - 1994 - Synthese 98 (1):187-187.
  37.  38
    Numerical Quantifiers in Game-Theoretical Semantics.Gyula Klima & Gabriel Sandu - 1990 - Theoria 56 (3):173-192.
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  38.  39
    Buridan's Logic and the Ontology of Modes.Gyula Klima - 1999 - In Sten Ebbesen & Russsell L. Friedman (eds.), Medieval Analyses in Language and Cognition. Royal Danish Academy. pp. 473-496.
    Summary: The aim of this paper is to explore the relationships between Buridan’s logic and the ontology of modes modi). Modes, not considered to be really distinct from absolute entities, could serve to reduce the ontological commitment of the theory of the categories, and thus they were to become ubiquitous in this role in late medieval and early modern philosophy. After a brief analysis of the most basic argument for the real distinction between entities of several categories (“the argument from (...)
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  39.  17
    Aquinas on Mind.Gyula Klima - 1998 - Faith and Philosophy 15 (1):113-117.
  40.  8
    The Semantic Principles Underlying St. Thomas Aquinas's Metaphysics of Being.Gyula Klima - 1996 - Medieval Philosophy & Theology 5 (1):87-141.
  41.  1
    Aquinas’ Theory of the Copula and the Analogy of Being.Gyula Klima - 2002 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 5 (1):159-176.
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  42. Summulae de Dialectica.Gyula Klima (ed.) - 2001
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  43.  4
    Intentionality, Cognition, and Mental Representation in Medieval Philosophy.Gyula Klima (ed.) - 2015 - Fordham University.
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  44.  19
    Aquinas on Mind , by Anthony Kenny. New York: Routledge, 1995, Pp. 182. $13.95 (Paper).Gyula Klima - manuscript
    Anthony Kenny's book is one of the best of its genre, exemplifying the kind of introduction into (some field of) Aquinas's thought that endeavors to make his ideas accessible to the philosophically interested contemporary reader in terms of such philosophical, scientific and everyday concepts with which the reader can safely be assumed to be familiar. Indeed, Kenny's book provides us with such a good example of this genre that it brings into sharp focus the problems of the genre itself. Therefore, (...)
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  45. Aquinas on the Union of Body and Soul.Gyula Klima - 2020 - Quaestiones Disputatae 10 (2):31-52.
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  46.  44
    ABSTRACT: The Identity of Knower and Known.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    One often hears extravagant claims made for the Aristotelian doctrine that "what understands and what is understood are the same" De anima iii.4; 430a4). This identity between knower and what is known, or between percipient and what is perceived, is often said to offer a way out of the familiar skeptical arguments against the possibility of our having knowledge of the external world. Typically such claims are made by students of Thomas Aquinas, who in this way seek to render Aquinas's (...)
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  47.  3
    A Treatise of Master Hervaeus Natalis: On Second Intentions. Edited and Translated by John P. Doyle. [REVIEW]Gyula Klima - 2014 - International Philosophical Quarterly 54 (2):235-237.
  48.  50
    Ancilla Theologiae Vs. Domina Philosophorum: St. Thomas Aquinas, Latin Averroism and the Autonomy of Philosophy.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    ex opposito, any methodological doctrine that separates theological dogma from philosophical inquiry increases the autonomy of philosophical inquiry. But the Latin Averroist methodological doctrine of veritas duplex (rather improperly, but not entirely unreasonably called so) separated theological dogma from philosophical inquiry. Therefore, the Latin Averroist methodological doctrine of veritas duplex increased the autonomy of philosophical inquiry.
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  49.  86
    Aquinas Vs. Buridan on Essence and Existence.Gyula Klima - 2013 - In Charles Bolyard & Rondo Keele (eds.), Later Medieval Metaphysics: Ontology, Language, and Logic. Fordham University Press. pp. 30-44.
  50. Ens Multipliciter Dicitur: The Semantics and Metaphysics of Being in St. Thomas Aquinas.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    This paper examines the multiple semantic functions Aquinas attributes to the verb ‘est’, ranging from signifying the essence of God to acting as a copula of categorical propositions to expressing identity. A case will be made that all these apparently radically diverse functions are unified under Aquinas’s conception of the analogy of being, treating all predications as predications of being with or without some qualification (secundum quid or simpliciter). This understanding of the multiplicity of the semantic functions of this verb (...)
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