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Robert Shaver [52]Robert William Shaver [1]
  1.  35
    Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics.Robert Shaver - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (2):458.
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  2. Sidgwick on Pleasure.Robert Shaver - 2016 - Ethics 126 (4):901-928.
  3. The Appeal of Utilitarianism.Robert Shaver - 2004 - Utilitas 16 (3):235-250.
    Utilitarianism continues to vex its critics even in the absence of generally respected arguments in its favour. I suggest that utilitarianism survives largely because of its welfarism. This explains why it survives without the backing of respected arguments. It survives without such arguments because justifying the value of welfare requires no such argument.
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  4.  46
    Promises as invitations to trust.Robert Shaver - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (6):1515-1522.
    It is now popular to think that promissory obligation is grounded in an invitation to trust. I object that there are important differences between invitations and promises; appealing to trust faces one of the main problems alleged to face appealing to expectations; and whatever puzzles afflict promissory obligation afflict the obligation not to renege on one’s invitations.
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  5.  27
    Three Methods of Ethics: A Debate.Robert Shaver, Marcia W. Baron, Philip Pettit & Michael Slote - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (1):125.
    In The Methods of Ethics, Sidgwick took seriously egoism, utilitarianism, and commonsense morality. Virtue ethics was treated as part of commonsense morality. Three Methods, reflecting recent tastes, considers Kant, consequentialism, and virtue ethics. Oddly, it does not reflect the major development since Sidgwick—the revival of contractualism.
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  6. Egoism.Robert Shaver - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Egoism can be a descriptive or a normative position. Psychological egoism, the most famous descriptive position, claims that each person has but one ultimate aim: her own welfare. Normative forms of egoism make claims about what one ought to do, rather than describe what one does do. Ethical egoism claims that it is necessary and sufficient for an action to be morally right that it maximize one's self-interest. Rational egoism claims that it is necessary and sufficient for an action to (...)
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  7.  9
    Value and Justification: The Foundations of Liberal Theory.Robert Shaver - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (4):926.
  8.  56
    Sidgwick's Axioms and Consequentialism.Robert Shaver - 2014 - Philosophical Review 123 (2):173-204.
    Sidgwick gives various tests for highest certainty. When he applies these tests to commonsense morality, he finds nothing of highest certainty. In contrast, when he applies these tests to his own axioms, he finds these axioms to have highest certainty. The axioms culminate in Benevolence: “Each one is morally bound to regard the good of any other individual as much as his own, except in so far as he judges it to be less, when impartially viewed, or less certainly knowable (...)
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  9. The Birth of Deontology.Robert Shaver - 2011 - In Thomas Hurka (ed.), Underivative Duty: British Moral Philosophers From Sidgwick to Ewing. Oxford University Press.
     
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  10.  28
    Sidgwick's False Friends.Robert Shaver - 1997 - Ethics 107 (2):314-320.
  11. Henry Sidgwick (Review).Robert Shaver - 2003 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (4):569-570.
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  12.  7
    Utilitarianism : Bentham and Rashdall.Robert Shaver - 2013 - In Roger Crisp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 292.
    This chapter argues that the modern understanding of the appeal of utilitarianism does not fit all of the utilitarians. Focusing on the views of Bentham and Rashdall, it begins by discussing the character of Bentham's utilitarianism and his arguments for utilitarianism, and then considers Rashdall's criticisms of deontologists and hedonistic utilitarians.
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  13.  11
    Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History.Roger Crisp & Robert Shaver - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (1):111.
    The natural bias towards the contemporary in teaching and in research, combined with numerous specialized journals, mean that certain areas of philosophy, including ethics, are in danger of forgetting their past. In that context, history of philosophy of the high standard exemplified in this book is particularly important.
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  14. Virtues, Utility, and Rules.Robert Shaver - 2006 - In Knud Haakonssen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Adam Smith. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  15.  17
    Grotius on Scepticism and Self-Interest.Robert Shaver - 1996 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 78 (1):27-47.
  16.  51
    Korsgaard on Hypothetical Imperatives.Robert Shaver - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 129 (2):335-347.
    I argue that rationalists need not adopt Kant’s method for determining what one has reason to do, where by “Kant’s method” I mean the view that normative guidance comes only from directives imposed on the agent by the agent’s own will. I focus on Kant’s argument for “imperatives of skill,” one sort of hypothetical imperative. I argue, against Korsgaard, that Kant’s argument is neither better nor significantly different than the sort of argument non-Kantian rationalists offer. I close by arguing that (...)
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  17.  38
    Contractualism and Restrictions.Robert Shaver - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 132 (2):293-299.
    T.M. Scanlon writes that deontological constraints on taking lives are to be defended “by considering what principles licensing others to take our lives could be reasonably rejected.” I argue that Scanlon can offer no such defence of deontological constraints.
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  18.  79
    Sidgwick's Minimal Metaethics.Robert Shaver - 2000 - Utilitas 12 (3):261.
    Non-naturalism has a shady reputation. This reputation is undeserved, at least in the case of one variety of non-naturalism – the variety Sidgwick offers. In section I, I present Sidgwick's view, distinguishing it from views with which it is often lumped. In II and III, I defend Sidgwick against recent objections to non-naturalism from motivation and supervenience. In IV, I briefly consider objections which brought about the downfall of non-naturalism at the middle of the century. In V, I consider the (...)
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  19.  25
    Prichard's Arguments Against Ideal Utilitarianism.Robert Shaver - 2018 - Utilitas 30 (1):54-72.
  20.  5
    Thomson's Trolley Switch.Robert Shaver - 2010 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5 (2):1-6.
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  21.  30
    Hume's Moral Theory?Robert Shaver - 1995 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 12 (3):317 - 331.
    Hume's moral theory is often taken to be descriptive rather then normative. This is a misinterpretation: Hume justifies moral claims, as he justifies claims about what to believe, by appeal to initially credible cases. This procedure is defensible.
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  22.  45
    Hume on the Duties of Humanity.Robert Shaver - 1992 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 30 (4):545-556.
  23.  44
    Sidgwick on Moral Motivation.Robert Shaver - 2006 - Philosophers' Imprint 6:1-14.
    Sidgwick holds that moral judgments are claims about what it is reasonable to do. He also holds that these judgments about what it is reasonable to do can motivate. He must, then, respond to Hume’s argument that reason cannot motivate. I clarify Sidgwick’s claims, give his argument against Hume, and reply to various Humean objections.
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  24.  47
    Principia Then and Now.Robert Shaver - 2003 - Utilitas 15 (3):261.
    Moore is taken to have followed Sidgwick in his arguments against naturalism and in his consequentialism. I argue that there are differences on both issues. Sidgwick's arguments against naturalism do not rely on a controversial view of analysis, and one of his arguments for consequentialism gives him greater resources against critics of consequentialism such as T. M. Scanlon.
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  25.  47
    The Point of View of the Universe: Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics.Robert Shaver - 2015 - Philosophical Quarterly 65 (259):301-304.
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  26. Rational Egoism (R. Shafer-Landau).Robert Shaver - 2000 - Philosophical Books 41 (1):60-61.
     
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  27.  70
    The Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism – Alison Hills.Robert Shaver - 2011 - Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):658-660.
  28.  39
    Ross on Self and Others.Robert Shaver - 2014 - Utilitas 26 (3):303-320.
    Ross suggests a trilemma:(i) Innocent pleasure is good as an end.(ii) I have a prima facie duty to produce what is good as an end.(iii) I have no prima facie duty to produce innocent pleasure for myself.In The Right and the Good, he denies (iii). In Foundations of Ethics, he denies (i). Neither of these solutions is satisfactory. One ought instead to deny (ii). I close by considering a similar trilemma concerning justice.
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  29.  21
    Hume’s Self-Interest Requirement.Robert Shaver - 1994 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (1):1-17.
    Having explained the moral approbation attending merit or virtue, there remains nothing but briefly to consider our interested obligation to it, and to inquire whether every man, who has any regard to his own happiness and welfare, will not best find his account in the practice of every moral duty. [W]hat theory of morals can ever serve any useful purpose, unless it can show, by a particular detail, that all the duties which it recommends, are also the true interest of (...)
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  30.  39
    Utilitarianism and Egoism in Sidgwickian Ethics.Robert Shaver - 2013 - Revue D’Études Benthamiennes 12.
    In his excellent Sidgwickian Ethics, David Phillips argues that Sidgwick’s argument for utilitarianism from the axioms is less successful than Sidgwick believes. He also argues that Sidgwick’s argument for egoism is more successful than this argument for utilitarianism. I disagree. I close by noting, briefly, a possible solution to an epistemological puzzle in Sidgwick that Phillips raises. I. Utilitarianism Phillips takes the argument for utilitarianism to have two premises: The good of...
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  31. Sidgwick on Virtue.Robert Shaver - 2008 - Etica E Politica 10 (2):210-229.
    Sidgwick’s arguments for hedonism imply that virtue is not a good. Those arguments seemed to many wholly unpersuasive. The paper analyzes them, focusing also on many changes Sidgwick made on chapter XIV of Book III through the various editions of the Methods. From an analysis of the first sections of this chapter, it emerges that Sidgwick employed two different argumentative schemes, one against the view that virtue is the sole good and the other against the much more diffused claim that (...)
     
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  32.  27
    Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History.Robert Shaver - 1998 - Cambridge University Press..
    This book is the first full-length treatment of rational egoism, and it provides both a selective history of the subject as well as a philosophical analysis of the arguments that have been deployed in its defense.
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  33.  40
    Welfare and Outcome.Robert Shaver - 2002 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 32 (1):103 - 115.
    The Slogan claims a connection between evaluations of outcomes and evaluations of welfare. Temkin’s main strategy is to argue that no theory of welfare is plausible as both a theory of welfare and as a theory of outcomes. He considers three theories of welfare: hedonism, preference satisfaction theory, and objective list theory. In the case of hedonism and objective list theory, Temkin’s arguments are not new. The argument against hedonism, for example, engages a familiar and inconclusive debate against hedonism as (...)
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  34.  34
    Rousseau and Recognition.Robert Shaver - 1989 - Social Theory and Practice 15 (3):261-283.
  35.  11
    Leviathan, King of the Proud.Robert Shaver - 1990 - Hobbes Studies 3 (1):54-74.
    Hobbes begins the Elements of Law by claiming that "[t]he true and perspicuous explanation of the elements of laws natural and politic... dependeth upon the knowledge of what is human nature." 1 He agrees that morality and politics are "not to be discovered but to be made," but they are to be made as solutions to problems discovered through a detailed study of human nature.2 Among other things, this study reveals that humans are obsessed both with contemplating their own power (...)
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  36.  15
    Freedom and Moral Sentiment.Robert Shaver - 2004 - International Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):280-281.
  37.  23
    Book Review. Moral Theory David S. Oderberg. [REVIEW]Robert Shaver - 2001 - Mind 110 (438):531-534.
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  38.  18
    A New History of Modern Moral Philosophy.Robert Shaver - 2000 - Dialogue 39 (3):585-.
    Of Sidgwick’s Outlines of the History of Ethics, J. B. Schneewind wrote that the author.
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  39.  19
    Inescapable and Affective Moralities.Robert Shaver - 1994 - Philosophical Studies 75 (3):175 - 199.
  40.  3
    Crisp, Roger. The Cosmos of Duty: Henry Sidgwick’s “Methods of Ethics”Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. Pp. 256. $60.00. [REVIEW]Robert Shaver - 2017 - Ethics 127 (2):477-481.
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  41.  6
    Paris and Patriotism.Robert Shaver - 1991 - History of Political Thought 12 (4):627.
    In 1771, Rousseau was asked to write a constitution for Poland. He replied with The Government of Poland. It is his last political work. At one point he describes the sort of Pole he hopes to produce: his �love of the fatherland . . . makes up his entire existence: he has eyes only for the fatherland, lives only for his fatherland; the moment he is alone, he is a mere cipher; the moment he has no fatherland, he is no (...)
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  42. Tom Sorell, Ed., The Cambridge Companion to Hobbes Reviewed By.Robert Shaver - 1996 - Philosophy in Review 16 (5):374-376.
     
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  43.  6
    Sidgwickian Ethics (Review).Robert Shaver - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):136-137.
  44.  10
    Emile's Education.Robert Shaver - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 24 (2):245–255.
  45.  8
    Review of Bart Schultz, Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe. An Intellectual Biography[REVIEW]Robert Shaver - 2005 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (2).
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  46.  6
    Three Methods of Ethics: A Debate.Robert Shaver - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (1):125-128.
    In The Methods of Ethics, Sidgwick took seriously egoism, utilitarianism, and commonsense morality. Virtue ethics was treated as part of commonsense morality. Three Methods, reflecting recent tastes, considers Kant, consequentialism, and virtue ethics. Oddly, it does not reflect the major development since Sidgwick—the revival of contractualism.
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  47.  3
    Montaigne and the Problem of Living in Others.Robert Shaver - 1994 - History of European Ideas 18 (3):347-360.
  48.  2
    A New History of Modern Moral Philosophy.Robert Shaver - 2000 - Dialogue 39 (3):585-592.
    Of Sidgwick’s Outlines of the History of Ethics, J. B. Schneewind wrote that the author.
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  49.  1
    Emile's Education.Robert Shaver - 1990 - Philosophy of Education 24 (2):245-255.
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  50. Non-Naturalism.Robert Shaver - 2007 - In Susana Nuccetelli & Gary Seay (eds.), Themes From G. E. Moore: New Essays in Epistemology and Ethics. Clarendon Press.
     
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