Results for 'Ruth E. Kastner'

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  1.  20
    The Possibilist Transactional Interpretation and Relativity.Ruth E. Kastner - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 42 (8):1094-1113.
    A recent ontological variant of Cramer’s Transactional Interpretation, called “Possibilist Transactional Interpretation” or PTI, is extended to the relativistic domain. The present interpretation clarifies the concept of ‘absorption,’ which plays a crucial role in TI (and in PTI). In particular, in the relativistic domain, coupling amplitudes between fields are interpreted as amplitudes for the generation of confirmation waves (CW) by a potential absorber in response to offer waves (OW), whereas in the nonrelativistic context CW are taken as generated with certainty. (...)
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  2.  95
    Quantum Nonlocality: Not Eliminated by the Heisenberg Picture. [REVIEW]Ruth E. Kastner - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (7):1137-1142.
    It is argued that the Heisenberg picture of standard quantum mechanics does not save Einstein locality as claimed in Deutsch and Hayden (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 456, 1759–1774, 2000). In particular, the EPR-type correlations that the authors obtain by comparing two qubits in a local manner are shown to exist before that comparison. In view of this result, the local comparison argument would appear to be ineffective in supporting their locality claim.
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  3.  2
    On Delayed Choice and Contingent Absorber Experiments.Ruth E. Kastner - unknown
    It is pointed out that a slight variation on the Wheeler Delayed Choice Experiment presents the same challenge to orthodox quantum mechanics as Maudlin-type contingent absorber experiments present to the Transactional Interpretation. Therefore, the latter cannot be used as a basis for refutation of TI.
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  4. The Transactional Interpretation, Counterfactuals, and Weak Values in Quantum Theory.Ruth E. Kastner - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (4):806-818.
  5.  1
    The Relativistic Transactional Interpretation: Immune to the Maudlin Challenge.Ruth E. Kastner - unknown
    The Transactional Interpretation has been subject at various times to a challenge based on a type of thought experiment first proposed by Maudlin. It has been argued by several authors that such experiments do not in fact constitute a significant problem for the transactional picture. The purpose of this work is to point out that, when the relativistic level of the interpretation is considered, Maudlin-type challenges cannot even be mounted, since the putative 'slow-moving offer wave,' taken as subject to contingent (...)
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  6.  46
    De Broglie Waves as the “Bridge of Becoming” Between Quantum Theory and Relativity.Ruth E. Kastner - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (1):1-9.
    It is hypothesized that de Broglie’s ‘matter waves’ provide a dynamical basis for Minkowski spacetime in an antisubstantivalist or relational account. The relativity of simultaneity is seen as an effect of the de Broglie oscillation together with a basic relativity postulate, while the dispersion relation from finite rest mass gives rise to the differentiation of spatial and temporal axes. Thus spacetime is seen as not fundamental, but rather as emergent from the quantum level. A result by Solov’ev which demonstrates that (...)
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  7.  23
    Shutters, Boxes, but No Paradoxes: Time Symmetry Puzzles in Quantum Theory.Ruth E. Kastner - 2004 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (1):89 – 94.
    The "N-box experiment" is a much-discussed thought experiment in quantum mechanics. It is claimed by some authors that a single particle prepared in a superposition of N+1 box locations and which is subject to a final "post-selection" measurement corresponding to a different superposition can be said to have occupied "with certainty" N boxes during the intervening time. However, others have argued that under closer inspection, this surprising claim fails to hold. Aharonov and Vaidman have continued their advocacy of the claim (...)
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  8.  10
    Contributors to Volume 1.2.Peter Atterton, Katrina Bramstedt, Ruben Diaz Jr, Vaughana Feary, Michael Grosso, Amy Hannon, George T. Hole, Ruth E. Kastner, Susan Kovalinsky & Ronald Pies - 2005 - Philosophical Practice 1 (2).
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  9.  3
    The Transactional Interpretation, Counterfactuals, and Weak Values in Quantum Theory.Ruth E. Kastner - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (4):806-818.
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  10.  1
    First Page Preview.Ruth E. Kastner & Appa-Certified Philosophical Counselor - 2005 - Philosophical Practice 1 (1).
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  11. The Transactional Interpretation and its Evolution Into the 21st Century: An Overview.Ruth E. Kastner - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (12):923-932.
    This essay provides a historical, philosophical, and critical overview of the development of the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is separated into two parts. Part I presents the history and development of TI from 1986 up to 2016. Part II lays out current areas of divergence among researchers in TI.
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  12.  54
    Why Everettians Should Appreciate the Transactional Interpretation.Ruth Kastner - unknown
    The attractive feature of the Everett approach is its admirable spirit of approaching the quantum puzzle with a Zen-like "beginner’s mind" in order to try to envision what the pure formalism might be saying about quantum reality, even if that journey leads to a strange place. It is argued that the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI), appropriately interpreted, shares the same motivation and achieves much more, with far fewer conceptual perplexities, by taking into account heretofore overlooked features of the (...)
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  13.  8
    The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Kastner Ruth E. Cambridge University Press, 2013; V + 224 Pp.; $101.95 (Hardback). [REVIEW]Brian Hepburn - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (2):401-403.
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  14.  2
    State Food Crimes by Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann.Christian Ruth - 2017 - Human Rights Review 18 (4):499-501.
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  15.  98
    Dynamic Embodied Cognition.Leon de Bruin & Lena Kästner - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):541-563.
    Abstract In this article, we investigate the merits of an enactive view of cognition for the contemporary debate about social cognition. If enactivism is to be a genuine alternative to classic cognitivism, it should be able to bridge the “cognitive gap”, i.e. provide us with a convincing account of those higher forms of cognition that have traditionally been the focus of its cognitivist opponents. We show that, when it comes to social cognition, current articulations of enactivism are—despite their celebrated successes (...)
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  16. Cramer's Transactional Interpretation and Causal Loop Problems.Ruth Kastner - 2004 - Synthese 150 (1):1 - 14.
    Tim Maudlin’s argument for the inconsistency of Cramer’s Transactional Interpretation (TI) of quantum theory has been considered in some detail by Joseph Berkovitz, who has provided a possible solution to this challenge at the cost of a significant empirical lacuna on the part of TI. The present paper proposes an alternative solution in which Maudlin’s charge of inconsistency is evaded but at no cost of empirical content on the part of TI. However, Maudlin’s argument is taken as ruling out Cramer’s (...)
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  17.  14
    ‘Einselection’ of Pointer Observables: The New H-Theorem?Ruth Kastner - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 48 (1):56-58.
    In attempting to derive irreversible macroscopic thermodynamics from reversible microscopic dynamics, Boltzmann inadvertently smuggled in a premise that assumed the very irreversibility he was trying to prove: ‘molecular chaos.’ The program of ‘Einselection’ within Everettian approaches faces a similar ‘Loschmidt’s Paradox’: the universe, according to the Everettian picture, is a closed system obeying only unitary dynamics, and it therefore contains no distinguishable environmental subsystems with the necessary ‘phase randomness’ to effect einselection of a pointer observable. The theoretically unjustified assumption of (...)
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  18.  28
    The Born Rule and Free Will.Ruth Kastner - unknown
    In the libertarian ``agent causation'' view of free will, free choices are attributable only to the choosing agent, as opposed to a specific cause or causes outside the agent. An often-repeated claim in the philosophical literature on free will is that agent causation necessarily implies lawlessness, and is therefore ``antiscientific." That claim is critiqued and it is argued, on the contrary, that the volitional powers of a free agent need not be viewed as anomic, specifically with regard to the quantum (...)
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  19. The Three-Box “Paradox” and Other Reasons to Reject the Counterfactual Usage of the ABL Rule.R. E. Kastner - 1999 - Foundations of Physics 29 (6):851-863.
    An apparent paradox proposed by Aharonov and Vaidman in which a single particle can be found with certainty in two (or more) boxes is analyzed by way of a simple thought experiment. It is found that the apparent paradox arises from an invalid counterfactual usage of the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz (ABL) rule and effectively attributes conflicting properties not to the same particle but no different particles. A connection is made between the present analysis and the consistent histories formulation of Griffiths. Finally, a (...)
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  20.  7
    Cramer’s Transactional Interpretation and Causal Loop Problems.Ruth Kastner - 2004 - Synthese 150 (1):1-14.
    Tim Maudlin's argument for the inconsistency of Cramer's Transactional Interpretation of quantum theory has been considered in some detail by Joseph Berkovitz, who has provided a possible solution to this challenge at the cost of a significant empirical lacuna on the part of TI. The present paper proposes an alternative solution in which Maudlin's charge of inconsistency is evaded but at no cost of empirical content on the part of TI. However, Maudlin's argument is taken as ruling out Cramer's heuristic (...)
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  21. The Quantum Liar Experiment in Cramer's Transactional Interpretation.Ruth Kastner - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (2):86-92.
    Cramer's Transactional Interpretation (TI) is applied to the ``Quantum Liar Experiment'' (QLE). It is shown how some apparently paradoxical features can be explained naturally, albeit nonlocally (since TI is an explicitly nonlocal interpretation). At the same time, it is proposed that in order to preserve the elegance and economy of the interpretation, it may be necessary to consider offer and confirmation waves as propagating in a ``higher space'' of possibilities.
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  22.  1
    Weak Values and Consistent Histories in Quantum Theory.Ruth Kastner - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (1):57-71.
    A relation is obtained between weak values of quantum observables and the consistency criterion for histories of quantum events. It is shown that “strange” weak values for projection operators always correspond to inconsistent families of histories. It is argued that using the ABL rule to obtain probabilities for counterfactual measurements corresponding to those strange weak values gives inconsistent results. This problem is shown to be remedied by using the conditional weight, or pseudo-probability, obtained from the multiple-time application of Lüders’ Rule. (...)
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  23.  59
    Time-Symmetrised Quantum Theory, Counterfactuals and 'Advanced Action'.R. E. Kastner - 1999 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 30 (2):237-259.
  24.  11
    Taking Heisenberg's Potentia Seriously.Ruth Kastner, Stuart Kauffman & Michael Epperson - unknown
    It is argued that quantum theory is best understood as requiring an ontological duality of res extensa and res potentia, where the latter is understood per Heisenberg’s original proposal, and the former is roughly equivalent to Descartes’ ‘extended substance.’ However, this is not a dualism of mutually exclusive substances in the classical Cartesian sense, and therefore does not inherit the infamous ‘mind-body’ problem. Rather, res potentia and res extensa are proposed as mutually implicative ontological extants that serve to explain the (...)
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  25.  48
    Weak Values and Consistent Histories in Quantum Theory.Ruth Kastner - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (1):57-71.
    A relation is obtained between weak values of quantum observables and the consistency criterion for histories of quantum events. It is shown that “strange” weak values for projection operators always correspond to inconsistent families of histories. It is argued that using the ABL rule to obtain probabilities for counterfactual measurements corresponding to those strange weak values gives inconsistent results. This problem is shown to be remedied by using the conditional weight, or pseudo-probability, obtained from the multiple-time application of Lüders’ Rule. (...)
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  26.  38
    The Nature of the Controversy Over Time‐Symmetric Quantum Counterfactuals.Ruth Kastner - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 70 (1):145-163.
    It is proposed that the recent controversy over "time-symmetric quantum counterfactuals" (TSQCs), based on the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz Rule for measurements of pre- and post-selected systems, can be clarified by taking TSQCs to be counterfactuals with a specific type of compound antecedent. In that case, inconsistency proofs such as that of Sharp and Shanks (1993) are not applicable, and the main issue becomes not whether such statements are true, but whether they are nontrivial. The latter question is addressed and answered in the (...)
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  27.  1
    Are Dark Energy and Dark Matter Different Aspects of the Same Physical Process?Ruth Kastner & Stuart Kauffman - unknown
    It is suggested that the apparently disparate cosmological phenomena attributed to so-called ‘dark matter’ and ‘dark energy’ arise from the same fundamental physical process: the emergence, from the quantum level, of spacetime itself. This creation of spacetime results in metric expansion around mass points in addition to the usual curvature due to stress-energy sources of the gravitational field. A recent modification of Einstein’s theory of general relativity by Chadwick, Hodgkinson, and McDonald incorporating spacetime expansion around mass points, which accounts well (...)
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  28.  1
    A Physical Basis for the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Quantum Nonunitarity.Ruth Kastner - unknown
    It is argued that if the non-unitary measurement transition, as codified by Von Neumann, is a real physical process, then the ‘probability assumption’ needed to derive the Second Law of Thermodynamics naturally enters at that point. The existence of a real, indeterministic physical process underlying the measurement transition would therefore provide an ontological basis for Boltzmann’s Stosszahlansatz and thereby explain the unidirectional increase of entropy against a backdrop of otherwise time-reversible laws. It is noted that the Transactional Interpretation of quantum (...)
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  29.  1
    Beyond Complementarity.Ruth Kastner - unknown
    It is argued that Niels Bohr ultimately arrived at positivistic and antirealist-flavored statements because of weaknesses in his initial objective of accounting for measurement in physical terms. Bohr’s investigative approach faced a dilemma, the choices being conceptual inconsistency or taking the classical realm as primitive. In either case, Bohr’s ‘Complementarity’ does not adequately explain or account for the emergence of a macroscopic, classical domain from a microscopic domain described by quantum mechanics. A diagnosis of the basic problem is offered, and (...)
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  30.  1
    Demystifying Weak Measurements.Ruth Kastner - unknown
    A large literature has grown up around the proposed use of 'weak measurements' to allegedly provide information about hidden ontological features of quantum systems. This paper attempts to clarify the fact that 'weak measurements' are simply strong measurements on one member of an entangled pair, and that all such measurements thus effect complete disentanglement of the pair. The only thing 'weak' about them is that the correlation established via the entanglement does not correspond to eigenstates of the 'weakly measured observable' (...)
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  31.  1
    On Quantum Non-Unitarity as a Basis for the Second Law of Thermodynamics.Ruth Kastner - unknown
    It was first suggested by Albert that the existence of real, physical non-unitarity at the quantum level would yield a complete explanation for the increase of entropy over time in macroscopic systems. An alternative understanding of the source of non-unitarity is presented herein, in terms of the Transactional Interpretation. The present model provides a specific physical justification for Boltzmann’s Stosszahlansatz, thereby changing its status from an ad hoc postulate to a theoretically grounded result, without requiring any change to the basic (...)
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  32.  1
    On the Status of the Measurement Problem: Recalling the Relativistic Transactional Interpretation.Ruth Kastner - unknown
    In view of a resurgence of concern about the measurement problem, it is pointed out that the Relativistic Transactional Interpretation remedies issues previously considered as drawbacks or refutations of the original TI. Specifically, once one takes into account relativistic processes that are not representable at the non-relativistic level, absorption is quantitatively defined in unambiguous physical terms. RTI therefore provides a well-defined terminus to what appears to be a necessary infinite regress concerning ‘absorption’ when only the non-relativistic level is considered. In (...)
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  33.  1
    Violation of the Born Rule: Implications for Macroscopic Fields.Ruth Kastner - 2016 - International Journal of Quantum Foundations 2 (3).
    It is shown that violation of the Born Rule leads to a breakdown of the correspondence between the quantum electromagnetic field and its classical counterpart. Specifically, the relationship of the quantum coherent state to the classical electromagnetic field turns out to imply that if the Born Rule were violated, this could result in apparent deviations from the energy conservation law applying to the field and its sources. The result, which is fully general and independent of interpretations of quantum theory, suggests (...)
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  34.  22
    Is There Really "Retrocausation" in Time-Symmetric Approaches to Quantum Mechanics?Ruth Kastner - unknown
    Time-symmetric interpretations of quantum theory are often presented as featuring "retrocausal" effects in addition to the usual forward notion of causation. This paper examines the ontological implications of certain time- symmetric theories, and finds that no dynamical notion of causation applies to them, either forward or backward. It is concluded that such theories actually describe a static picture, in which the notion of causation is relegated to a descriptor of static relationships among events. In addition, these theories lead to an (...)
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  35.  1
    The Quantum Liar Experiment in Cramer's Transactional Interpretation.Ruth Kastner - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (2):86-92.
    Cramer's Transactional Interpretation is applied to the ``Quantum Liar Experiment''. It is shown how some apparently paradoxical features can be explained naturally, albeit nonlocally. At the same time, it is proposed that in order to preserve the elegance and economy of the interpretation, it may be necessary to consider offer and confirmation waves as propagating in a ``higher space'' of possibilities.
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  36.  24
    On Visibility in the Afshar Two-Slit Experiment.R. E. Kastner - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (10):1139-1144.
    A modified version of Young’s experiment by Shahriar Afshar indirectly reveals the presence of a fully articulated interference pattern prior to the post-selection of a particle in a “which-slit” basis. While this experiment does not constitute a violation of Bohr’s Complementarity Principle as claimed by Afshar, both he and many of his critics incorrectly assume that a commonly used relationship between visibility parameter V and “which-way” parameter K has crucial relevance to his experiment. It is argued here that this relationship (...)
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  37.  20
    Maudlin׳s Challenge Refuted: A Reply to Lewis.Ruth Kastner - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 47:15-20.
    Lewis has recently argued that Maudlin׳s contingent absorber experiment remains a significant problem for the Transactional Interpretation . He argues that the only straightforward way to resolve the challenge is by describing the absorbers as offer waves, and asserts that this is a previously unnoticed aspect of the challenge for TI. This argument is refuted in two basic ways: it is noted that the Maudlin experiment cannot be meaningfully recast with absorbers described by quantum states; instead the author replaces it (...)
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  38.  33
    Why the Afshar Experiment Does Not Refute Complementarity.Ruth Kastner - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 36 (4):649-658.
    A modified version of Young's experiment by Shahriar Afshar demonstrates that, prior to what appears to be a ``which-way'' measurement, an interference pattern exists. Afshar has claimed that this result constitutes a violation of the Principle of Complementarity. This paper discusses the implications of this experiment and considers how Cramer's Transactional Interpretation easily accomodates the result. It is also shown that the Afshar experiment is isomorphic in key respects to a spin one-half particle prepared as ``spin up along x'' and (...)
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  39.  18
    The Afshar Two-Slit Experiment and Complementarity.Ruth Kastner - unknown
    A modified version of Young's experiment by Shahriar Afshar demonstrates that, prior to a ``which-way'' measurement indicating which slit a particle goes through, an interference pattern exists. It has been claimed that this result constitutes a violation of the Principle of Complementarity. This paper discusses the implications of this experiment and considers how Cramer's Transactional Interpretation accomodates the result. It is shown that the Afshar experiment is isomorphic in key respects to a a spin one-half particle prepared as ``spin up (...)
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  40.  5
    Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Compassion. [REVIEW]Ruth Kastner - 2005 - Philosophical Practice 1 (2):115-118.
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  41.  4
    Weak Values and Consistent Histories in Quantum Theory.Ruth Kastner - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (1):57-71.
    ABSTRACT: A relation is obtained between weak values of quantum observables and the consistency criterion for histories of quantum events. It is shown that ``strange'' weak values for projection operators always correspond to inconsistent families of histories. It is argued that using the ABL rule to obtain probabilities for counterfactual measurements corresponding to those strange weak values gives inconsistent results. This problem is shown to be remedied by using the conditional weight, or pseudo-probability, obtained from the multiple-time application of Luders' (...)
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  42.  3
    The New Possibilist Transactional Interpretation and Relativity.R. E. Kastner - unknown
    A recent ontological modification of Cramer’s Transactional Interpretation, called “Possibilist Transactional Interpretation” or PTI, is extended to the relativistic domain. The present interpretation clarifies the concept of ‘absorption,’ which plays a crucial role in TI. In particular, in the relativistic domain, coupling amplitudes between fields are interpreted as amplitudes for the generation of confirmation waves by a potential absorber in response to offer waves, whereas in the nonrelativistic context CW are taken as generated with certainty. It is pointed out that (...)
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  43.  1
    Time-Symmetrised Quantum Theory, Counterfactuals and ‘Advanced Action’.R. E. Kastner - 1999 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 30 (2):237-259.
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  44.  1
    Why the Afshar Experiment Does Not Refute Complementarity.Ruth Kastner - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 36 (4):649-658.
    A modified version of Young's experiment by Shahriar Afshar demonstrates that, prior to what appears to be a ``which-way'' measurement, an interference pattern exists. Afshar has claimed that this result constitutes a violation of the Principle of Complementarity. This paper discusses the implications of this experiment and considers how Cramer's Transactional Interpretation easily accomodates the result. It is also shown that the Afshar experiment is isomorphic in key respects to a spin one-half particle prepared as ``spin up along x'' and (...)
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  45. Martin Heidegger, Erhart Kästner Briefwechsel, 1953-1974.Martin Heidegger, Erhart Kästner & Heinrich Wiegand Petzet - 1986
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  46. Maudlin׳s Challenge Refuted: A Reply to Lewis.Ruth Kastner - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 47:15-20.
    Lewis has recently argued that Maudlin׳s contingent absorber experiment remains a significant problem for the Transactional Interpretation. He argues that the only straightforward way to resolve the challenge is by describing the absorbers as offer waves, and asserts that this is a previously unnoticed aspect of the challenge for TI. This argument is refuted in two basic ways: it is noted that the Maudlin experiment cannot be meaningfully recast with absorbers described by quantum states; instead the author replaces it with (...)
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  47.  20
    (August 2017) Unbelievable Similarities Between R. E. Kastner’s Ideas (Univ. Of Maryland, USA) (2016) and My Ideas (2002-2008).Gabriel Vacariu - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Bucharest
    The title of Kastner’s article is “Beyond Complementarity” (R. E. Kastner 6 March 2016 Foundations of Physics Group, University of Maryland, College Park, USA) -/- In this paper, there are quite many ideas similar to my ideas. The main ideas are the following: -/- - Bohr’s complementarity does not work: “’Complementarity’ cannot consistently account for the emergence of classicality from the quantum level (p. 1) - It is argued that ultimately this problem arises from Bohr’s implicit assumption that (...)
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  48.  5
    The Troubadour Marcabru and Love.Ruth E. Harvey.Amelia E. Van Vleck - 1993 - Speculum 68 (1):168-170.
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  49.  12
    The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, by Ruth Kastner.Chris Fields - 2013 - Disputatio.
    Fields, Chris_The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, by Ruth Kastner.
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  50.  11
    Transforming Care: A Christian Vision of Nursing Practice, by Mary Molewyk Doornbos, Ruth E. Groenhout, and Kendra G. Holtz.Meghan J. Clark - 2006 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 6 (4):801-803.
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