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  1. On Luck, the Attribute.Paul Bali - manuscript
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  2. Use of Virtual Reality in an fMRI Study of Mentalizing.Alain Morin - manuscript
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  3. Does What We Dream Feel Present? Two Varieties of Presence and Implications for Measuring Presence in VR.Michael Barkasi - forthcoming - Synthese:1-27.
    What's presented in our normal waking perceptual visual experiences feels present to us, while what we "see" in pictures and imagine does not. What about dreams? Does what we "see" in a dream feel present? Jennifer Windt has argued for an affirmative answer, for all dreams. But the dreams which flow from the brain's registration of myoclonic twitches (body-driven dreams) present a challenge to this answer. During these dreams (so I argue) motion-guiding vision is shut off, and, as Mohan Matthen (...)
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  4. Virtual Reality and the Meaning of Life.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook on Meaning in Life.
    It is commonly assumed that a virtual life would be less meaningful (perhaps even meaningless). As virtual reality technologies develop and become more integrated into our everyday lives, this poses a challenge for those that care about meaning in life. In this chapter, it is argued that the common assumption about meaninglessness and virtuality is mistaken. After clarifying the distinction between two different visions of virtual reality, four arguments are presented for thinking that meaning is possible in virtual reality. Following (...)
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  5. Did You See What I Saw?: Comparing Attentional Synchrony During 360° Video Viewing in Head Mounted Display and Tablets.H. Farmer, C. Bevan, D. Green, M. Rose, K. Cater & D. Stanton Fraser - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.
    Advances in head mounted displays (HMDs) have increased the interest in cinematic virtual reality as an art form. However, the freedom of a viewer in 360 video presents challenges in ensuring that audiences do not inadvertently miss important events and locations. We examined whether the high level of immersion provided by HMDs encourages participants to synchronize their attention during viewing. Sixty-four participants watched the 360° documentary Clouds Over Sidra (VRSEworks, 2015) using either an HMD or via a flat screen tablet (...)
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  6. Michael Heim, The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality.D. Procida - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  7. Predicting Me: The Route to Digital Immortality?Paul Smart - forthcoming - In Robert W. Clowes, Klaus Gärtner & Inês Hipólito (eds.), The Mind-Technology Problem: Investigating Minds, Selves and 21st Century Artifacts. Berlin, Germany:
    An emerging consensus in cognitive science views the biological brain as a hierarchically-organized predictive processing system that relies on generative models to predict the structure of sensory information. Such a view resonates with a body of work in machine learning that has explored the problem-solving capabilities of hierarchically-organized, multi-layer (i.e., deep) neural networks, many of which acquire and deploy generative models of their training data. The present chapter explores the extent to which the ostensible convergence on a common neurocomputational architecture (...)
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  8. Virtual Augmented Reality (VAR): Insides for Web Based Management Education.Nicolas Van Vosselen, M. Mathew & Fernand Vandamme - forthcoming - Communication and Cognition: Monographies.
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  9. A Virtual Solution to the Frame Problem.Jonathan A. Waskan - forthcoming - Proceedings of the First IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots.
    We humans often respond effectively when faced with novel circumstances. This is because we are able to predict how particular alterations to the world will play out. Philosophers, psychologists, and computational modelers have long favored an account of this process that takes its inspiration from the truth-preserving powers of formal deduction techniques. There is, however, an alternative hypothesis that is better able to account for the human capacity to predict the consequences worldly alterations. This alternative takes its inspiration from the (...)
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  10. Harm, Consent, and Virtual Selves in Full-Body Ownership Illusions: Real Concerns for Immersive Virtual Reality Therapies.Maria Botero & Elise Whatley - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (4):585-591.
    This paper analyzes in the use of virtual reality when used to induce full-body ownership in violent offenders in order to elicit empathetic feelings by allowing them to embody the virtual body of a victim of domestic abuse. The authors explore potentially harmful effects to individuals participating in this kind of therapy and question whether consent is fully informed. The paper concludes with guidelines for ethical research and rehabilitation using this innovative technology.
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  11. How to (Dis)Solve the Gamer’s Dilemma.Erick Jose Ramirez - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice (1):1-21.
    The Gamer's Dilemma challenges us to find a distinction between virtual murder and virtual pedophilia. Without such a distinction, we are forced to conclude that either both are morally acceptable or that both should be morally illicit. This paper argues that the best way to solve the dilemma is, in one sense, to dissolve it. The Gamer's Dilemma rests on a misunderstanding in the sense that it does not distinguish between the form of a simulation and its surface content. A (...)
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  12. Blade Runner 2049: A Philosophical Exploration.Timothy Shanahan & Paul Smart (eds.) - 2020 - Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
    Widely acclaimed upon its release as a future classic, Denis Villeneuve’s Blade Runner 2049 is visually stunning, philosophically profound, and a provocative extension of the story in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner. Containing specially commissioned chapters by a roster of international contributors, this fascinating collection explores philosophical questions that abound in Blade Runner 2049, including: -/- What distinguishes the authentically "human" person? How might natality condition one’s experience of being-in-the-world? How might shared memories feature in the constitution of personal identities? What (...)
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  13. The Joi of Holograms.Paul Smart - 2020 - In Timothy Shanahan & Paul R. Smart (eds.), Blade Runner 2049: A Philosophical Exploration. Abingdon, UK: pp. 127–148.
  14. Designing the Smart Operator 4.0 for Human Values: A Value Sensitive Design Approach.Steven Umbrello, Antonio Padovano & Lucia Gazzaneo - 2020 - Procedia Manufacturing 42:219-226.
    Emerging technologies such as cloud computing, augmented and virtual reality, artificial intelligence and robotics, among others, are transforming the field of manufacturing and industry as a whole in unprecedent ways. This fourth industrial revolution is consequentially changing how operators that have been crucial to industry success go about their practices in industrial environments. This short paper briefly introduces the notion of the Operator 4.0 as well as how this novel way of conceptualizing the human operator necessarily implicates human values in (...)
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  15. Virtual Realism: Really Realism or Only Virtually So? A Comment on D. J. Chalmers’s Petrus Hispanus Lectures.Claus Beisbart - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):297-331.
    What is the status of a cat in a virtual reality environment? Is it a real object? Or part of a fiction? Virtual realism, as defended by D. J. Chalmers, takes it to be a virtual object that really exists, that has properties and is involved in real events. His preferred specification of virtual realism identifies the cat with a digital object. The project of this paper is to use a comparison between virtual reality environments and scientific computer simulations to (...)
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  16. The Virtual as the Digital.David J. Chalmers - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):453-486.
    I reply to seven commentaries on “The Virtual and the Real”. In response to Claus Beisbart, Jesper Juul, Peter Ludlow, and Neil McDonnell and Nathan Wildman, I clarify and develop my view that virtual are digital objects, with special attention to the nature of digital objects and data structures. In response to Alyssa Ney and Eric Schwitzgebel, I clarify and defend my spatial functionalism, with special attention to the connections between space and consciousness. In response to Marc Silcox, I clarify (...)
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  17. Virtual Reality: Digital or Fictional?Neil McDonnell & Nathan Wildman - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):371-397.
    Are the objects and events that take place in Virtual Reality genuinely real? Those who answer this question in the affirmative are realists, and those who answer in the negative are irrealists. In this paper we argue against the realist position, as given by Chalmers, and present our own preferred irrealist account of the virtual. We start by disambiguating two potential versions of the realist position—weak and strong— and then go on to argue that neither is plausible. We then introduce (...)
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  18. Old Lies, New Media A Review of "A Defense of Simulated Experience: New Noble Lies" by Mark Silcox. [REVIEW]Nele Van de Mosselaer & Stefano Gualeni - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Games 2 (1).
  19. Agency and Embodiment: Groups, Human–Machine Interactions, and Virtual Realities.Johannes Himmelreich - 2018 - Ratio 31 (2):197-213.
    This paper develops a taxonomy of kinds of actions that can be seen in group agency, human–machine interactions, and virtual realities. These kinds of actions are special in that they are not embodied in the ordinary sense. I begin by analysing the notion of embodiment into three separate assumptions that together comprise what I call the Embodiment View. Although this view may find support in paradigmatic cases of agency, I suggest that each of its assumptions can be relaxed. With each (...)
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  20. Programming Planck Units From a Virtual Electron; a Simulation Hypothesis (Summary).Malcolm Macleod - 2018 - Eur. Phys. J. Plus 133:278.
    The Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality, including the earth and the universe, is in fact an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation, and as such our reality is an illusion. In this essay I describe a method for programming mass, length, time and charge (MLTA) as geometrical objects derived from the formula for a virtual electron; $f_e = 4\pi^2r^3$ ($r = 2^6 3 \pi^2 \alpha \Omega^5$) where the fine structure constant $\alpha$ = 137.03599... and $\Omega$ = 2.00713494... (...)
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  21. Ecological and Ethical Issues in Virtual Reality Research: A Call for Increased Scrutiny.Erick Jose Ramirez - 2018 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (2):211-233.
    We argue that moral judgment studies currently conducted utilizing virtual reality (VR) devices must confront a dilemma due to how virtual environments are designed and how those environments are experienced. We begin by first describing the contexts present in paradigmatic cases of naturalistic moral judgments. We then compare these contexts to current traditional (vignette-based) and VR-based moral judgment research. We show that, contra to paradigmatic cases, vignette-based and VR-based moral judgment research often fails to accurately model the situational features of (...)
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  22. Break the “Wall” and Become Creative: Enacting Embodied Metaphors in Virtual Reality.Xinyue Wang, Kelong Lu, Mark A. Runco & Ning Hao - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 62:102-109.
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  23. The Virtual and the Real.David J. Chalmers - 2017 - Disputatio 9 (46):309-352.
    I argue that virtual reality is a sort of genuine reality. In particular, I argue for virtual digitalism, on which virtual objects are real digital objects, and against virtual fictionalism, on which virtual objects are fictional objects. I also argue that perception in virtual reality need not be illusory, and that life in virtual worlds can have roughly the same sort of value as life in non-virtual worlds.
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  24. Virtual Killing.Carl Mildenberger - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (1):185-203.
    Debates that revolve around the topic of morality and fiction rarely explicitly treat virtual worlds like, for example, Second Life. The reason for this disregard cannot be that all users of virtual worlds only do the right thing while online—for they sometimes even virtually kill each other. Is it wrong to kill other people in a virtual world? It depends. This essay analyzes on what it depends, why it is that killing people in a virtual world sometimes is wrong, and (...)
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  25. Empathy and the Limits of Thought Experiments.Erick Ramirez - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (4):504-526.
    This article criticizes what it calls perspectival thought experiments, which require subjects to mentally simulate a perspective before making judgments from within it. Examples include Judith Thomson's violinist analogy, Philippa Foot's trolley problem, and Bernard Williams's Jim case. The article argues that advances in the philosophical and psychological study of empathy suggest that the simulative capacities required by perspectival thought experiments are all but impossible. These thought experiments require agents to consciously simulate necessarily unconscious features of subjectivity. To complete these (...)
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  26. Video Games and Virtual Reality.Robert Seddon - 2017 - In Anthony F. Beavers (ed.), Macmillan Interdisciplinary Handbooks: Philosophy: Technology. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 191-216.
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  27. “The Nature of Avatars: A Response to Roxanne Kurtz’s ‘My Avatar, My Choice’.”.Scott Forschler - 2016 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 16 (1):48-51.
    Roxanne Kurtz has argued that the "virtual rape" of a character in a computer-generated world (an avatar) shares many (though obviously not all) of the wrong-making features of physical rape in the real world. I agree in part, but argue that, due to the typical features of virtual worlds, its wrongfulness is dominated by the harm it does to the avatar user's capacity for social interaction and self-representation. In the course of the argument I hope to shed more light upon (...)
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  28. Perception of Affordances and Experience of Presence in Virtual Reality.Paweł Grabarczyk & Marek Pokropski - 2016 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 7 (2):25-44.
    Recent developments in virtual reality technology raise a question about the experience of presence and immersion in virtual environments. What is immersion and what are the conditions for inducing the experience of virtual presence? In this paper, we argue that crucial determinants of presence are perception of affordances and sense of embodiment. In the first section of this paper, we define key concepts and introduce important distinctions such as immersion and presence. In the second and third sections, we respectively discuss (...)
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  29. Living-Into, Living-With: A Schutzian Account of the Player/Character Relationship.Rebecca A. Hardesty - 2016 - Glimpse 17:27-34.
    Games Studies reveals the performative nature of playing a character in a virtual-game-world (Nitsche 2008, p.205; Pearce 2006, p.1; Taylor 2002, p.48). Tbe Player/Character relationship is typically understood in terms of the player’s in-game “presence” (Boellstorff 2008, p.89; Schroeder 2002, p.6). This gives the appearance that living-into a game-world is an all-or- nothing affair: either the player is “present” in the game-world, or they are not. I argue that, in fact, a constitutive phenomenology reveals the Player/Character relationship to be a (...)
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  30. The Virtual Reality of the Invisible Hand.Emma Tieffenbach - 2016 - Social Science Information 55 (1):115-134.
    Self-centred based explanations such as invisible-hand accounts look like armchair constructions with no relevance to the real world. Whether and how they nonetheless provide an insight into social reality is a puzzling matter. Philip Pettit’s idea of self-interest virtually bearing on choices offers the prospect of a solution. In order to assess the latter we first distinguish between three variants of invisible-hand explanations, namely: a normative, an historical and a theoretical one. We then show that, while the model of virtual (...)
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  31. Virtual Reality: The Last Human Narrative?Thorsten Botz-Bornstein - 2015 - Brill | Rodopi.
    Is virtual reality the latest grand narrative that humanity has produced? This book attempts to disentangle the common characteristics of human reality and posthuman virtual reality by examining discourses on psychoanalysis, gene-technology, globalization, and contemporary art.
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  32. Critical Gaming: Interactive History and Virtual Heritage.Erik M. Champion - 2015 - London: Routledge.
    Critical Gaming: Interactive History and Virtual Heritage can be seen as a collection of chapters designed to provoke thought and discussion, or it can be seen and used as separate chapters that may help class debate in courses dealing with the digital humanities, game studies (especially in the areas of serious games and game-based learning) or aspects of virtual heritage. While there are very few books in this intersecting area, the range of topics that could be investigated and debated is (...)
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  33. Visualization and Interpretation of Geologic Data in 3D Virtual Reality.Gary L. Kinsland & Christoph W. Borst - 2015 - Interpretation: SEG 3 (3):SX13-SX20.
    We have developed an argument and evidence from our experiences for the utility of 3D virtual reality systems in the interpretation of 3D geologic data. Interpretation of 3D data by geoscientists is performed in “the mind.” Visualization of 3D data in 3DVR environments is an efficient method of getting the data into the mind. Descriptions of visualization and interpretation of several different geologic data sets in 3DVR environments illustrate the advantages of 3DVR. Despite the advantages of visualization in 3DVR, several (...)
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  34. Fantasies of Identity, Love, and Self-Knowledge in the Age of the Web and Virtual Reality.Gila Safran Naveh - 2015 - Semiotics:185-194.
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  35. Value Immersion and Value Regression: On Moral Aggregation of Virtual Communities.Narcisa Loredana Posteuca - 2015 - Postmodern Openings 6 (2):79-88.
    The scope of this research paper is to analyze the value integrative-models that can be applied to the virtual interactive constructs, but also to delineate the correspondences established between identity, self and value representation. Concerning the social acquirements that can be distinguished at the level of virtual communities, it is necessary to follow the immersion/ regression processes through which a value layout is settled. Concerning the User’s ability to mediate this value progression in various networking sequences, an analysis of the (...)
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  36. A VISION IN A DREAM, A FRAGMENT- THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, LET ME TALK..@ ... Oxford University Press Usa. Rituparna Ray Chaudhuri (2015). A VISION IN A DREAM, A FRAGMENT- THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, LET ME TALK..Rituparna Ray Chaudhuri - 2015
    ( http://philpapers.org/profile/112741 )"Let generation know to procure the love, the concept, knowledge and ideas with thoughts they are acquiring on versatile English Language, instead of making themselves to be felt dealing with only burden." -/- I too realize, -/- "Literature is not merely going through a book, It is the moment of definition of per feeling that : I am acquiring through an imagery.".
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  37. A VISION IN A DREAM, A FRAGMENT- THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, LET ME TALK..(Http://Www.Slideshare.Net/RituparnaRayChaudhur/Respecting-Every-Decision-I-Visioned-My-Though t)User:Rituparna Ray Chaudhuri - Wiktionary Https://En.Wiktionary.Org/Wiki/User:RituparnaRayChaudhuri User:Rituparna Ray Chaudhuri.Rituparna Ray Chaudhuri - 2015
    (http://philpapers.org/profile/112741 ) [https://plus.google.com/108060242686103906748/posts/cwvdB6mK3J6 ] "Let generation know to procure the love, the concept, knowledge and ideas with thoughts they are acquiring on versatile English Language, instead of making themselves to be felt dealing with only burden." -/- I too realize, -/- "Literature is not merely going through a book, It is the moment of definition of per feeling that : I am acquiring through an imagery.".
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  38. Towards a Science of Emerging Media.Barry Smith - 2015 - In J. E. Katz & J. Floyd (eds.), Philosophy of Emerging Media: Understanding, Appreciation and Application. Oxford University Press. pp. 29-48.
    If media studies are to become established as a genuine science, then it needs to be determined what the subject matter of this science is to be. I propose a specification of this subject matter as consisting in: 1. the new sorts of digital entities that have been added to social reality through the invention of the digital computer, and 2. the new sorts of interactions involving human beings which such entities make possible. I support this proposal by examining examples (...)
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  39. On Friendship Between Online Equals.William Bülow & Cathrine Felix - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (1):21-34.
    There is an ongoing debate about the value of virtual friendship. In contrast to previous authorships, this paper argues that virtual friendship can have independent value. It is argued that within an Aristotelian framework, some friendships that are perhaps impossible offline can exist online, i.e., some offline unequals can be online equals and thus form online friendships of independent value.
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  40. Against Brain-in-a-Vatism: On the Value of Virtual Reality.Jon Cogburn & Mark Silcox - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (4):561-579.
    The term “virtual reality” was first coined by Antonin Artaud to describe a value-adding characteristic of certain types of theatrical performances. The expression has more recently come to refer to a broad range of incipient digital technologies that many current philosophers regard as a serious threat to human autonomy and well-being. Their concerns, which are formulated most succinctly in “brain in a vat”-type thought experiments and in Robert Nozick's famous “experience machine” argument, reflect a fundamental misunderstanding of the way that (...)
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  41. Good Practice in Virtual Worlds Teaching: Designing a Framework Through the Euroversity Project.Judith Molka-Danielsen, Darren Mundy, Stella Hadjistassou & Cristina Stefannelli - 2014 - Iris 35.
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  42. Discovering Ethics Through Virtual Reality.Mellissa Henry - 2013 - Questions 13:18-20.
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  43. Discovering Ethics Through Virtual Reality.Mellissa Henry - 2013 - Questions: Philosophy for Young People 13:18-20.
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  44. Getting 'Virtual' Wrongs Right.Robert Francis John Seddon - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (1):1-11.
    Whilst some philosophical progress has been made on the ethical evaluation of playing video games, the exact subject matter of this enquiry remains surprisingly opaque. ‘Virtual murder’, simulation, representation and more are found in a literature yet to settle into a tested and cohesive terminology. Querying the language of the virtual in particular, I suggest that it is at once inexplicit and laden with presuppositions potentially liable to hinder anyone aiming to construct general philosophical claims about an ethics of gameplay, (...)
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  45. Ethics in the Virtual World: The Morality and Psychology of Gaming.Garry Young - 2013 - Routledge.
    Ethics in the Virtual World examines the gamer's enactment of taboo activities in the context of both traditional and contemporary philosophical approaches to morality. The book argues that it is more productive to consider what individuals are able to cope with psychologically than to determine whether a virtual act or representation is necessarily good or bad. The book raises pertinent questions about one of the most rapidly expanding leisure pursuits in western culture: should virtual enactments warrant moral interest? Should there (...)
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  46. Introduction to Singularity Edition of JCS.Uziel Awret - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (1-2):7-15.
    This special interactive interdisciplinary issue of JCS on the singularity and the future relationship of humanity and AI is the first of two issues centered on David Chalmers’ 2010 JCS article ‘The Singularity, a Philosophical Analysis’. These issues include more than 20 solicited commentaries to which Chalmers responds. To quote Chalmers: -/- "One might think that the singularity would be of great interest to Academic philosophers, cognitive scientists, and artificial intelligence researchers. In practice, this has not been the case. Good (...)
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  47. Uwagi na temat ontologii wirtualnej rzeczywistości.Izabela Bondecka-Krzykowska - 2012 - Filozofia Nauki 20 (4).
    The article is an attempt at collecting some views on ontology of virtual reality (VR). Two types of definitions of virtual reality are discussed and compared: technological (concentrated on technical features of VR) and psychological (concentrated on people’s experiences with VR). In the paper features of virtual reality such as: interaction, artificiality, simulation, full body immersion, networked communications, telepresence and immersion are presented as forming differentia specifica of virtual reality. The main studied issues are ontological problems connected with virtual reality (...)
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  48. The Aesthetic of Immersion in the Immersive Dome Environment : Stepping Between the Real and the Virtual Worlds for Further Self-Constitution?Isabella Buczek - 2012 - Technoetic Arts 10 (1):3-10.
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  49. The Triumph of Virtual Reality.Glenn McLaren - 2012 - Cosmos and History 8 (1):383-411.
    Where will the philosophers of the future come from and can we have civilization without them? In this paper I argue that there is a co-dependent relationship between philosophy and civilization, one that has emerged and developed in relation to the emergence of information technologies, particularly writing and print and conditions for deep and prolonged concentration. The internet, however, today’s powerful information technology which is increasingly mediating humanities relationships, is proving to be a technology which threatens this relationship. The internet (...)
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  50. The Reality of Friendship Within Immersive Virtual Worlds.Nicholas John Munn - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):1-10.
    In this article I examine a recent development in online communication, the immersive virtual worlds of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). I argue that these environments provide a distinct form of online experience from the experience available through earlier generation forms of online communication such as newsgroups, chat rooms, email and instant messaging. The experience available to participants in MMORPGs is founded on shared activity, while the experience of earlier generation online communication is largely if not wholly dependent on (...)
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