In this brief, we argue that there is a diversity of ways in which humans (Homo sapiens) are ‘persons’ and there are no non-arbitrary conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can include all humans and exclude all nonhuman animals. To do so we describe and assess the four most prominent conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can be found in the rulings concerning Kiko and Tommy, with particular focus on the most recent decision, Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc v Lavery.
This study focuses on retraction notices from two major Latin American/Caribbean indexing databases: SciELO and LILACS. SciELO includes open scientific journals published mostly in Latin America/the Caribbean, from which 10 % are also indexed by Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal of Citation Reports. LILACS has a similar geographical coverage and includes dissertations and conference/symposia proceedings, but it is limited to publications in the health sciences. A search for retraction notices was performed in these two databases using the keywords “retracted”, (...) “retraction” “withdrawal”, “withdrawn”, “removed” and “redress”. Documents were manually checked to identify those that actually referred to retractions, which were then analyzed and categorized according to the reasons alleged in the notices. Dates of publication/retraction and time to retraction were also recorded. Searching procedures were performed between June and December 2014. Thirty-one retraction notices were identified, fifteen of which were in JCR-indexed journals. “Plagiarism” was alleged in six retractions of this group. Among the non-JCR journals, retraction reasons were alleged in fourteen cases, twelve of which were attributed to “plagiarism”. The proportion of retracted articles for the SciELO database was approximately 0.005 %. The reasons alleged in retraction notices may be used as signposts to inform discussions in Latin America on plagiarism and research integrity. At the international level, these results suggest that the correction of the literature is becoming global and is not limited to mainstream international publications. (shrink)
What counts as an intuitively plausible set theoretic content (notion, axiom or theorem) has been a matter of much debate in contemporary philosophy of mathematics. In this paper I develop a critical appraisal of the issue. I analyze first R. B. Jensen's positions on the epistemic status of the axiom of constructibility. I then formulate and discuss a view of intuitiveness in set theory that assumes it to hinge basically on mathematical success. At the same time, I present accounts of (...) set theoretic axioms and theorems formulated in non-strictly mathematical terms, e.g., by appealing to the iterative concept of set and/or to overall methodological principles, like unify and maximize, and investigate the relation of the latter to success in mathematics. (shrink)
We consider fine hierarchies in recursion theory, descriptive set theory, logic and complexity theory. The main results state that the sets of values of different Boolean terms coincide with the levels of suitable fine hierarchies. This gives new short descriptions of these hierarchies and shows that collections of sets of values of Boolean terms are almost well ordered by inclusion. For the sake of completeness we mention also some earlier results demonstrating the usefulness of fine hierarchies.
The ternary, not binary, Kripke-type relation on a set of possible worlds is an essential part of the semantics of entailment by Routley-Meyer . The unpopularity of such approach among many logicians is due to its intuitive vague content and complexity. An attempt is made to use not one ternary relation but two binary relations and necessity of bibinarness is demonstrated. It is shown that both semantics are equal hence the soundness and completeness of the system R of entailment can (...) be established with the respect to the bibinary semantics. Furthermore, the ternary semantic with discrete matrix for Lukasiewicz system Lℵ0 , which was proposed in , could be transformed into the bibinary one and it leads to the conclusion of the completeness and soundness of Lℵ0 with the respect to the bibinary semantic. The brief consideration of the bibinary semantic intuitive content is added, which further logical study could be based on. (shrink)
We review the history of the road to a manifestly covariant perturbative calculus within quantum electrodynamics from the early semi-classical results of the mid-twenties to the complete formalism of Stueckelberg in 1934. We choose as our case study the calculation of the cross-section of the Compton effect. We analyse Stueckelberg's paper extensively. This is our first contribution to a study of his fundamental contributions to the theoretical physics of the twentieth century.
The problem of modern principle conditions, forms and effective group cooperation interaction methods are considered. On the basis of the comparative analysis of inconsistent approaches to teambuilding, the expediency of domestic experience of collective formation use on humanistic principles of the general care is proved, that were mostly qualitative theoretically and empirically developed and checked up by long-term experience of scientific and pedagogical activity of A. S. Makarenko, I. P. Ivanov and their followers. Some little-known facts of history of their (...) approaches to formation and collective development are considered. The basic psychology-pedagogical teambuilding principles, applicable not only in pedagogical, but also in many other kinds of modern creative activity are allocated. (shrink)
The scientific career of the outstanding Russian physiologist A. A. Ukhtomskii was complex and full of contradictions. A descendant of Prince Vsevolod Big Nest [Bol'shoe Gnezdo] of Suzdal', he was strongly influenced by the traditions and legends of his caste. As a juvenile he was sent to the Nizhnii Novgorod Corps of Cadets where he developed a profound interest in philosophy, psychology, history, and literature. His fellow cadets of the same age were amazed at, and sometimes ridiculed the young Ukhtomskii's (...) attempts to find answers to the burning questions of the day in the books of Shakespeare and Dostoevsky and in scientific works. Ukhtomskii's notebooks and synopses of those years show how this youth, from age 15 to 17, pondered over cardinal problems of world view, the contradictions of Russian society, and the future of science. The barracks life of the cadets, the rigorous schedule and supervision did not suppress Ukhtomskii's persistent desire to get a closer knowledge of the life of Nizhnii Novgorod, a major mill town and river port. He managed to make the acquaintance of members of a group of Marxist workers and maintained contact with one of them, M. Ia. Iakovlev , for over 40 years. (shrink)
Taxometric analyses were applied to the construct of psychopathy (as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist) and to several variables reflecting antisocial childhood, adult criminality, and criminal recidivism. Subjects were 653 serious offenders assessed or treated in a maximum-security institution. Results supported the existence of a taxon underlying psychopathy. Childhood problem behaviors provided convergent evidence for the existence of the taxon. Adult criminal history variables were continuously distributed and were insufficient in themselves to detect the taxon.
Language depth and complexity are comparable with the world reflected in its reality. The conceptual categories are formed by its means, allowing conceptualize ideas about the world, on the basis of which cognitive experience of man further develops. In all periods of its existence, the language is characterized by dynamism and synergy, the ability of self-development, improvement of socio-functional nature, taking care of maintaining its communicative suitability in the best condition. As a unique object of reality, as the most brilliant (...) creation of a human being, language deserves not only to be spoken, but also to get attention and be studied. Research experience proves that the language still holds many secrets and unrevealed laws of its being, development and functioning. Revealing these secrets and laws is possible on the basis of scientific and linguistic competence; the base substrate of it is communicative language competence, which itself can not get enough depth without the support of linguistic competence. Language is the most important means of formation and protection of ethnic and cultural consciousness and the identity of a man whose personal features begin to form on the base and with the help of language in early childhood. Historically, it is through the medium of the Russian language numerous peoples of Russia, the former Soviet Union, and abroad maintain and develop their culture in the broadest sense of the word connection, and it allows everyone to feel their place in the world and thus realize the dynamic integrity of mankind in the general context of space and time, rootedness in their limits, responsibility to them. Russian is the official language, and the state is obliged to develop and adopt measures linguoecological protective nature towards their language in the interests of Russian language and Russian-speaking communities abroad, and to ensure the preservation of its cultural and communicative power. The experience of Russian linguistics in formation of the theory of state language is invaluable in general sociolinguistic approach to language, based on the objective fact of ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity of Russia. (shrink)
Application of recently developed non-Archimedean algebra to a flat and finite universe of total mass M 0 and radius R 0 is described. In this universe, mass m of a body and distance R between two points are bounded from above, i.e., 0≤m≤M 0, 0≤R≤R 0. The universe is characterized by an event horizon at R 0 (there is nothing beyond it, not even space). The radial distance metric is compressed toward horizon, which is shown to cause the phenomenon of (...) red shift. The corresponding modified Minkowski's metric and Lorentz transforms are obtained. Applications to Newtonian gravity shows a weakening at large scales (R→R 0) and a regular behavior as R→0. (shrink)
Probabilistic local realism for two correlated systems as formulated by Clauser and Horne in 1974 is shown to be necessarily based on a perfect specification of the state and on an individual definition of probability. All known realistic formulations of probability calculus are instead defined in terms of relative frequencies, and perfect specifications of states are impossible. We reformulate probabilistic local realism by using the relative frequency definition only and show that the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen paradox still obtains.