About this topic
Summary This category covers philosophical discussions of the ethics of captivity, ranging from what captivity is to whether and why it is wrong to keep animals captive. Works included here also discuss the specific conditions under which captivity is harmful or not, whether and which animals have an interest in freedom or liberty, and the ethics of particular forms of confinement, e.g., for animals kept for research, food, entertainment or as companions.
Key works The only collection dedicated to the topic: Gruen 2014. Recent work on the topic includes: Cochrane 2012; DeGrazia 2011; Delon 2018Streiffer & Killoren 2019; Streiffer 2014. Classic articles include: Jamieson 2002 (see "Against zoos" and "Zoos revisited"); Rachels 1976
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128 found
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  1. added 2020-04-28
    How to Help When It Hurts: ACT Individually (and in Groups).C. E. Abbate - 2020 - Animal Studies Journal 9 (1):170-200.
    In a recent article, Corey Wrenn argues that in order to adequately address injustices done to animals, we ought to think systemically. Her argument stems from a critique of the individualist approach I employ to resolve a moral dilemma faced by animal sanctuaries, who sometimes must harm some animals to help others. But must systemic critiques of injustice be at odds with individualist approaches? In this paper, I respond to Wrenn by showing how individualist approaches that take seriously the notion (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-27
    Keep Your Cats Indoors: A Reply to Abbate.Bob Fischer - forthcoming - Acta Analytica:1-6.
    C. E. Abbate (2019) argues that, under certain conditions, cat guardians have a moral duty to allow their feline companions to roam freely outdoors. She contends that outdoor access is crucial to feline flourishing, which means that, in general, to keep cats indoors permanently is to harm them. She grants that, in principle, we could justify preventing cats from roaming based on the fact that some cats kill wildlife. However, she points out that not all cats are guilty of this (...)
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  3. added 2020-03-13
    Extrapolating From Laboratory Behavioral Research on Non-Human Primates is Unjustified.Parker Crutchfield - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    Conducting research on animals is supposed to be valuable because it provides information on how human mechanisms work. But for the use of animal models to be ethically justified, it must be epistemically justified. The inference from an observation about an animal model to a conclusion about humans must be warranted for the use of animals to be moral. When researchers infer from animals to humans, it’s an extrapolation. Often non-human primates are used as animal models in laboratory behavioral research. (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-10
    Nonhuman Animal Nations: Transforming Conservation Into Wildlife Self-Determination.Jessica Bell Rizzolo & Gay Bradshaw - forthcoming - Society and Animals:1-21.
    Neuroscientists have recently asserted that human and nonhuman animals share comparable brain structures and processes that govern cognition, emotion, and consciousness. This unitary, species-common model of trans-species neuropsychology compels a transformation from the current model of wildlife conservation to wildlife self-determination. Self-determination supports wildlife agency and resilience at the individual and population levels and is based on principles of positive assistance and supportive intervention, parallel sovereignty, and fair terms of cooperation in wildlife-human interactions. The case of Asian elephants in Thailand (...)
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  5. added 2020-03-10
    Interspecies Relationships and Their Influence on Animal Handling: a Case Study in the Tallinn Zoological Gardens.Mirko Cerrone - 2020 - Biosemiotics 13 (1):115-135.
    This paper addresses the biosemiotic dimensions of human relationship with captive animals and aims to uncover how these factors influence handling practices and human-animal interactions within zoological gardens. Zoological gardens are quintessential hybrid environments, and as such, they are places of interspecies interactions and mutual influences. These interactions are profoundly shaped by human attitudes towards animals. The roots of these attitudes can be found at the cultural and institutional levels as well as at the biosemiotic level. Previous studies have suggested (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-10
    The Marine Mammal Captivity Issue: Time for a Paradigm Shift.Lori Marino - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk.
    Dolphin and whale captivity is one of the most contentious cultural issues of modern times. But is there a way to proceed to resolve this issue based on evidence for whether cetaceans can thrive in marine parks and aquariums? By asking “who are cetaceans?” we gain insight into why their natural characteristics as wide-ranging, large brained and socially complex mammals make them particularly vulnerable to the stresses of living in concrete tanks and performing. The result is a growing body of (...)
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  7. added 2020-03-10
    Elephants in Captivity.Catherine Doyle - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk.
    Elephants are among the world’s most intelligent land mammals, with a social structure so complex it rivals that of human societies. When brought into captivity, elephants are subjected to conditions that are the opposite of the dynamic ecological and social environments to which they are evolutionarily adapted, causing varying degrees of physical and psychological deterioration, suffering, and premature death. Much of the debate over the welfare of captive elephants rightfully centers on these harms. However, far less attention is given to (...)
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  8. added 2020-03-10
    Introduction: The Ethics of Captivity.Thomas I. White - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk.
    Of all the issues related to animal ethics discussed in this handbook, perhaps the most visible is captivity. This chapter begins with an overarching critique of captivity in Lori Gruen’s “Incarceration, Liberty and Dignity.” It proceeds to a fundamental challenge to the ethical defensibility of zoos in Liz Tyson’s “Speciesism and Zoos.” The final set of essays detail the harm produced by the captivity of nonhuman animals who are known to be intellectually, emotionally and socially sophisticated. Catherine Doyle’s “Elephants in (...)
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  9. added 2020-03-10
    Incarceration, Liberty, and Dignity.Lori Gruen - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk.
    Currently an unprecedented number of individuals live in captivity. There has been an increase in attention to the harms of human bondage and confinement, and the harms of captivity for non-human animals is beginning to come into sharper view. Those who do focus on other animals in captivity have tended to focused on pain, suffering, and killing with much less attention to the potentially devastating effects of denying liberty. Incaceration does cause physical and psychological harm, but it also is a (...)
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  10. added 2020-03-10
    Reengaging Voices of Animal Suffering.André Krebber - 2018 - Food Ethics 1 (3):273-282.
    The paper discusses the potential for recognizing animals as autonomous individuals through a critique of the handling of suffering of terminally ill companion animals. To this end, it offers three distinct reflections on animal suffering through immanent readings of the painting The Death of the Stag by Benjamin West, a personal experience with caring for a dog dying from cancer, and a thought from Theodor W. Adorno’s Negative Dialectics. Neither developing a coherent theory of animal suffering nor ethical or medical (...)
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  11. added 2020-03-10
    Animal Suffering Matters.Kay Peggs - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk.
    This chapter reflects on the suffering of nonhuman animals who are “domesticated” and who are considered to be the property of humans. Of course, both free-living and “domesticated” nonhuman animals suffer through being discriminated against and exploited by humans, but the focus in this chapter is the suffering that is authorized by laws that designate nonhuman animals as the property of humans. In particular, consideration is given to the suffering that humans impose on nonhuman animals with whom we often have (...)
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  12. added 2020-03-10
    Whales, Dolphins and Humans: Challenges in Interspecies Ethics.Thomas I. White - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk.
    The discoveries of marine mammal scientists over the last 50 years have made it clear that whales and dolphins demonstrate advanced intellectual and emotional traits once believed to be unique to humans. Sadly, discussions of cetacean captivity are regularly marked by unsophisticated approaches to ethics. Senior scientists regularly fail to demonstrate even the most rudimentary skills of ethical analysis. As a result, most discussions of cetacean captivity in the marine mammal community are intellectually +weak—marked by the combination of formal and (...)
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  13. added 2020-03-10
    Our Moral Duties to Ill and Aging Companion Animals.Faith Bjalobok - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk.
    This essay argues that once we enter into a relationship with a companion animal or animals we acquire direct moral duties to our non-human companions. The basic contention of this essay is that our direct duties are derived from our own autonomous decision to enter into a human-animal relationship. While, as Kant argued, we have indirect duties to non-human animals grounded in our duty to ourselves to maintain and protect our own humanity, it is furthered argued that we also have (...)
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  14. added 2020-03-10
    Speciesism and Zoos: Shifting the Paradigm, Maintaining the Prejudice.Elizabeth Tyson - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk.
    This essay explores speciesism and zoos. It is argued that whilst other industries, such as animal experimentation and factory farming, have long been held up by proponents of animal rights theories as examples of speciesism in practice, zoos are rarely presented in the same way. Unlike industries such as animal experimentation or factory farming, where it is abundantly clear that the use of animals is carried out for the sole purpose of human benefit, the zoo industry claims that it exists (...)
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  15. added 2020-03-10
    Special Issue on Animals and Their Welfare.Johan De Tavernier & Stefan Aerts - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (1):3-5.
    Perhaps the commonest reasons for the keeping of pets are companionship and as a conduit for affection. Pets are, therefore, being “used” for human ends in much the same way as laboratory or farm animals. So shouldn’t the same arguments apply to the use of pets as to those used in other ways? In accepting the “rights” of farm animals to fully express their natural behavior, one must also accept the “right” of pets to express their intrinsic natural behavior. Dogs (...)
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  16. added 2020-01-29
    Valuing Animals as They Are—Whether They Feel It or Not.C. E. Abbate - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy:1-19.
    Dressing up animals in ridiculous costumes, shaming dogs on the internet, playing Big Buck Hunter at the local tavern, feeding vegan food to cats, and producing and consuming “knockout” animals, what, if anything, do these acts have in common? In this article, I develop two respect-based arguments that explain how these acts are morally problematic, even though they might not always, if ever, affect the experiential welfare of animals. While these acts are not ordinary wrongs, they are animal dignitary wrongs.
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  17. added 2020-01-18
    A Defense of Free-Roaming Cats From a Hedonist Account of Feline Well-Being.C. E. Abbate - 2019 - Acta Analytica:1-23.
    There is a widespread belief that for their own safety and for the protection of wildlife, cats should be permanently kept indoors. Against this view, I argue that cat guardians have a duty to provide their feline companions with outdoor access. The argument is based on a sophisticated hedonistic account of animal well-being that acknowledges that the performance of species-normal ethological behavior is especially pleasurable. Territorial behavior, which requires outdoor access, is a feline-normal ethological behavior, so when a cat is (...)
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  18. added 2019-11-11
    A Belmont Report for Animals?—Erratum.Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver & John Gluck - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (1):19-37.
    :Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and (...)
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  19. added 2019-11-11
    Caregiver/Orangutan Relationships at Auckland Zoo.Alexandra Palmer, Julie Park & Nicholas Malone - 2016 - Society and Animals 24 (3):230-249.
    Drawing on ethnographic, ethological, and historical data, we examined the relationships between orangutans and caregivers at Auckland Zoo. Caregivers displayed high levels of empathy and adjusted their husbandry routines to their interpretations of the orangutans’ moods. Caregivers experienced conflicts arising from their efforts to empathize. Although they agreed their husbandry approach improved welfare, they worried their interpretations of orangutan behavior were inaccurate anthropomorphic projections. However, caregivers’ interpretations aligned well with ethological observations and with current knowledge of orangutan behavior. Caregivers’ shared (...)
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  20. added 2019-11-11
    There Is No Wild.Jessica Bell - 2015 - Society and Animals 23 (5):462-483.
    This paper documents the discourse used by contemporary circuses to justify their exploitation of nonhuman animals. The circus is undergoing redefinition due to cultural changes, animal welfare concerns, and political legislation. Critical Discourse Analysis is applied to a sample of articles on animals in circuses published inusnewspapers and magazines from 2007 to 2012. Analyses revealed that circus discourse attempts to promote the circus as an ecologically important endeavor, minimize the differences between human and nonhuman animals, naturalize culturally induced behavior, assert (...)
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  21. added 2019-10-26
    A Defense of Free-Roaming Cats from a Hedonist Account of Feline Well-being.C. E. Abbate - 2019 - Acta Analytica 2019:1-23.
    There is a widespread belief that for their own safety and for the protection of wildlife, cats should be permanently kept indoors. Against this view, I argue that cat guardians have a duty to provide their feline companions with outdoor access. The argument is based on a sophisticated hedonistic account of animal well-being that acknowledges that the performance of species-normal ethological behavior is especially pleasurable. Territorial behavior, which requires outdoor access, is a feline-normal ethological behavior, so when a cat is (...)
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  22. added 2019-08-28
    Pervasive Captivity and Urban Wildlife.Nicolas Delon - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment.
    Urban animals can benefit from living in cities, but this also makes them vulnerable as they increasingly depend on the advantages of urban life. This article has two aims. First, I provide a detailed analysis of the concept of captivity and explain why it matters to nonhuman animals—because and insofar as many of them have a (non-substitutable) interest in freedom. Second, I defend a surprising implication of the account—pushing the boundaries of the concept while the boundaries of cities and human (...)
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  23. added 2019-07-24
    Aristotle’s Ethics and Farm Animal Welfare.David Grumett - 2019 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 32 (2):321-333.
    Although telos has been important in farm animal ethics for several decades, clearer understanding of it may be gained from the close reading of Aristotle’s primary texts on animals. Aristotle observed and classified animals informally in daily life and through planned evidence gathering and collection development. During this work he theorized his concept of telos, which includes species flourishing and a good life, and drew on extensive and detailed assessments of animal physiology, diet and behaviour. Aristotle believed that animals, like (...)
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  24. added 2019-07-24
    Are We Justified in Conducting Invasive Research on Captive Apes for Their Wild Counterparts?Katlin Kraska - 2018 - Society and Animals 26 (6):598-615.
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  25. added 2019-07-24
    The Moral Justification for Keeping Animals in Captivity.Stephen St Chad Bostock - 1987 - Dissertation, University of Glasgow
    I attempt a reasoned, qualified defence of zoos, but in full recognition of the moral challenge to them. This challenge is mainly examined in chapters 3 to 7. Animals are indeed free in the wild, and must lose that freedom in some degree in zoos *. However animal captivity need only share with human captivity its being brought about by an external agent, it can and should be captivity in a technical sense only, and at its best can clearly be (...)
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  26. added 2019-07-08
    Nonhuman Self-Investment Value.Gary Comstock - manuscript
    Guardians of companion animals killed wrongfully in the U.S. historically receive compensatory judgments reflecting the animal’s economic value. As animals are property in torts law, this value typically is the animal’s fair market value—which is often zero. But this is only the animal’s value, as it were, to a stranger and, in light of the fact that many guardians value their animals at rates far in excess of fair market value, legislatures and courts have begun to recognize a second value, (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    Persons or Property – Freedom and the Legal Status of Animals.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 15 (1):20-45.
    _ Source: _Page Count 26 Is freedom a plausible political value for animals? If so, does this imply that animals are owed legal personhood rights or can animals be free but remain human property? Drawing on different conceptions of freedom, I will argue that while positive freedom, libertarian self-ownership, and republican freedom are not plausible political values for animals, liberal ‘option-freedom’ is. However, because such option-freedom is in principle compatible with different legal statuses, animal freedom does not conceptually imply a (...)
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    A Kantian Defense of Self‐Ownership.Robert S. Taylor - 2004 - Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (1):65-78.
    Many scholars, including G. A. Cohen, Daniel Attas, and George Brenkert, have denied that a Kantian defense of self-ownership is possible. Kant's ostensible hostility to self-ownership can be resolved, however, upon reexamination of the Groundwork and the Metaphysics of Morals. Moreover, two novel Kantian defenses of self-ownership (narrowly construed) can be devised. The first shows that maxims of exploitation and paternalism that violate self-ownership cannot be universalized, as this leads to contradictions in conception. The second shows that physical coercion against (...)
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  29. added 2019-04-22
    The Ethics of Confining Animals: From Farms to Zoos to Human Homes.David DeGrazia - 2011 - In Tom Beauchamp & R. G. Frey (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This article examines basic interests that animals have in liberty—the absence of external constraints on movement. It takes liberty to be a benefit for sentient animals that permits them to pursue what they want and need. Obviously farms, zoos, pets in homes, animals for sale in stores, circuses, and laboratories all involve forms of confinement that restrict liberty. The discussion aims to know the conditions, if there are any, under which such liberty-limitation is morally justified. It first lays out the (...)
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  30. added 2019-04-22
    Do Animals Have a Right to Liberty.James Rachels - 1976 - In Tom Regan & Peter Singer (eds.), Animal Rights and Human Obligations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. pp. 205-223.
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  31. added 2019-04-01
    Animals and the Agency Account of Moral Status.Marc G. Wilcox - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    In this paper, I aim to show that agency-based accounts of moral status are more plausible than many have previously thought. I do this by developing a novel account of moral status that takes agency, understood as the capacity for intentional action, to be the necessary and sufficient condition for the possession of moral status. This account also suggests that the capacities required for sentience entail the possession of agency, and the capacities required for agency, entail the possession of sentience. (...)
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  32. added 2019-04-01
    Life in a Cage.Kristin Andrews - 2017 - The Philosophers' Magazine 76:72-77.
    Personhood is not a redundant category, but a social cluster kind. On this view, chimpanzees have their own kind of personhood profile. Seeing that chimpanzees have a personhood profile allows us to argue that chimpanzees like Tommy are individuals who deserve rights under the law. If chimpanzee personhood is a matter of public policy that needs to be decided by society, then learning more about the person profiles of chimpanzees will be essential in making this case. As the public learns (...)
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  33. added 2019-04-01
    Captivity.Bernice Bovenkerk & Jozef Keulartz - unknown - Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior.
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  34. added 2019-03-25
    The Cattle in the Long Cedar Springs Draw.Gary Comstock - 2019 - In Nandita Batra & Mario Wenning (eds.), The Human–Animal Boundary Exploring the Line in Philosophy and Fiction. Lanham: Lexington Books. pp. 97-114.
    The argument for vegetarianism from overlapping species goes like this. Every individual who is the subject of a life has a right to life. Some humans—e.g., the severely congenitally cognitively limited—lack language, rationality, autonomy, and self-consciousness, and yet they are subjects of a life. Severely congenitally cognitively limited humans have a right to life. Some animals—e.g., all mammals—lack language, rationality, autonomy, and self-consciousness, and yet they are subjects of a life. We ought to treat like cases alike. The cases of (...)
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  35. added 2019-03-05
    Animal Agency.Dale Jamieson - 2018 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 25:111-126.
    The rise of physicalism and naturalism, the development of cognitive science, and the explosion and popularization of knowledge about animal behavior has brought us to see that most of the properties that were once thought to distinguish humans from other animals are shared with other animals. Many people now see properties that are morally relevant to how it is permissible to treat animals, such as sentience, as widely distributed. Agency, however, is one area in which the retreat from human uniqueness (...)
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  36. added 2019-02-08
    No Room at the Zoo: Management Euthanasia and Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):483-498.
    The practice of ‘management euthanasia’, in which zoos kill otherwise healthy surplus animals, is a controversial one. The debate over the permissibility of the practice tends to divide along two different views in animal ethics—animal rights and animal welfare. Traditionally, those arguments against the practice have come from the animal rights camp, who see it as a violation of the rights of the animal involved. Arguments in favour come from the animal welfare perspective, who argue that as the animal does (...)
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  37. added 2019-01-07
    Won’T Somebody Please Think of the Mammoths? De-Extinction and Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (6):785-803.
    De-extinction is the process through which extinct species can be brought back into existence. Although these projects have the potential to cause great harm to animal welfare, discussion on issues surrounding de-extinction have focussed primarily on other issues. In this paper, I examine the potential types of welfare harm that can arise through de-extinction programs, including problems with cloning, captive rearing and re-introduction. I argue that welfare harm should be an important consideration when making decisions on de-extinction projects. Though most (...)
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  38. added 2018-11-05
    Zoo Studies: A New Humanities.Tracy McDonald & Daniel Vandersommers (eds.) - 2019 - Mcgill-Queen's University Press.
    Do both the zoo and the mental hospital induce psychosis, as humans are treated as animals and animals are treated as humans? How have we looked at animals in the past, and how do we look at them today? How have zoos presented themselves, and their purpose, over time? In response to the emergence of environmental and animal studies, anthropologists, sociologists, philosophers, theorists, literature scholars, and historians around the world have begun to explore the significance of zoological parks, past and (...)
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  39. added 2018-10-22
    Animal Confinement and Use.Robert Streiffer & David Killoren - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (1):1-21.
    We distinguish two conceptions of confinement – the agential conception and the comparative conception – and show that the former is intimately related to use in a way that the latter is not. Specifically, in certain conditions, agential confinement constitutes use and creates a special relationship that makes neglect or abuse especially egregious. This allows us to develop and defend an account of one important way in which agential confinement can be morally wrong. We then discuss some of the account’s (...)
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  40. added 2018-10-05
    Animal Agency, Captivity, and Meaning.Nicolas Delon - 2018 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 25:127-146.
    Can animals be agents? Do they want to be free? Can they have meaningful lives? If so, should we change the way we treat them? This paper offers an account of animal agency and of two continuums: between human and nonhuman agency, and between wildness and captivity. It describes how a wide range of human activities impede on animals’ freedom and argues that, in doing so, we deprive a wide range of animals of opportunities to exercise their agency in ways (...)
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  41. added 2018-06-23
    The Moral Basis of Animal-Assisted Therapy.Tzachi Zamir - 2006 - Society and Animals 14 (2):179-199.
    Is nonhuman animal-assisted therapy a form of exploitation? After exploring possible moral vindications of AAT and after establishing a distinction between "use" and "exploitation," the essay distinguishes between forms of animal-assisted therapy that are morally unobjectionable and those modes of it that ought to be abolished.
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  42. added 2018-06-05
    Virtue, Vice, and "Voracious" Science: How Should We Approach the Ethics of Primate Research?Rebecca L. Walker - 2018 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 61 (1):130-146.
    From the late 1950s through the early 1970s, Harry F. Harlow's primate laboratory at the University of Wisconsin–Madison undertook a series of studies on infant rhesus macaque monkeys that gained the attention of both animal welfare advocates and the scientific community.1 Establishing one of the first primate research laboratories in 1932, Harlow began his career as a primate researcher by studying primate learning capabilities and shredding previous assumptions within psychology that primates were restricted to the conditioned learning of a rat. (...)
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  43. added 2018-04-20
    Chasing Secretariat's Consent: The Impossibility of Permissible Animal Sports.James Rocha - 2018 - Between the Species 21 (1).
    Tom Regan argued that animal sports cannot be morally permissible because they are cruel and the animals do not voluntarily participate. While Regan is correct about actual animal sports, we should ask whether substantially revised animal sports could be permissible. We can imagine significant changes to certain animal sports, such as horse racing, that would avoid cruelty and even allow the animals to make their own choices. Where alternative options are freely available, we can consider the horses to have preference (...)
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  44. added 2018-04-11
    Chimpanzee Rights: The Philosophers' Brief.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, G. K. D. Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David M. Pena-Guzman & Jeff Sebo - 2018 - London: Routledge.
    In December 2013, the Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP) filed a petition for a common law writ of habeas corpus in the New York State Supreme Court on behalf of Tommy, a chimpanzee living alone in a cage in a shed in rural New York (Barlow, 2017). Under animal welfare laws, Tommy’s owners, the Laverys, were doing nothing illegal by keeping him in those conditions. Nonetheless, the NhRP argued that given the cognitive, social, and emotional capacities of chimpanzees, Tommy’s confinement constituted (...)
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  45. added 2018-03-26
    The Philosophers' Brief on Chimpanzee Personhood.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, Gillian Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David Pena-Guzman, James Rocha, Bernard Rollin, Jeff Sebo, Adam Shriver & Rebecca Walker - 2018 - Proposed Brief by Amici Curiae Philosophers in Support of the Petitioner-Appelllant Court of Appeals, State of New York,.
    In this brief, we argue that there is a diversity of ways in which humans (Homo sapiens) are ‘persons’ and there are no non-arbitrary conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can include all humans and exclude all nonhuman animals. To do so we describe and assess the four most prominent conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can be found in the rulings concerning Kiko and Tommy, with particular focus on the most recent decision, Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc v Lavery.
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  46. added 2018-03-12
    Deprivation as Un-Experienced Harm?Külli Keerus, Mickey Gjerris & Helena Röcklinsberg - 2019 - Society and Animals 27 (5-6):469-486.
    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject. This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman (...)
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  47. added 2018-02-05
    Freedom in Captivity: Managing Zoo Animals According to the ‘Five Freedoms’.Nelly Mäekivi - 2018 - Biosemiotics 11 (1):7-25.
    Animal welfare is a complex matter that includes scientific, ethical, economic and other dimensions. Despite the existence of more comprehensive approaches to animal welfare and the obvious shortcomings of the ‘Five Freedoms’, for zoological gardens the freedoms still constitute the general guidelines to be followed. These guidelines reflect both, an ethical view and a science based approach. Analysis reveals that the potential ineptitude of the ‘Five Freedoms’ lies in the manifold perceptions that people have of other animals. These perceptions are (...)
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  48. added 2017-12-25
    In Defence of Backyard Chickens.Bob Fischer & Josh Milburn - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (1):108-123.
    Suppose that animals have rights. If so, may you go down to your local farm store, buy some chicks, raise them in your backyard, and eat their eggs? You wouldn't think so. But we argue, to the contrary, that you may. Just as there are circumstances in which it's permissible to liberate a slave, even if that means paying into a corrupt system, so there are circumstances in which it's permissible to liberate chickens by buying them. Moreover, we contend that (...)
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  49. added 2017-12-25
    Essere o Non-Essere Animali. L’Ontologia in Cattività.Renata Rallo - unknown
    TO BE OR NOT TO BE ANIMALS. ONTOLOGY IN CAPTIVITY In the past few years, philosophy studies regarding environmental and animal ethics have focused more and more on the relationship between animals and humans. Specifically, the contemporary scientific discussion also centres on using animals as entertainment and its moral issues. By capturing animals, exposing and training them, places like zoos, dolphinaria and circuses cause radical changes in the animal nature. The living conditions have consequential effects on the animal itself, for (...)
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  50. added 2017-11-27
    On Respecting Animals, or Can Animals Be Wronged Without Being Harmed?Angela Martin - 2019 - Res Publica 25 (1):83-99.
    There is broad agreement that humans can be wronged independently of their incurring any harm, that is, when their welfare is not affected. Examples include unnoticed infringements of privacy, ridiculing unaware individuals, or disregarding individuals’ autonomous decision-making in their best interest. However, it is less clear whether the same is true of animals—that is, whether moral agents can wrong animals in situations that do not involve any harm to the animals concerned. In order to answer this question, I concentrate on (...)
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