Results for 'Ectogenesis'

74 found
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  1. Evaluating Ectogenesis Via the Metaphysics of Pregnancy.Suki Finn & Sasha Isaac - 2021 - In Robbie Davis-Floyd (ed.), Birthing Techno-Sapiens: Human-Technology, Co-Evolution, and the Future of Reproduction. E-Book: Routledge: Taylor & Francis. pp. Chapter 8.
    Ectogenesis, or “artificial womb technology,” has been heralded by some, such as prominent feminist Shulamith Firestone, as a way to liberate women. In this chapter, we challenge this view by offering an alternative analysis of the technology as relying upon and perpetuating a problematic model of pregnancy which, rather than liberating women, serves to devalue them. We look to metaphysics as the abstract study of reality to elucidate how the entities in a pregnancy are related to one another. We (...)
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  2.  57
    Ectogenesis and the Case Against the Right to the Death of the Foetus.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (1):76-81.
    Ectogenesis, or the use of an artificial womb to allow a foetus to develop, will likely become a reality within a few decades, and could significantly affect the abortion debate. We first examine the implications for Judith Jarvis Thomson’s violinist analogy, which argues for a woman’s right to withdraw life support from the foetus and so terminate her pregnancy, even if the foetus is granted full moral status. We show that on Thomson’s reasoning, there is no right to the (...)
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  3.  37
    Ectogenesis: Artificial Womb Technology and the Future of Human Reproduction.Scott Gelfand & John R. Shook - 2006 - Rodopi.
    This book raises many moral, legal, social, and political, questions related to possible development, in the near future, of an artificial womb for human use. Is ectogenesis ever morally permissible? If so, under what circumstances? Will ectogenesis enhance or diminish women's reproductive rights and/or their economic opportunities? These are some of the difficult and crucial questions this anthology addresses and attempts to answer.
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  4.  66
    Reproductive Ectogenesis: The Third Era of Human Reproduction and Some Moral Consequences.Stellan Welin - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):615-626.
    In a well known story Derek Parfit describes a disconnection between two entities that normally (in real life) travel together through space and time, namely your personal identity consisting of both mind and body. Realising the possibility of separation, even if it might never happen in real life, new questions arise that cast doubt on old solutions. In human reproduction, in real life, at present the fetus spends approximately nine months inside the pregnant woman. But, we might envisage other possibilities. (...)
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  5.  26
    Ectogenesis: A Reply to Singer and Wells.David N. James - 1987 - Bioethics 1 (1):80-99.
    The possibility of achieving ectogenesis, or the growing of a human fetus to term in an artificial womb, is approaching reality as a result of advances in treatment of premature newborns and in in vitro fertilization techniques. In their 1984 book, The Reproductive Revolution, issued in North America as Making Babies, Peter Singer and Deane Wells offered several arguments for ectogenesis. James examines their arguments and rejects two of them, that ectogenesis offers a less problematic alternative to (...)
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  6.  31
    Ectogenesis and a Right to the Death of the Prenatal Human Being: A Reply to Räsänen.Christopher Kaczor - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (9):634-638.
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  7.  47
    Women, Ectogenesis and Ethical Theory.Leslie Cannold - 1995 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):55-64.
    ABSTRACT The nature of two influential theories on the moral status of abortion logically commits them to welcoming the advent of ectogenesis as a solution to the abortion conflict. However, qualitative research into women's response to ectogenesis reveals that both women in favour and women opposed to abortion rights reject the technology on surprisingly similar grounds. The abortion framework which led women to reject ectogenesis as an ethical resolution to unwanted pregnancy is contrasted with the moral framework (...)
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  8. Ectogenesis, Abortion and a Right to the Death of the Fetus.Joona Räsänen - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (9):697-702.
    Many people believe that the abortion debate will end when at some point in the future it will be possible for fetuses to develop outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, would make possible to reconcile pro-life and pro-choice positions. That is because it is commonly believed that there is no right to the death of the fetus if it can be detached alive and gestated in an artificial womb. Recently Eric Mathison and Jeremy Davis defended this (...)
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  9.  12
    Ectogenesis and Mother as Machine.Irina Aristarkhova - 2005 - Body and Society 11 (3):43-59.
    This article addresses the oft-neglected nexus between the mother and the machine, specifically in relation to the notion of ectogenesis. After a discussion of the technologies and the discourses of ectogenesis as symptomatic of what I call an ectogenetic desire, I move on to critically consider the work of Smith-Windsor on her own maternal experience with an incubator. This is followed by an evaluation of feminist writings on reproductive technologies, leading to a discussion of why the critical dichotomy (...)
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  10.  12
    Partial Ectogenesis: Freedom, Equality and Political Perspective.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):89-90.
    In this commentary, I consider how Giulia Cavaliere’s arguments about the limited reach of the current justifications offered for full ectogenesis in the bioethical literature apply in the context of partial ectogenesis. I suggest that considering the extent to which partial ectogenesis is freedom or equality promoting is more urgent because of the more realistic prospect of artificial womb technology being utilised to facilitate partial gestation extra uterum as opposed to facilitating complete gestation from conception to term. (...)
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  11.  25
    Ectogenesis and Gender‐Based Oppression: Resisting the Ideal of Assimilation.Giulia Cavaliere - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (7):727-734.
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  12.  19
    Procreation Machines: Ectogenesis as Reproductive Enhancement, Proper Medicine or a Step Towards Posthumanism?Johanna Eichinger & Tobias Eichinger - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):385-391.
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  13.  6
    Ectogenesis, Justice and Utility: A Reply to James.Deane Wells - 1987 - Bioethics 1 (4):372-379.
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  14.  10
    Ectogenesis, Justice and Utility: A Reply to James.M. P. Wells - 1987 - Bioethics 1 (4):372–379.
  15.  7
    Impact of Ectogenesis on the Medicalisation of Pregnancy and Childbirth.Victoria Adkins - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (4):239-243.
    The medicalisation of pregnancy and childbirth has been encouraged by the continuing growth of technology that can be applied to the reproductive journey. Technology now has the potential to fully separate reproduction from the human body with the prospect of ectogenesis—the gestation of a fetus outside of the human body. This paper considers the issues that have been caused by the general medicalisation of pregnancy and childbirth and the impact that ectogenesis may have on these existing issues. The (...)
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  16. In Defense of Ectogenesis.Anna Smajdor - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (1):90-103.
    In his article “Research Priorities and the Future of Pregnancy” in this issue of CQ, Timothy Murphy evaluates some of the arguments I advanced in an earlier publication, “The Moral Imperative for Ectogenesis.
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  17.  9
    The Ethics of Ectogenesis‐Aided Foetal Treatment.Seppe Segers, Guido Pennings & Heidi Mertes - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):364-370.
    In this paper, we aim to stimulate ethical debate about the morally relevant connection between ectogenesis and the foetus as a potential beneficiary of treatment. Ectogenesis could facilitate foetal interventions by treating the foetus independently of the pregnant woman and provide easier access to the foetus if interventions are required. The moral relevance hereof derives from the observation that, together with other developments in genetic technology and prenatal treatment, this may catalyse the allocation of a patient status to (...)
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  18.  83
    Rethinking Abortion, Ectogenesis, and Fetal Death.Christine Overall - 2015 - Journal of Social Philosophy 46 (1):126-140.
  19.  17
    Imagine a World… Where Ectogenesis Isn’T Needed to Eliminate Social and Economic Barriers for Women.Claire Horner - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):83-84.
    We can imagine a world in which ectogenesis provides a safe gestating space that eliminates maternal morbidity and mortality while maximising healthy outcomes for babies. In this world, women, no longer physically—and visibly—pregnant, are no longer economically, socially or physically disadvantaged due to the potential for pregnancy and birth. Because everyone can access the same technology, women are able to work without fear of pregnancy-related discrimination or restrictions, and health disparities among individuals in gestation and birth based on socioeconomic (...)
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  20.  7
    Gender, Gestation and Ectogenesis: Self-Determination for Pregnant People Ahead of Artificial Wombs.Claire Horn - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (11):787-788.
    In this short response, I agree with Cavaliere’s recent invitation to consider ectogenesis, the process of gestation occurring outside the body, as a political perspective and provocation to building a world in which reproductive and care labour are more justly distributed. But I argue that much of the literature Cavaliere addresses in which scholars argue that artificial wombs may produce greater gender equality has the limitation of taking a fixed, binary and biological approach to sex and gender. I argue (...)
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  21. Regulating the Reproductive Revolution : Ectogenesis- a Regulatory Minefield?Amel Alghrani - 2008 - In Michael D. A. Freeman (ed.), Law and Bioethics / Edited by Michael Freeman. Oxford University Press.
  22. Regulating the Reproductive Revolution: Ectogenesis - A Regulatory Minefield.A. Alghrani - 2008 - In Michael Freeman (ed.), Law and Bioethics: Current Legal Issues Volume 11. Oxford University Press.
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  23. Procreación natural versus ectogénesis.Patricia Elizabeth Hoces Guerrero & C. Ñique Carbajal - 2022 - Persona y Bioética 25 (2):2523-2523.
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  24. Willing Mothers: Ectogenesis and the Role of Gestational Motherhood.Susan Kennedy - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (5):320-327.
    While artificial womb technology is currently being studied for the purpose of improving neonatal care, I contend that this technology ought to be pursued as a means to address the unprecedented rate of unintended pregnancies. But ectogenesis, alongside other emerging reproductive technologies, is problematic insofar as it threatens to disrupt the natural link between procreation and parenthood that is normally thought to generate rights and responsibilities for biological parents. I argue that there remains only one potentially viable account of (...)
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  25.  9
    Equitable Access to Ectogenesis for Sexual and Gender Minorities.Laura L. Kimberly, Megan E. Sutter & Gwendolyn P. Quinn - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):338-345.
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  26.  20
    The ‘Tyranny of Reproduction’: Could Ectogenesis Further Women’s Liberation?Kathryn MacKay - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):346-353.
    This paper imagines what the liberatory possibilities of (full) ectogenesis are, insofar as it separates woman from female reproductive function. Even before use with human infants, ectogenesis productively disrupts the biological paradigm underlying current gender categories and divisions of labour. I begin by presenting a theory of women’s oppression drawn from the radical feminisms of the 1960s, which sees oppression as deeply rooted in biology. On this view, oppressive social meanings are overlaid upon biology and body, as artefacts (...)
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  27.  25
    Gestation, Equality and Freedom: Ectogenesis as a Political Perspective.Giulia Cavaliere - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):76-82.
    The benefits of full ectogenesis, that is, the gestation of human fetuses outside the maternal womb, for women ground many contemporary authors’ arguments on the ethical desirability of this practice. In this paper, I present and assess two sets of arguments advanced in favour of ectogenesis: arguments stressing ectogenesis’ equality-promoting potential and arguments stressing its freedom-promoting potential. I argue that although successfully grounding a positive case for ectogenesis, these arguments have limitations in terms of their reach (...)
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  28. The Subjects of Ectogenesis: Are “Gestatelings” Fetuses, Newborns, or Neither?Nick Colgrove - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (11):723-726.
    Subjects of ectogenesis—human beings that are developing in artificial wombs (AWs)—share the same moral status as newborns. To demonstrate this, I defend two claims. First, subjects of partial ectogenesis—those that develop in utero for a time before being transferred to AWs—are newborns (in the full sense of the word). Second, subjects of complete ectogenesis—those who develop in AWs entirely—share the same moral status as newborns. To defend the first claim, I rely on Elizabeth Chloe Romanis’s distinctions between (...)
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  29.  19
    The Path Toward Ectogenesis: Looking Beyond the Technical Challenges.Seppe Segers - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-15.
    Background Breakthroughs in animal studies make the topic of human application of ectogenesis for medical and non-medical purposes more relevant than ever before. While current data do not yet demonstrate a reasonable expectation of clinical benefit soon, several groups are investigating the feasibility of artificial uteri for extracorporeal human gestation. Main text This paper offers the first comprehensive and up to date discussion of the most important pros and cons of human ectogenesis in light of clinical application, along (...)
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  30.  62
    Abortion and Ectogenesis: Moral Compromise.William Simkulet - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):93-98.
    The contemporary philosophical literature on abortion primarily revolves around three seemingly intractable debates, concerning the moral status of the fetus, scope of women’s rights and moral relevance of the killing/letting die distinction. The possibility of ectogenesis—technology that would allow a fetus to develop outside of a gestational mother’s womb—presents a unique opportunity for moral compromise. Here, I argue those opposed to abortion have aprima faciemoral obligation to pursue ectogenesis technology and provide ectogenesis for disconnected fetuses as part (...)
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  31.  11
    ‘Gestation, Equality and Freedom: Ectogenesis as a Political Perspective’ Response to Commentaries.Giulia Cavaliere - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):91-92.
    Let me begin by thanking the Journal of Medical Ethics editors and the four commentators for taking time to read, reflect and offer thoughtful comments on my paper. The issues they raise warrant careful attention. Regrettably, I am only able to address some of their key concerns due to space constraints. In my paper, ‘Gestation, Equality and Freedom: Ectogenesis as a Political Perspective’, I outline two sets of critiques of liberal defences of ectogenesis and contend that these defences (...)
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  32.  56
    Artificial Wombs and the Ectogenesis Conversation: A Misplaced Focus? Technology, Abortion, and Reproductive Freedom.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis & Claire Horn - 2020 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 13 (2):174-194.
    Bioethics scholarship considering the possibility of gestating an embryo to full term in an artificial womb (ectogenesis) often overstates the capacities of current technologies and underestimates the barriers to the development of full ectogenesis. Moreover, this debate causes harm by (1) neglecting more immediate problems in the development of artificial wombs, (2) treating abortion as a “problem with a technological solution,” bolstering anti-abortion rhetoric, and (3) presuming the stability of women’s reproductive rights. The ectogenesis conversation must consider (...)
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  33.  5
    Formula Feeding Can Help Illuminate Long‐Term Consequences of Full Ectogenesis.Zeljka Buturovic - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):331-337.
    Breastfeeding is analogous to pregnancy as an experience, in its exclusiveness to women, and in its cost and the effects it has on equitable share of labor. Therefore, the history of formula feeding provides useful insights into the future of full ectogenesis, which could evolve into a more severe version of what formula feeding is today: simplify life for some women and provide couples with a more equitable share of work at the cost of stigma, guilt and a daily (...)
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  34. The Moral Imperative for Ectogenesis.Anna Smajdor - 2007 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (3):336-345.
    edited by Tuija Takala and Matti Häyry, welcomes contributions on the conceptual and theoretical dimensions of bioethics.
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  35.  3
    Should Delivery by Partial Ectogenesis Be Available on Request of the Pregnant Person?Anna Nelson - 2022 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 15 (1):1-26.
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  36. The Ethics of Ectogenesis.Joona Räsänen & Anna Smajdor - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):328-330.
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  37.  3
    Why bother the public? A critique of Leslie Cannold’s empirical research on ectogenesis.Anna Smajdor - 2021 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 42 (3):155-168.
    Can discussion with members of the public show philosophers where they have gone wrong? Leslie Cannold argues that it can in her 1995 paper ‘Women, Ectogenesis and Ethical Theory’, which investigates the ways in which women reason about abortion and ectogenesis. In her study, Cannold interviewed female non-philosophers. She divided her participants into separate ‘pro-life’ and ‘pro-choice’ groups and asked them to consider whether the availability of ectogenesis would change their views about the morality of dealing with (...)
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  38.  23
    Moving Forwards: A Problem for Full Ectogenesis.Teresa Baron - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (5):407-413.
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  39.  80
    Is Reproduction Women's Business? How Should We Regulate Regarding Stored Embryos, Posthumous Pregnancy, Ectogenesis and Male Pregnancy?Rebecca Bennett - 2008 - Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (3).
    Traditionally reproduction, gestation and childbirth have all been regarded as being primarily a woman's domain. As natural reproduction occurs inside a woman's body, respect for autonomy and bodily integrity requires the pregnant woman to have the conclusive say over the fate of the embryo/fetus growing within her. Thus traditionally the ethics and law of reproduction is dominated by the importance of respecting women's reproductive choices. This paper argues that emerging technologies demand a radical rethink of ethics and law in the (...)
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  40.  53
    The Embryo Rescue Debate: Impregnating Women, Ectogenesis, and Restoration From Suspended Animation.Nicholas Tonti-Filippini - 2003 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):111-137.
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  41. Scott Gelfand and John R. Shook, Eds., Ectogenesis: Artificial Womb Technology and the Future of Human Reproduction.C. Kaposy - 2007 - Philosophy in Review 27 (3):175.
     
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  42.  34
    The Artificial Womb: A Pilot Study Considering People's Views on the Artificial Womb and Ectogenesis in Israel.Frida Simonstein & Michal Mashiach–Eizenberg - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (1):87.
    edited by Tuija Takala and Matti Häyry, welcomes contributions on the conceptual and theoretical dimensions of bioethics. The section is dedicated to the idea that words defined by bioethicists and others should not be allowed to imprison people's actual concerns, emotions, and thoughts. Papers that expose the many meanings of a concept, describe the different readings of a moral doctrine, or provide an alternative angle to seemingly self-evident issues are therefore particularly appreciated. The themes covered in the section so far (...)
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  43.  57
    Is Pregnancy Necessary? Feminist Concerns About Ectogenesis.Julien S. Murphy - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (3):66-84.
    To what extent are women obliged to be child-bearers? If reproductive technology could offer some form of ectogenesis, would feminists regard it as a liberating reproductive option? Three lines of reproductive rights arguments currently used by feminists are applied to ectogenesis. Each fails to provide strong grounds for prohibiting it. Yet, there are several ways in which ectogenesis could contribute to women's oppression, in particular, if it were used to undermine abortion rights, reinforce traditional views of fertility, (...)
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  44. Neonatal Incubator or Artificial Womb? Distinguishing Ectogestation and Ectogenesis Using the Metaphysics of Pregnancy.Elselijn Kingma & Suki Finn - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):354-363.
    A 2017 Nature report was widely touted as hailing the arrival of the artificial womb. But the scientists involved claim their technology is merely an improvement in neonatal care. This raises an under-considered question: what differentiates neonatal incubation from artificial womb technology? Considering the nature of gestation—or metaphysics of pregnancy—(a) identifies more profound differences between fetuses and neonates/babies than their location (in or outside the maternal body) alone: fetuses and neonates have different physiological and physical characteristics; (b) characterizes birth as (...)
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  45.  28
    Pregnant People, Inseminators and Tissues of Human Origin: How Ectogenesis Challenges the Concept of Abortion.Evie Kendal - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):197-204.
    The potential benefits of an alternative to physical gestation are numerous. These include providing reproductive options for prospective parents who are unable to establish or maintain a physiological pregnancy, and saving the lives of some infants born prematurely. Ectogenesis could also promote sexual equality in reproduction, and represents a necessary option for women experiencing an unwanted pregnancy who are morally opposed to abortion. Despite these broad, and in some cases unique benefits, one major ethical concern is the potential impact (...)
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  46.  3
    The Moral Superiority of Bioengineered Wombs and Ectogenesis for Absolute Uterine Factor Infertility.Evie Kendal & Julian J. Koplin - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (1):73-82.
    This paper argues that uterine transplants are a potentially dangerous distraction from the development of alternative methods of providing reproductive options for women with absolute uterine factor infertility. We consider two alternatives in particular: the bioengineering of wombs using stem cells and ectogenesis. Whether biologically or mechanically engineered, these womb replacements could provide a way for women to have children, including genetically related offspring for those who would value this possibility. Most importantly, this alternative would avoid the challenge of (...)
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    Commentary on ‘Gestation, Equality and Freedom: Ectogenesis as a Political Perspective’.I. Glenn Cohen - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):87-88.
    It is a pleasure to comment on Giulia Cavaliere’s ‘ Gestation, Equality and Freedom: Ectogenesis as a Political Perspective’ in what one might say is ‘enthusiastic disagreement’. The enthusiastic part is because the article is deserving of much praise for adding an important feminist and political theoretical perspective on ectogenesis. The disagreement may come more from disciplinary differences or disposition. As I understand her argument, Cavaliere intends to attack two common arguments in favour of research into ectogenesis—that (...)
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  48.  7
    Artificial Wombs, Frozen Embryos, and Parenthood: Will Ectogenesis Redistribute Gendered Responsibility for Gestation?Claire Horn - 2022 - Feminist Legal Studies 30 (1):51-72.
    A growing body of scholarship argues that by disentangling gestation from the body, artificial wombs will alter the relationship between men, women, and fetuses such that reproduction is effectively ‘degendered’. Scholars have claimed that this purported ‘degendering’ of gestation will subsequently create greater equity between men and women. I argue that, contrary to the assumptions made in this literature, it is law, not biology, that acts as a primary barrier to the ‘degendering’ of gestation. With reference to contemporary case law (...)
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  49. Detached From Humanity: Artificial Gestation and the Christian Dilemma.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - forthcoming - Christian Bioethics.
    The development of artificial womb technology is proceeding rapidly and will present important ethical and theological challenges for Christians. While there has been extensive secular discourse on artificial wombs in recent years, there has been little Christian engagement with this topic. There are broadly two primary uses of artificial womb technology—ectogestation as a form of enhanced neonatal care, where some of the gestation period takes place in an artificial womb, and ectogenesis, where the entire gestation period is within an (...)
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  50. Is There a Right to the Death of the Foetus?Eric Mathison & Jeremy Davis - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):313-320.
    At some point in the future – perhaps within the next few decades – it will be possible for foetuses to develop completely outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, raises substantial issues for the abortion debate. One such issue is that it will become possible for a woman to have an abortion, in the sense of having the foetus removed from her body, but for the foetus to be kept alive. We argue that while there is (...)
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