Results for 'Klass Kraay'

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  1. Can God Satisfice?Klass Kraay - 2013 - American Philosophical Quarterly 50 (4):399-410.
    Three very prominent arguments for atheism are (1) the argument from sub-optimality, (2) the problem of no best world, and (3) the evidential argument from gratuitous evil. To date, it has not sufficiently been appreciated that several important criticisms of these arguments have all relied on a shared strategy. Although the details vary, the core of this strategy is to concede that God either cannot or need not achieve the best outcome in the relevant choice situation, but to insist that (...)
     
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  2. God and Gratuitous Evil: A Response to Klass Kraay.William Hasker - 2019 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 9:54-67.
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  3. Emics, Etics, and Meaning, an Exploration.Kraay Jn - 1976 - Philosophia Reformata 41 (1-2):49-71.
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  4. Descartes' debt to Beeckman: Inspiration, cooperation, conflict.Klass van Berkel - 2000 - In John Schuster, Stephen Gaukroger & John Sutton (eds.), Descartes' Natural Philosophy. Routledge.
     
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  5.  6
    Facts and values: philosophical reflections from western and non-western perspectives.M. C. Doeser & J. N. Kraay (eds.) - 1986 - Boston: M. Nijhoff.
    The answer to philosophical questions will often depend on the position one takes regarding the fact-value problem. It is, therefore, not surprising that, in the tradition of western philosophy, the past 200 years or so record an animated discussion of it. In the present collection the debate is continued by representatives of various "schools" in contemporary western thought. A number of philosophers from non-western cultures, too, enter into it. The contributions do not all reflect on the same theme, nor do (...)
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  6. Anne Phillips.Spannungsverhältnis von Klasse, Geschlecht Vor, R. Das Spannungsverhältnis von Klasse & Geschlecht Die Kritik - 2004 - In Gisela Riescher (ed.), Politische Theorie der Gegenwart in Einzeldarstellungen. Von Adorno Bis Young. Alfred Kröner Verlag. pp. 379.
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  7. Does God Matter? Essays on the Axiological Implications of Theism.Klaas J. Kraay (ed.) - 2018
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  8. Theism, Possible Worlds, and the Multiverse.Klaas J. Kraay - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 147 (3):355 - 368.
    God is traditionally taken to be a perfect being, and the creator and sustainer of all that is. So, if theism is true, what sort of world should we expect? To answer this question, we need an account of the array of possible worlds from which God is said to choose. It seems that either there is (a) exactly one best possible world; or (b) more than one unsurpassable world; or (c) an infinite hierarchy of increasingly better worlds. Influential arguments (...)
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  9.  1
    Unversöhnlichkeiten: Einübungen in Adornos Minima Moralia.Pierre Buhlmann, Tobias Nikolaus Klass & Philipp Nolz (eds.) - 2023 - Wien: Verlag Turia + Kant.
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  10.  78
    A conditional intent to perform.Gregory Klass - 2009 - Legal Theory 15 (2):107.
    The doctrine of promissory fraud holds that a contractual promise implicitly represents an intent to perform. A promisor's conditional intent to perform poses a problem for that doctrine. It is clear that some undisclosed conditions on the promisor's intent should result in liability for promissory fraud. Yet no promisor intends to perform come what may, so there is a sense in which all promisors conditionally intend to perform. Building on Michael Bratman's planning theory of intentions, this article provides a theoretical (...)
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  11.  29
    The Axiology of Theism.Klaas J. Kraay - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    Theism is the view that God exists; naturalism is the view that there are no supernatural beings, processes, mechanisms, or forces. This Element explores whether things are better, worse, or neither on theism relative to naturalism. It introduces readers to the central philosophical issues that bear on this question, and it distinguishes a wide range of ways it can be answered. It critically examines four views, three of which hold that things are better on theism than on naturalism, and one (...)
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  12.  19
    Leiblichkeit. Geschichte und Aktualität eines Begriffs.Emmanuel Alloa, Thomas Bedorf, Tobias Nikolaus Klass & Christian Grüny (eds.) - 2012 - Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck / UTB.
    Der Körper hat Konjunktur. Als ausgestellter, verfüg- und verführbarer begegnet er uns täglichim Übermaß. Es war nur eine Frage der Zeit, bis im Spiel der sich in den Wissenschafteneinander ablösenden turns auch ein corporeal (oder body) turn ausgerufen würde. Dabeibleibt im genannten turn der Gegenstand der Untersuchung nicht selten reduziert auf das, wasman im deutschen Sprachgebrauch »Körper« nennt: ein physisches Substrat, das wie ein Dingunter Dingen beschreibbar ist. Gegen diese Verkürzung stellt der Begri des »Leibes«,spätestens seit Edmund Husserl, eine präzise (...)
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  13.  9
    Does God Matter?: Essays on the Axiological Consequences of Theism.Klaas J. Kraay (ed.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    The question of whether God exists has long preoccupied philosophers. Many accounts of God have been proposed, and many arguments for and against God’s existence have been offered and discussed. But while philosophers have been busy trying to determine whether or not God exists, they have generally neglected to ask this question: "Does it _matter _whether God exists?" _Does God Matter?_ features ten original essays written by prominent philosophers of religion that address this very important, yet surprisingly neglected, question. One (...)
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  14. Theism and Modal Collapse.Klaas J. Kraay - 2011 - American Philosophical Quarterly 48 (4):361.
    God is traditionally taken to be a necessarily existing being who is unsurpassably powerful, knowledgeable, and good. The familiar problem of actual evil claims that the presence of gratuitous suffering in the actual world constitutes evidence against the existence of such a being. In contrast, the problem of possible evil claims that the possibility of bad worlds constitutes evidence against theism. How? It seems plausible to suppose that there are very bad possible worlds. But if God exists in every world, (...)
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  15. On Preferring God's Non-Existence.Klaas J. Kraay & Chris Dragos - 2013 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (2):157-178.
    For many centuries, philosophers have debated this question: “Does God exist?” Surprisingly, they have paid rather less attention to this distinct – but also very important – question: “Would God’s existence be a good thing?” The latter is an axiological question about the difference in value that God’s existence would make (or does make) in the actual world. Perhaps the most natural position to take, whether or not one believes in God, is to hold that it would be a very (...)
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  16.  18
    God and the Multiverse: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives.Klaas J. Kraay (ed.) - 2014 - New York: Routledge.
    In recent decades, scientific theories have postulated the existence of many universes beyond our own. The details and implications of these theories are hotly contested. Some philosophers argue that these scientific models count against the existence of God. Others, however, argue that if God exists, a multiverse is precisely what we should expect to find. Moreover, these philosophers claim that the idea of a divinely created multiverse can help believers in God respond to certain arguments for atheism. These proposals are, (...)
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  17. God and Gratuitous Evil (Part I).Klaas J. Kraay - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (12):905-912.
    In contemporary analytic philosophy, the problem of evil refers to a family of arguments that attempt to show, by appeal to evil, that God does not exist. Some very important arguments in this family focus on gratuitous evil. Most participants in the relevant discussions, including theists and atheists, agree that God is able to prevent all gratuitous evil and that God would do so. On this view, of course, the occurrence of even a single instance of gratuitous evil falsifies theism. (...)
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  18.  40
    Elgin’s community-oriented steadfastness.Klaas J. Kraay - 2019 - Synthese 198 (6):4985-5008.
    In recent years, epistemologists have devoted enormous attention to this question: what should happen when two epistemic peers disagree about the truth-value of some proposition? Some have argued that that in all such cases, both parties are rationally required to revise their position in some way. Others have maintained that, in at least some cases, neither party is rationally required to revise her position. In this paper, I examine a provocative and under-appreciated argument for the latter view due to Elgin (...)
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  19. William L. Rowe’s A Priori Argument For Atheism.Klaas J. Kraay - 2005 - Faith and Philosophy 22 (2):211-234.
    The hypothesis of no prime worlds (NPW) holds that for any possible world x that an omnipotent being has the power to actualize, there is a better world, y , that the omnipotent being could have actualized instead of x . NPW is generally deployed to defend theism against the charge that God failed to do his best in actualizing this world. Sometimes this view is deployed to defend theism against the charge that God failed to do better in actualizing (...)
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  20. Creation, Actualization and God's Choice Among Possible Worlds.Klaas J. Kraay - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (4):854-872.
    God is traditionally understood to be a perfect being who is the creator and sustainer of all that is. God's creative and sustaining activity is often thought to involve choosing a possible world for actualization. It is generally said that either there is (a) exactly one best of all possible worlds, or there are (b) infinitely many increasingly better worlds, or else there are (c) infinitely many unsurpassable worlds within God's power to actualize. On each view, critics have offered arguments (...)
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  21.  66
    Can God Choose a World at Random?Klaas J. Kraay - 2008 - In Yujin Nagasawa & Erik J. Wielenberg (eds.), New waves in philosophy of religion. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    On what basis does God choose a possible world to make actual? Theists typically claim that God freely selects exactly one world on the basis of its axiological characteristics. But suppose that there are infinitely many unsurpassable worlds from which to choose; or else that there are no unsurpassable worlds, but instead an infinite hierarchy of increasingly better worlds. On each of these scenarios, philosophers have alleged that God is unable rationally to choose a world for actualization. In the former (...)
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  22.  66
    God and Gratuitous Evil (Part II).Klaas J. Kraay - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (12):913-922.
    In contemporary analytic philosophy, the problem of evil refers to a family of arguments that attempt to show, by appeal to evil, that God does not exist. Some very important arguments in this family focus on gratuitous evil. Most participants in the relevant discussions, including theists and atheists, agree that God is able to prevent all gratuitous evil, and that God would do so. On this view, of course, the occurrence of even a single instance of gratuitous evil falsifies theism. (...)
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  23.  30
    William L. Rowe’s A Priori Argument For Atheism.Klaas J. Kraay - 2005 - Faith and Philosophy 22 (2):211-234.
    William Rowe’s a posteriori arguments for the non-existence of God are well-known. Rather less attention has been given, however, to Rowe’s intriguing a priori argument for atheism. In this paper, I examine the three published responses to Rowe’s a priori argument (due to Bruce Langtry, William Morris, and Daniel and Frances Howard-Snyder, respectively). I conclude that none is decisive, but I show that Rowe’s argument nevertheless requires more defence than he provides.
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  24. The Theistic Multiverse: Problems and Prospects.Klaas J. Kraay - 2012 - In Yujin Nagasawa (ed.), Scientific Approaches to the Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 143--162.
    In recent decades, there has been astonishing growth in scientific theorizing about multiverses. Once considered outré or absurd, multiple universe theories appear to be gaining considerable scientific respectability. There are, of course, many such theories, including (i) Everett’s (1957) many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, defended by Deutsch (1997) and others; (ii) Linde’s (1986) eternal inflation view, which suggests that universes form like bubbles in a chaotically inflating sea; (iii) Smolin’s (1997) fecund universe theory, which proposes that universes are generated (...)
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  25. The Problem of No Best World.Klaas J. Kraay - 2010 - In Charles Taliaferro & Paul Draper (eds.), A Companion to Philosophy of Religion, 2nd ed. Blackwell.
    This paper surveys recent literature on the problem of no best world - an a priori argument for atheism.
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  26. Absence of Evidence and Evidence of Absence.Klaas J. Kraay - 2007 - Faith and Philosophy 24 (2):203-228.
    I defend the first premise of William Rowe’s well-known arguments from evil against influential criticisms due to William Alston. I next suggest that the central inference in Rowe’s arguments is best understood to move from the claim that we have an absence of evidence of a satisfactory theodicy to the claim that we have evidence of absence of such a theodicy. I endorse the view which holds that this move succeeds only if it is reasonable to believe that (roughly) if (...)
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  27.  34
    Is Motivated Submaximization Good Enough for God?Klaas J. Kraay - 2021 - Religious Studies.
    In a recent article (Kraay 2013), I argued that some prominent responses to two important arguments for atheism invoke divine satisficing – and that the coherence and propriety of this notion have not been established. Chris Tucker (2016) agrees with my evaluation of divine satisficing, but disagrees with my exegesis of these responses. He argues that they should be understood as invoking motivated submaximization instead. After reviewing the dialectical situation to date, I assess whether motivated submaximization can be deployed (...)
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  28. A framework for reading Kant on apperception: Seven interpretive questions.Gregory M. Klass - 2003 - Kant Studien 94 (1):80-94.
  29. Afterwards: Recent Nietzsche scholarship. 1.T. N. Klass - 2004 - Philosophische Rundschau 51 (3):234-265.
  30.  8
    “A Sick Child is Always the Mother’s Property”: The Jane Austen Pediatric Trauma Management Protocol.Perri Klass - 2020 - Journal of Medical Humanities 42 (1):121-129.
    Two pediatric accidents in Jane Austen’s Persuasion and one in Margaret Oliphant’s The Doctor’s Family are examined from the point of view of trauma management with analysis of contributing risk factors, medical management, concerns of parents and bystanders, and course of recovery. Risk factors for injury are impulsivity, poor supervision, and parents who are unable to set limits. Medical attention is swift and competent, but no heroic measures are used; the management of the injuries, concussion with loss of consciousness and (...)
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  31. Das Gespenst des Politischen. Anmerkungen zur „politischen Differenz “.Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2010 - In Thomas Bedorf & Kurt Röttgers (eds.), Das Politische und die Politik. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
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  32. Danach: Neues von nietzsche.(1. Teil).Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2004 - Philosophische Rundschau 51 (3):234-265.
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  33. Danach: Neues von Nietzsche.(Teil 2).Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2004 - Philosophische Rundschau 51 (4):314-340.
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  34. Interpretation, Apperception and Judgment: An Inquiry Into Kant and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind.Gregory M. Klass - 1999 - Dissertation, New School for Social Research
    The question of this work is the relationship between cognition and self-knowledge. That question is approached both by way of Kant on apperception and from the perspective of contemporary theories of mind which locate the origin of our cognitive life in interpersonal, interpretive practices, e.g., Sellars, Davidson, Dennett and Brandom. Kant does not integrate the social dimension into his account of cognition. In fact, many of his arguments for the apperception principle are beholden to a picture of mind which precludes (...)
     
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  35.  19
    Mind over Mind: The Anthropology and Psychology of Spirit Possession.Morton Klass - 2004 - Anthropology of Consciousness 15 (2):67-69.
  36.  9
    Nietzsche und Levinas: Politik der Gabe.Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2004 - Nietzsche Studien 33 (1):418-423.
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  37.  3
    Nietzsche und Levinas: Politik der Gabe.Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2004 - Nietzsche Studien 33:418-423.
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  38.  26
    Promise, Agreement, Contract.Gregory Klass - forthcoming - In Hanoch Dagan & Benjamin Zipursky (eds.), Research Handbook on Private Law Theories.
    It is natural to wonder about contract law’s relationship to the morality of promises and agreements. This Chapter distinguishes two ways to conceive of that relationship. First, parties’ agreement-based moral obligations might figure into the explanation of contract law—into an account of its functions or justifications. Contract law might serve to enforce parties’ first-order performance obligations, to enforce second-order remedial obligations, to support the culture of making and keeping agreements more generally, or at least to do no harm to that (...)
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  39.  23
    Parol Evidence Rules and the Mechanics of Choice.Gregory Klass - 2019 - Theoretical Inquiries in Law 20 (2):457-486.
    Scholars have to date paid relatively little attention to the rules for deciding when a writing is integrated. These integration rules, however, are as dark and full of subtle difficulties as are other parts of parol evidence rules. As a way of thinking about Hanoch Dagan and Michael Heller’s The Choice Theory of Contracts, this Article suggests we would do better with tailored integration rules for two transaction types. In negotiated contracts between firms, courts should apply a hard express integration (...)
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  40.  8
    Schreckensgespenster.Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2009 - Zeitschrift für Medien- Und Kulturforschung 1:103-118.
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  41.  1
    Schreckensgespenster.Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2009 - Zeitschrift für Medien- Und Kulturforschung 1:104-119.
    This essay deals with the question which kind of fear it is that terror plays with, or which kind of fear terror tries to generate. First of all, the classically philosophical distinction of "Angst" and "Furcht" in Heidegger and Kierkegaard is surveyed in order to, then, in distinction from these forms of fear and following Hobbes, identify the specifically political form of fear, namely that of terror. In the foreground of this identification stand the residues of political theology which nourish (...)
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  42. Thereafter: New from Nietzsche.T. N. Klass - 2004 - Philosophische Rundschau 51 (4):314-340.
     
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  43.  4
    The Pest Hospital: Memory, Vaccines, and Serum Therapy in Kansas City.Perri Klass & Martha Gershun - 2023 - Journal of Medical Humanities 44 (3):401-407.
    A medical narrative from a woman in her 90s describes her childhood bout with diphtheria in Kansas City, Missouri, apparently immediately after vaccination, her confinement in the “pest hospital,” and her treatment with what she understood as a blood transfusion from a donor who was found through a radio appeal. In this essay, we trace the narrative back to the institutions, medical practices, and historical context, examining both the underlying history of medical practice and scientific understanding that is reflected in (...)
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  44.  10
    Veredelnde Inoculation: Nietzsche und das Essen.Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2008 - In Harald Lemke & Iris Därmann (eds.), Die Tischgesellschaft: Philosophische Und Kulturwissenschaftliche Annäherungen. Transcript Verlag. pp. 131-156.
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  45.  15
    “When God Can Do Anything”: Belief Systems in Collision.Morton Klass - 1991 - Anthropology of Consciousness 2 (1-2):32-34.
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  46.  17
    What If Fiduciary Obligations Are Like Contractual Ones?Gregory Klass - unknown
    This essay, to appear in Contract, Status, and Fiduciary Law (Miller & Gold, 2016), explores three ways fiduciary obligations might be like contractual ones: in the methods lawmakers use or should use to determine the content of the obligation; in the private voluntary acts that generate the obligation; and in the fact that the obligation is a default that parties have the power to alter. The thesis is that to the extent that these similarities exist, they are not especially revealing. (...)
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  47.  12
    Zwischen Lager und Kloster – Zu neueren Schriften von und über Giorgio Agamben.Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2017 - Latest Issue of Philosophische Rundschau 64 (1):50-61.
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  48.  9
    Zwischen Lager und Kloster – Zu neueren Schriften von und über Giorgio Agamben.Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2017 - Philosophische Rundschau 64 (1):50.
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  49.  10
    Zur Phänomenologie der Gewalt.Tobias Nikolaus Klass - 2007 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 55 (5):822-826.
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  50.  15
    One Philosopher's Bug can be Another's Feature: Reply to Almeida's 'Multiverse and Divine Creation'.Klaas J. Kraay - 2018 - Religions 9 (1).
    Michael Almeida once told me that he thought we were just a couple of hours of conversation away from reaching deep agreement about some important topics in the philosophy of religion pertaining to God, multiverses, and modality. This paper represents my attempt to move this conversation forward and to seek this common ground. Specifically, I respond to Almeida’s paper entitled “The Multiverse and Divine Creation”. In the first four sections, I record my disagreement with him concerning some smaller matters. In (...)
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