Results for 'transhumanism'

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  1. Transhumanism as a Secularist Faith.Hava Tirosh-Samuelson - 2012 - Zygon 47 (4):710-734.
    In the second half of the twentieth century, humanism— namely, the worldview that underpinned Western thought for several centuries—has been severely critiqued by philosophers who highlighted its theoretical and ethical limitations. Inspired by the emergence of cybernetics and new technologies such as robotics, prosthetics, communications, artificial intelligence, genetic engineering, and nanotechnology, there has been a desire to articulate a new worldview that will fit the posthuman condition. Posthumanism is a description of a new form of human existence in which the (...)
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  2. Transhumanist Values.Nick Bostrom - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30 (Supplement):3-14.
    Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. [1] It promotes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and evaluating the opportunities for enhancing the human condition and the human organism opened up by the advancement of technology. Attention is given to both present technologies, like genetic engineering and information technology, and anticipated future ones, such as molecular nanotechnology and artificial intelligence.
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  3. Moral Transhumanism: The Next Step.M. N. Tennison - 2012 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (4):405-416.
    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain (...)
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  4.  31
    Transhumanism, Theological Anthropology, and Modern Biological Taxonomy.Travis Dumsday - 2017 - Zygon 52 (3):601-622.
    I examine the ways in which the theological and philosophical debate surrounding transhumanism might profit by a detailed engagement with contemporary biology, in particular with the mainline accounts of species and speciation. After a short introduction, I provide a very brief primer on species concepts and speciation in contemporary biological taxonomy. Then in a third section I draw out some implications for the prospects of our being able intentionally to intervene in human evolution for the production of new species (...)
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  5. Transhumanism and Moral Equality.James Wilson - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (8):419–425.
    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral (...)
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  6.  80
    Transhumanism, Progress and the Future.Philippe Verdoux - 2009 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 20 (2):49-69.
    This paper argues that one can advocate a moral imperative to pursue enhancement technologies while at the same time rejecting the historical reality of progress and holding a pessimistic view of the future. The first half of the paper puts forth several arguments for why progress is illusory and why one has good reason to be pessimistic about the future of humanity (and posthumanity). The second half then argues that this is entirely consistent with also championing the futurological vision of (...)
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  7. Moral Transhumanism.Ingmar Persson & Julian Savulescu - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):656-669.
    In its basic sense, the term "human" is a term of biological classification: an individual is human just in case it is a member of the species Homo sapiens . Its opposite is "nonhuman": nonhuman animals being animals that belong to other species than H. sapiens . In another sense of human, its opposite is "inhuman," that is cruel and heartless (cf. "humane" and "inhumane"); being human in this sense is having morally good qualities. This paper argues that biomedical research (...)
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  8.  1
    Transhumanist Immortality: Understanding the Dream as a Nightmare.Pablo García-Barranquero - 2021 - Scientia et Fides 9 (1):177-196.
    This paper offers new arguments to reject the alleged dream of immortality. In order to do this, I firstly introduce an amendment to Michael Hauskeller’s approach of the “immortalist fallacy”. I argue that the conclusion “we do not want to live forever” does not follow from the premise “we do not want to die”. Next, I propose the philosophical turn from “normally” to “under these circumstances” to resolve this logical error. Then, I review strong philosophical critiques of this transhumanist purpose (...)
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  9. The Bioethics of Enhancement: Transhumanism, Disability, and Biopolitics.Melinda Hall - 2016 - Lexington Books.
    In a critical intervention into the bioethics debate over human enhancement, philosopher Melinda Hall tackles the claim that the expansion and development of human capacities is a moral obligation. Hall draws on French philosopher Michel Foucault to reveal and challenge the ways disability is central to the conversation. The Bioethics of Enhancement includes a close reading and analysis of the last century of enhancement thinking and contemporary transhumanist thinkers, the strongest promoters of the obligation to pursue enhancement technology. With specific (...)
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  10.  59
    Transhumanism, Medical Technology and Slippery Slopes.M. J. McNamee - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (9):513-518.
    In this article, transhumanism is considered to be a quasi-medical ideology that seeks to promote a variety of therapeutic and human-enhancing aims. Moderate conceptions are distinguished from strong conceptions of transhumanism and the strong conceptions were found to be more problematic than the moderate ones. A particular critique of Boström’s defence of transhumanism is presented. Various forms of slippery slope arguments that may be used for and against transhumanism are discussed and one particular criticism, moral arbitrariness, (...)
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  11. Panentheism, Transhumanism, and the Problem of Evil - From Metaphysics to Ethics.Benedikt Paul Göcke - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (2):65-89.
    There is a close systematic relationship between panentheism, as a metaphysical theory about the relation between God and the world, and transhumanism, the ethical demand to use the means of the applied sciences to enhance both human nature and the environment. This relationship between panentheism and transhumanism provides a ‘cosmic’ solution to the problem of evil: on panentheistic premises, the history of the world is the one infinite life of God, and we are part of the one infinite (...)
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  12. Transhumanism, Metaphysics, and the Posthuman God.J. P. Bishop - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):700-720.
    After describing Heidegger's critique of metaphysics as ontotheology, I unpack the metaphysical assumptions of several transhumanist philosophers. I claim that they deploy an ontology of power and that they also deploy a kind of theology, as Heidegger meant it. I also describe the way in which this metaphysics begets its own politics and ethics. In order to transcend the human condition, they must transgress the human.
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  13.  12
    Transhumanism, Moral Perfection, and Those 76 Trombones.Tom Koch - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (2):179-192.
    Transhumanism advances an ideology promising a positive human advance through the application of new and as yet unrealized technologies. Underlying the whole is a libertarian ethos married to a very Christian eschatology promising a miraculous transformation that will answer human needs and redress human failings. In this paper, the supposedly scientific basis on which transhumanist promises are built is critiqued as futurist imaginings with little likelihood of actualization. Transhumanists themselves are likened to the affable con man Professor Harold Hill (...)
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  14.  59
    A Transhumanist Fault Line Around Disability: Morphological Freedom and the Obligation to Enhance.H. G. Bradshaw & R. Ter Meulen - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):670-684.
    The transhumanist literature encompasses diverse nonnovel positions on questions of disability and obligation reflecting long-running political philosophical debates on freedom and value choice, complicated by the difficulty of projecting values to enhanced beings. These older questions take on a more concrete form given transhumanist uses of biotechnologies. This paper will contrast the views of Hughes and Sandberg on the obligations persons with "disabilities" have to enhance and suggest a new model. The paper will finish by introducing a distinction between the (...)
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  15.  38
    Transhumanism: How Far Is Too Far?Thompson Joel - 2017 - The New Bioethics 23 (2):165-182.
    Transhumanism promises us freedom from the biological limitations inherent in our nature. It aims to enhance physical, emotional and cognitive capacities thus opening up new possibilities and horizons of experience. Since many transhumanist aspirations resemble those within the domain of religion, this paper compares Christian ethics to transhumanist ethics with respect to the body and the environment and offers a critique of transhumanism. Three areas of contention are discussed: the modification of our given human nature, the radical extension (...)
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  16. Human Genetic Enhancements: A Transhumanist Perspective. [REVIEW]Nick Bostrom - 2003 - Journal of Value Inquiry 37 (4):493-506.
    Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. It promotes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and evaluating the opportunities for enhancing the human condition and the human organism opened up by the advancement of technology. Attention is given to both present technologies, like genetic engineering and information technology, and anticipated future ones, such as molecular nanotechnology and artificial intelligence.
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  17.  27
    Overcoming Transhumanism: Education or Enhancement Towards the Overhuman?Markus Lipowicz - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 53 (1):200-213.
  18.  73
    Nietzsche, the Overhuman, and Transhumanism.Stefan Lorenz Sorgner - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 20 (1):29-42.
    Bostrom rejects Nietzsche as an ancestor of the transhumanist movement, as he claims that there were merely some “surface-level similarities with the Nietzschean vision” (Bostrom 2005a, 4). In contrast to Bostrom, I think that significant similarities between the posthuman and the overhuman can be found on a fundamental level. In addition, it seems to me that Nietzsche explained the relevance of the overhuman by referring to a dimension which seems to be lacking in transhumanism. In order to explain my (...)
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  19. Cochlear Implantation, Enhancements, Transhumanism and Posthumanism: Some Human Questions.Joseph Lee - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):67-92.
    Biomedical engineering technologies such as brain–machine interfaces and neuroprosthetics are advancements which assist human beings in varied ways. There are exciting yet speculative visions of how the neurosciences and bioengineering may influence human nature. However, these could be preparing a possible pathway towards an enhanced and even posthuman future. This article seeks to investigate several ethical themes and wider questions of enhancement, transhumanism and posthumanism. Four themes of interest are: autonomy, identity, futures, and community. Three larger questions can be (...)
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  20. The Transhumanist FAQ.Nick Bostrom - 2003
  21.  59
    Transhumanism and the Fate of Natality: An Introduction.Eduardo R. Cruz - 2013 - Zygon 48 (4):916-935.
    Transhumanist thought on overpopulation usually invokes the welfare of present human beings and the control over future generation, thus minimizing the need and meaning of new births. Here we devise a framework for a more thorough screening of the relevant literature, to have a better appreciation of the issue of natality. We follow the lead of Hannah Arendt and Brent Waters in this respect. With three overlapping categories of words, headed by “natality,” “birth,” and “intergenerations,” a large sample of books (...)
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  22.  89
    Bioethics and Transhumanism.Porter Allen - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (3):237-260.
    Transhumanism is a “technoprogressive” socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming “posthuman.” To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those “bioconservatives” who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common (...)
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  23. Transhumanism: Toward a Brave New World?Bernard M. Daly - unknown
    The conference did not target only the U.S. Christian right for opposing such things as stem cell research. It challenged every faith community that believes a human being is more than just one more biological product. The weekend of Aug. 7 was organized by the World Transhumanist Association. In 2005 its conference will be in Caracas, Venezuela, where this small band of transhumanists will continue to challenge all larger faith communities to review what they have to say about a "brave (...)
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  24.  6
    Waking Up From Transhumanist Dreams: Reframing Cancer in an Evolving Universe.Geoffrey Woollard - 2019 - Scientia et Fides 7 (2):139-164.
    Technological dystopias incarnate transhumanist dreams of a this-worldly blissful immortality. Underlying these and others is a globalized technocratic paradigm, the loss of an overarching cosmic world view, rise in consumerism, a gnostic repudiation of the body, and a neo-pelagian aspiration to individualistic self-sufficiency. One response to these transhumanist dreams is to remind ourselves of how nature actually works, its origins, constrains, and future. Our relationship with nature spills over to how we feel standing face-to-face with pain and suffering. In this (...)
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  25. Whereto Transhumanism? The Literature Reaches a Critical Mass.Nicholas Agar - 2007 - Hastings Center Report 37 (3):12-17.
  26. A History of Transhumanist Thought.Nick Bostrom - 2005 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (1):1-25.
    The human desire to acquire new capacities is as ancient as our species itself. We have always sought to expand the boundaries of our existence, be it socially, geographically, or mentally. There is a tendency in at least some individuals always to search for a way around every obstacle and limitation to human life and happiness.
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  27.  67
    The Politics of Transhumanism and the Techno‐Millennial Imagination, 1626–2030.James J. Hughes - 2012 - Zygon 47 (4):757-776.
    Transhumanism is a modern expression of ancient and transcultural aspirations to radically transform human existence, socially and bodily. Before the Enlightenment these aspirations were only expressed in religious millennialism, magical medicine, and spiritual practices. The Enlightenment channeled these desires into projects to use science and technology to improve health, longevity, and human abilities, and to use reason to revolutionize society. Since the Enlightenment, techno‐utopian movements have dynamically interacted with supernaturalist millennialism, sometimes syncretically, and often in violent opposition. Today the (...)
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  28.  19
    Personal Immortality in Transhumanism and Ancient Indian Philosophy.Adam Buben - 2019 - Philosophy East and West 69 (1):71-85.
    Transhumanism has a great deal in common with religion as traditionally conceived. James J. Hughes claims that "a variety of metaphysics appear to be compatible with one form of transhumanism or the other, from various Abrahamic views of the soul to Buddho-Hindu ideas of reincarnation to animist ideas."1 Most notably, the range of technologically optimistic views held by transhumanists shares with many religions a longing for transcendence of our presently frail and limited situation. In contrast to the doctrines (...)
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  29.  18
    Zarathustra and Transhumanism: Man is Something to Be Overcome.Joshua Merlo - 2019 - Scientia et Fides 7 (2):41-61.
    In Sorgner's 2009 paper "Nietzsche, the Overhuman, and Transhumanism", he argues, contra Bostrom, that the transhumanist movement's postman is fundamentally similar to Nietzsche's overman. In this paper, Sorgner's thesis is challenged. It is argued that transhumanism, as presented both popularly and academically, is fundamentally incompatible with Nietzsche's overman, as presented in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. This argument focuses on three significant characteristics's of Zarathustra's description of the overman: the role of earthly existence, immortality, and the rejection of collective values.
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  30.  36
    The Case of Transhumanism: The Possibility of Application of Nietzsche’s Ethics and Critique of Morality Today.Milos Agatonovic - 2018 - Filozofija I Društvo 29 (3):429-439.
    Transhumanism, the movement that promotes radical enhancement by non-traditional means based in scientific and technological advances, has contributed to contemporary interest in Nietzsche?s philosophy. In this paper, we are going to claim that transhumanists? references to Nietzsche?s philosophy are unfounded. Moreover, we will make a few remarks about Nietzsche?s ethical doctrine in order to show that his conception of enhancement, contrary to transhumanist conceptions, relies on traditional means, such as upbringing and education. Although Nietzsche?s positive ethical doctrines cannot be (...)
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  31. Human Dignity and Transhumanism: Do Anthro-Technological Devices Have Moral Status?Fabrice Jotterand - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):45-52.
    In this paper, I focus on the concept of human dignity and critically assess whether such a concept, as used in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, is indeed a useful tool for bioethical debates. However, I consider this concept within the context of the development of emerging technologies, that is, with a particular focus on transhumanism. The question I address is not whether attaching artificial limbs or enhancing particular traits or capacities would dehumanize or undignify persons (...)
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  32. Transhumanism and Christian Social Concern.”.Stephen Garner - 2005 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (2):89-103.
     
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  33.  94
    Transhumanism: The World's Most Dangerous Idea?Nick Bostrom - manuscript
    More precisely, transhumanists advocate increased funding for research to radically extend healthy lifespan and favor the development of medical and technological means to improve memory, concentration, and other human capacities. Transhumanists propose that everybody should have the option to use such means to enhance various dimensions of their cognitive, emotional, and physical well-being. Not only is this a natural extension of the traditional aims of medicine and technology, but it is also a great humanitarian opportunity to genuinely improve the human (...)
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  34. Teilhard de Chardin and Transhumanism.Eric Steinhart - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 20 (1):1-22.
    Teilhard is among the first to seriously explore the future of human evolution. He advocates both bio-technologies (e.g. genetic engineering) and intelligence technologies. He discusses the emergence of a global computation - communication system (and is said by some to have been the first to have envisioned the Internet). He advocates the development of a global society. He is almost surely the first to discuss the acceleration of technological progress to a Singularity in which human intelligence will become super-intelligence. He (...)
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  35. Transhumanism, Human Dignity, and Moral Status.John Basl & Ronald Sandler - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):63-66.
  36. Contradictions From the Enlightenment Roots of Transhumanism.J. Hughes - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):622-640.
    Transhumanism, the belief that technology can transcend the limitations of the human body and brain, is part of the family of Enlightenment philosophies. As such, transhumanism has also inherited the internal tensions and contradictions of the broad Enlightenment tradition. First, the project of Reason is self-erosive and requires irrational validation. Second, although most transhumanists are atheist, their belief in the transcendent power of intelligence generates new theologies. Third, although most transhumanists are liberal democrats, their belief in human perfectibility (...)
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  37.  12
    Ephemeroi - Human Vulnerability, Transhumanism, and the Meaning of Life.Michael Hauskeller - 2019 - Scientia et Fides 7 (2):9-21.
    This essay is a reflection on our lived experience of being human, or of some prominent aspects of being human, in light of rising demands to use already existing and soon to be developed technologies to fundamentally change what we are. The aspects the essay focuses on are, first, our existential vulnerability and, second, our desire to live a life that, in some way or another, matters and is in that sense meaningful.
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  38.  25
    Antiquity’s Missive to Transhumanism.Susan B. Levin - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (3):278-303.
    To reassure those concerned about wholesale discontinuity between human existence and posthumanity, transhumanists assert shared ground with antiquity on vital challenges and aspirations. Because their claims reflect key misconceptions, there is no shared vision for transhumanists to invoke. Having exposed their misuses of Prometheus, Plato, and Aristotle, I show that not only do transhumanists and antiquity crucially diverge on our relation to ideals, contrast-dependent aspiration, and worthy endeavors but that illumining this divide exposes central weaknesses in transhumanist argumentation. What is (...)
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  39.  26
    A Moral Vision for Transhumanism.Patrick D. Hopkins - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 19 (1):3-7.
    All worldviews have some sort of moral vision for why and how they pursue their goals, though these moral visions may be more or less explicitly stated. Transhumanism is no different, though sometimes people forget that transhumanism is not the alien dream of a posthuman mind but is instead a very human ideology driven by very human interests and moral ideals. In this paper, I lay out some of those ideals in very general terms, advocating a high-minded moral (...)
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  40.  45
    Whose Prometheus? Transhumanism, Biotechnology and the Moral Topography of Sports Medicine.Mike McNamee - 2007 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 1 (2):181 – 194.
    The therapy/enhancement distinction is a controversial one in the philosophy of medicine, yet the idea of enhancement is rarely if ever questioned as a proper goal of sports medicine. This opens up latitude to those who may seek to use elite sport as a vehicle of legitimation for their nature-transcending ideology. Given recent claims by transhumanists to develop our human nature and powers with the aid of biotechnology, I sketch out two interpretations of the myth of Prometheus, in Hesiod and (...)
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  41.  31
    Is Transhumanism a Health Problem?Michael Kowalik -
    In medical sciences, health is measured by reference to our species-typical anatomy and functional integrity – the objective standard of human health. Proponents of transhumanism are committed to biomedical enhancement of human beings by augmenting our species-typical anatomy and functional integrity. I argue that this normative impasse is not only a problem for the transhumanist movement, but also undermines the rationale for some common medical interventions.
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  42. Joyful Transhumanism: Love and Eternal Recurrence in Nietzsche’s Zarathustra.Gabriel Zamosc - forthcoming - In Cambridge Critical Guide to Nietzsche’s ‘Thus Spoke Zarathustra’. Cambridge, UK:
    In this paper I examine the relation between modern transhumanism and Nietzsche’s philosophy of the superhuman. Following Loeb, I argue that transhumanists cannot claim affinity to Nietzsche’s philosophy until they incorporate the doctrine of eternal recurrence to their project of technological enhancement. This doctrine liberates us from resentment against time by teaching us reconciliation with time and something higher than all reconciliation. Unlike Loeb, however, I claim that this “something higher” is not a new skill (prospective memory), but rather (...)
     
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  43.  2
    Christian Perspectives on Transhumanism and the Church: Chips in the Brain, Immortality, and the World of Tomorrow.Steve Donaldson & Ron Cole-Turner (eds.) - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
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  44.  79
    At the Roots of Transhumanism: From the Enlightenment to a Post-Human Future.F. Jotterand - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):617-621.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  45.  12
    The Cybathlon Experience: Beyond Transhumanism to Capability Hybridization.Remi Richard & Bernard Andrieu - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 46 (1):49-62.
    ABSTRACTThe Cybathlon is a new kind of competition that embraces disabled people who use advanced assistive technologies. The purpose of this essay is to interpret the Cybathlon not as a ‘transhuman’ sport for enhanced athletes but as a place for experimenting with ‘capability hybridatization’ of the self. We wish to show that the figure of the transhuman cyborg that dominates the media coverage of disabled athletes is an attempt to approximate the able-bodied standard. This figure is problematic because it excludes (...)
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  46. The Transhumanist Philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce.Aaron Wilson & Daniel Brunson - 2017 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 27 (2):12-29.
    We explain how the work of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) – the founder of semiotics and of the pragmatist tradition in philosophy – contributes an epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical foundation to some key transhumanist ideas, including the following claims: technological cognitive enhancement is not only possible but a present reality; pursuing more sweeping cognitive enhancements is epistemically rational; and current humans should try to evolve themselves into posthumans. On Peirce’s view, the fundamental aim of inquiry is truth, understood in terms (...)
     
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  47. Religion and Transhumanism: Introducing a Conversation.Heidi Campbell & Mark Walker - 2005 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (2).
     
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  48.  13
    A Phenomenological Perspective on Transhumanism From the Perspective of the Spoken of Being.Antonio Sandu & Loredana Terec-Vlad - 2016 - Postmodern Openings 7 (1):67-76.
  49. Transcending the Animal: How Transhumanism and Religion Are and Are Not Alike.Patrick D. Hopkins - 2005 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (2):13-28.
     
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  50.  3
    Transhumanist Genetic Enhancement: Creation of a ‘New Man’ Through Technological Innovation.George L. Mendz & Michael Cook - 2021 - The New Bioethics 27 (2):105-126.
    The transhumanist project of reshaping human beings by promoting their improvement through technological innovations has a broad agenda. This study focuses on the enhancement of the human organism...
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