Search results for 'mental disorders' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Matthew C. Keller & Geoffrey Miller (2006). Resolving the Paradox of Common, Harmful, Heritable Mental Disorders: Which Evolutionary Genetic Models Work Best? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):385-404.score: 240.0
    Given that natural selection is so powerful at optimizing complex adaptations, why does it seem unable to eliminate genes (susceptibility alleles) that predispose to common, harmful, heritable mental disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder? We assess three leading explanations for this apparent paradox from evolutionary genetic theory: (1) ancestral neutrality (susceptibility alleles were not harmful among ancestors), (2) balancing selection (susceptibility alleles sometimes increased fitness), and (3) polygenic mutation-selection balance (mental disorders reflect the inevitable mutational (...)
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  2. Shadia Kawa & James Giordano (2012). A Brief Historicity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Issues and Implications for the Future of Psychiatric Canon and Practice. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7 (1):2-.score: 240.0
    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, currently in its fourth edition and considered the reference for the characterization and diagnosis of mental disorders, has undergone various developments since its inception in the mid-twentieth century. With the fifth edition of the DSM presently in field trials for release in 2013, there is renewed discussion and debate over the extent of its relative successes - and shortcomings - at iteratively incorporating scientific evidence on the often (...)
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  3. Rachel Cooper (2014). Diagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Karnac.score: 240.0
    Diagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Karnac, 2014) evaluates the latest edition of the D.S.M.The publication of D.S.M-5 in 2013 brought many changes. Diagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders asks whether the D.S.M.-5 classifies the right people in the right way. It is aimed at patients, mental health professionals, and academics with an interest in mental health. Issues addressed include: How is the D.S.M. affected by financial links with (...)
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  4. Rachel Cooper, Classifying Madness: A Philosophical Examination of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.score: 240.0
    Classifying Madness (Springer, 2005) concerns philosophical problems with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, more commonly known as the D.S.M. The D.S.M. is published by the American Psychiatric Association and aims to list and describe all mental disorders. The first half of Classifying Madness asks whether the project of constructing a classification of mental disorders that reflects natural distinctions makes sense. Chapters examine the nature of mental illness, and also consider whether (...)
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  5. Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2014). Stabilizing Mental Disorders: Prospects and Problems. In Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Sullivan (eds.), Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. MIT. 257-281.score: 216.0
  6. Leontien de Kwaadsteniet, Nancy S. Kim & Jennelle E. Yopchick (2013). How Do Practising Clinicians and Students Apply Newly Learned Causal Information About Mental Disorders? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (1):112-117.score: 210.0
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  7. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2008). The Reality and Classification of Mental Disorders. Dissertation, University of Chicagoscore: 208.0
    This dissertation examines psychiatry from a philosophy of science perspective, focusing on issues of realism and classification. Questions addressed in the dissertation include: What evidence is there for the reality of mental disorders? Are any mental disorders natural kinds? When are disease explanations of abnormality warranted? How should mental disorders be classified? -/- In addressing issues concerning the reality of mental disorders, I draw on the accounts of realism defended by Ian Hacking (...)
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  8. Alfredo Gaete (2009). Mental Disorders as Lacks of Mental Capacities. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (4):345-347.score: 192.0
    This is a reply to Gipps' commentary on my 'The Concept of Mental Disorder'.
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  9. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2012). Intervention, Causal Reasoning, and the Neurobiology of Mental Disorders: Pharmacological Drugs as Experimental Instruments. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (2):542-551.score: 180.0
    In psychiatry, pharmacological drugs play an important experimental role in attempts to identify the neurobiological causes of mental disorders. Besides being developed in applied contexts as potential treatments for patients with mental disorders, pharmacological drugs play a crucial role in research contexts as experimental instruments that facilitate the formulation and revision of neurobiological theories of psychopathology. This paper examines the various epistemic functions that pharmacological drugs serve in the discovery, refinement, testing, and elaboration of neurobiological theories (...)
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  10. Matthew C. Keller & Geoffrey Miller (2006). An Evolutionary Framework for Mental Disorders: Integrating Adaptationist and Evolutionary Genetic Models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):429-441.score: 180.0
    This response (a) integrates non-equilibrium evolutionary genetic models, such as coevolutionary arms-races and recent selective sweeps, into a framework for understanding common, harmful, heritable mental disorders; (b) discusses the forms of ancestral neutrality or balancing selection that may explain some portion of mental disorder risk; and (c) emphasizes that normally functioning psychological adaptations work against a backdrop of mutational and environmental noise. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  11. Andreas Heinz & Ulrike Kluge (2011). Anthropological and Evolutionary Concepts of Mental Disorders. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (3):292-307.score: 180.0
    Patients suffering from mental disorders are often not treated on an equal basis with patients suffering from organic diseases. In Germany, for example, alcohol-dependent patients will be detoxified on a clinical ward to ensure that they survive acute alcohol withdrawal; however, medical insurances often do not cover treatment costs for a therapy for the addictive behavior that underlies the acute alcohol problem. While patients suffering from diabetes mellitus can also display personally harmful choices and, for example, consume sugar (...)
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  12. Elizabeth H. Flanagan Roger K. Blashfield (2007). Clinicians' Folk Taxonomies of Mental Disorders. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 14 (3):pp. 249-269.score: 180.0
    Using methods from anthropology and cognitive psychology, this study investigated the relationship between clinicians’ folk taxonomies of mental disorder and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Expert and novice psychologists were given sixty-seven DSM-IV diagnoses, asked to discard unfamiliar diagnoses, put the remaining diagnoses into groups that had “similar treatments” using hierarchical (making more inclusive and less inclusive groups) and dimensional (placing groups in a two-dimensional space) methodologies, and give names to the groups in (...)
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  13. Antonio Preti & Paola Miotto (2006). Mental Disorders, Evolution, and Inclusive Fitness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):419-420.score: 180.0
    Grouping severe mental disorders into a global category is likely to lead to a “theory of everything” which forcefully explains everything and nothing. Speculation even at the phenotypic level of the single disorder cannot be fruitful, unless specific and testable models are proposed. Inclusive fitness must be incorporated in such models. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  14. P. R. Adriaens & A. De Block (2013). Why We Essentialize Mental Disorders. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (2):107-127.score: 180.0
    Essentialism is one of the most pervasive problems in mental health research. Many psychiatrists still hold the view that their nosologies will enable them, sooner or later, to carve nature at its joints and to identify and chart the essence of mental disorders. Moreover, according to recent research in social psychology, some laypeople tend to think along similar essentialist lines. The main aim of this article is to highlight a number of processes that possibly explain the persistent (...)
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  15. Ester I. Klimkeit & John L. Bradshaw (2006). Heritable Mental Disorders: You Can't Choose Your Relatives, but It is They Who May Really Count. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):414-415.score: 180.0
    Keller & Miller (K&M) briefly mention and promptly dismiss the idea that genes for harmful mental disorders may confer certain advantages to affected individuals. However, the authors fail to consider that the same genes (in low doses or reduced penetrance) may be adaptive for relatives, and that this may in part explain why they are retained in the gene pool. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  16. Abigail Gosselin (2013). The Epistemic Function of Narratives and the Globalization of Mental Disorders. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (1):46-67.score: 180.0
    Mental disorders are assessed globally using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases Classification of Mentaland Behavioural Disorders (ICD), which is largely modeled after (though it also influences) the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) used in the United States. Situated within the scientific narrative of American psychiatry, disorders are typically viewed by practitioners who use the DSM and ICD as essential categories of human experience, with internal, purely descriptive, value-free conditions. Criteria identified (...)
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  17. Kimberly Hoagwood (1994). The Certificate of Confidentiality at the National Institute of Mental Health: Discretionary Considerations in its Applicability in Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Ethics and Behavior 4 (2):123 – 131.score: 180.0
    Child and adolescent researchers must balance increasingly complex sets of ethical, legal, and scientific standards when investigating child and adolescent mental disorders. Few guidelines are available. One mechanism that provides the investigator immunity from legally compelled disclosure of research records is described. However, discretion must be exercised in its use, especially with regard to abuse reporting, voluntary disclosure of abuse, and protection of research data. Examples of discretionary issues in the use of the certificate of confidentiality are provided.
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  18. Oliver Mayo & Carolyn Leach (2006). Are Common, Harmful, Heritable Mental Disorders Common Relative to Other Such Non-Mental Disorders, and Does Their Frequency Require a Special Explanation? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):415-416.score: 180.0
    Keller & Miller's (K&M's) conclusion appears to be correct; namely, that common, harmful, heritable mental disorders are largely maintained at present frequencies by mutation-selection balance at many different loci. However, their “paradox” is questionable. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  19. Philippe Huguelet (2014). The Contribution of Existential Phenomenology in the Recovery-Oriented Care of Patients with Severe Mental Disorders. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (4):346-367.score: 180.0
    Promoting recovery has become more and more important in the care of patients with severe mental disorders such as psychosis. Recovery is a personal process of growth involving hope, self-identity, meaning in life, and responsibility. Obviously, these components pertain, at least in part, to a psychotherapeutic care perspective. Yet, up to now, recovery has mainly been taken into account in transforming health services and as a general framework for supportive therapy. Existential phenomenology abdicates a theoretical stance and considers (...)
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  20. Yasuhiko Murakami (2010). Affection, Autism and Mental Disorders: Husserl's Theory of Meaning and Psychopathology. Studia Phaenomenologica 10:193-204.score: 180.0
    Behind the phase of cognition analysed by Husserl, there is a phase of affection. In this phase, there are significant mental disorders occurring. Similar to the way in which the phase of cognition is divided into reference, meaning (referent), and representation of words (classification according to Husserl's theory of meaning), the phase of affection is also divided into reference, “meaning,” and figure as sphere of “meaning”. The situation as a reference can allow various predications to form different explanations, (...)
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  21. Angélique Oj Cramer, Lourens J. Waldorp, Han Lj van der Maas & Denny Borsboom (2010). Complex Realities Require Complex Theories: Refining and Extending the Network Approach to Mental Disorders. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):178-193.score: 180.0
    The majority of commentators agree on one thing: Our network approach might be the prime candidate for offering a new perspective on the origins of mental disorders. In our response, we elaborate on refinements (e.g., cognitive and genetic levels) and extensions (e.g., to Axis II disorders) of the network model, as well as discuss ways to test its validity.
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  22. Natalie F. Banner (2013). Mental Disorders Are Not Brain Disorders. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):509-513.score: 178.0
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  23. Guillaume Dumas Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Guillaume Fond (2013). Cyborg Psychiatry to Ensure Agency and Autonomy in Mental Disorders. A Proposal for Neuromodulation Therapeutics. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 178.0
    Neuromodulation therapeutics—as repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and neurofeedback—are valuable tools for psychiatry. Nevertheless, they currently face some limitations: rTMS has confounding effects on neural activation patterns, and neurofeedback fails to change neural dynamics in some cases. Here we propose how coupling rTMS and neurofeedback can tackle both issues by adapting neural activations during rTMS and actively guiding individuals during neurofeedback. An algorithmic challenge then consists in designing the proper recording, processing, feedback, and control of unwanted effects. But this new (...)
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  24. Joseph Polimeni (2006). Mental Disorders Are Not a Homogeneous Construct. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):418-419.score: 174.0
    The only commonality between the various psychiatric disorders is that they reflect contemporary problematic behaviors. Some psychiatric disorders have a substantial genetic component, whereas others are essentially shaped by prevailing environmental factors. Because psychiatric ailments are so heterogeneous, any universal explanation of mental illness is not likely to have any clinical or theoretical utility. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  25. Matthew Broome & Lisa Bortolotti (2010). What's Wrong with 'Mental' Disorders? Psychological Medicine.score: 174.0
    Commentary on the editorial by D Stein et al.'s "What is a Mental/Psychiatric Disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V".
     
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  26. Don Ross (2010). Some Mental Disorders Are Based on Networks, Others on Latent Variables. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):166-167.score: 174.0
    Cramer et al. persuasively conceptualize major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as network disorders, rejecting latent variable accounts. But how does their radical picture generalize across the suite of mental and personality disorders? Addictions are Axis I disorders that may be better characterized by latent variables. Their comorbidity relationships could be captured by inserting them as nodes in a super-network of Axis I conditions.
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  27. George Nikolaidis (2013). Indeterminacy of Definitions and Criteria in Mental Health: Case Study of Emotional Disorders. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):531-536.score: 172.0
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  28. Maarten K. van Dijk, Desiree B. Oosterbaan, Marc J. P. M. Verbraak & Anton J. L. M. van Balkom (2013). The Effectiveness of Adhering to Clinical‐Practice Guidelines for Anxiety Disorders in Secondary Mental Health Care: The Results of a Cohort Study in the Netherlands. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (5):791-797.score: 168.0
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  29. B. Gert & C. M. Culver (2009). Sex, Immorality, and Mental Disorders. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (5):487-495.score: 164.0
    Although the definition of a mental disorder has remained essentially the same from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R) through DSM-IV to DSM-IV-TR, the account of the paraphilias has changed continually. Although the definition in all the DSMs explicitly rules out deviant sexual behavior as sufficient for labeling someone as having a mental disorder, deviant sexual behavior counts as sufficient for all the paraphilias in DSM-III-R. In DSM-IV, the account of all the (...)
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  30. Serife Tekin (2011). Self-Concept Through the Diagnostic Looking Glass: Narratives and Mental Disorder. Philosophical Psychology 24 (3):357-380.score: 160.0
    This paper explores how the diagnosis of mental disorder may affect the diagnosed subject’s self-concept by supplying an account that emphasizes the influence of autobiographical and social narratives on self-understanding. It focuses primarily on the diagnoses made according to the criteria provided by the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and suggests that the DSM diagnosis may function as a source of narrative that affects the subject’s self-concept. Engaging in this analysis by appealing to autobiographies and (...)
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  31. Martin Voracek (2008). Digit Ratio (2d:4d) as a Marker for Mental Disorders: Low (Masculinized) 2d:4d in Autism-Spectrum Disorders, High (Feminized) 2d:4d in Schizophrenic-Spectrum Disorders. [REVIEW] Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):283-284.score: 156.0
    Augmenting and supplementing the arguments of Crespi & Badcock (C&B), I show that digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action, indeed appears differentially altered in autism-spectrum disorders (lower/masculinized) versus schizophrenic-spectrum disorders (higher/feminized). Consistent with C&B's framework, some evidence (substantial heritability, assortative mating, sex-specific familial transmission) points to possible sex chromosome and imprinted genes effects on 2D:4D expression.
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  32. Göran Lindqvist & Helge Malmgren (1993). Classification and Diagnosis of Organic Mental Disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplement 88:5-17.score: 156.0
    A new diagnostic system for organic psychiatry is presented. We first define "organic psychiatry", and then give the theoretical basis for conceiving organic psychiatric disorders in terms of hypothetical psychopathogenetic processes, HPP:s. Such hypothetical disorders are not strictly identical to the clusters of symptoms in which they typically manifest themselves, since the symptoms may be concealed or modified by intervening factors in non typical circumstances and/or in the simultaneous presence of several disorders. The six basic disorders (...)
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  33. Deborah Woo (1991). China's Importation of Western Psychiatry: Cultural Relativity and Mental Disorders. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (1).score: 156.0
    As one aspect of China's modernization, the importation of Western psychiatric ideas poses a mystery. How are such ideas integrated with traditional assumptions? The apparently wholesale adoption of Western psychiatric categories runs counter to the fact that the Chinese have been generally reluctant to define problems in highly individualized psychiatric terms. Our lack of knowledge as to how the Chinese and Western medical models interface raises questions about the cross-cultural applicability of psychiatric theory. Ironically, the very conceptual categories intended to (...)
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  34. Iris Jaitovich Groisman, Ghislaine Mathieu & Beatrice Godard (2012). Use of Next Generation Sequencing Technologies in Research and Beyond: Are Participants with Mental Health Disorders Fully Protected? [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):36-.score: 154.0
    Background Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is expected to help find the elusive, causative genetic defects associated with Bipolar Disorder (BD). This article identifies the importance of NGS and further analyses the social and ethical implications of this approach when used in research projects studying BD, as well as other psychiatric ailments, with a view to ensuring the protection of research participants. Methods We performed a systematic review of studies through PubMed, followed by a manual search through the titles and abstracts (...)
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  35. Derek Bolton (1996). Mind, Meaning, and Mental Disorder: The Nature of Causal Explanation in Psychology and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.score: 154.0
    Philosophical ideas about the mind, brain, and behavior can seem theoretical and unimportant when placed alongside the urgent questions of mental distress and disorder. However, there is a need to give direction to attempts to answer these questions. On the one hand, a substantial research effort is going into the investigation of brain processes and the development of drug treatments for psychiatric disorders, and on the other, a wide range of psychotherapies is becoming available to adults and children (...)
     
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  36. Nomy Arpaly (2005). How It is Not "Just Like Diabetes&Quot;: Mental Disorders and the Moral Psychologist. Philosophical Issues 15 (1):282–298.score: 150.0
  37. Dominic Murphy & Stephen Stich (2000). Darwin in the Madhouse: Evolutionary Psychology and the Classification of Mental Disorders. In Peter Carruthers & A. Chamberlain (eds.), Evolution and the Human Mind. Cambridge University Press. 62--92.score: 150.0
  38. Marino Pérez-Álvarez, Louis A. Sass & José M. García-Montes (2009). More Aristotle, Less DSM: The Ontology of Mental Disorders in Constructivist Perspective. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (3):211-225.score: 150.0
  39. Andreas De Block (2008). Why Mental Disorders Are Just Mental Dysfunctions (and Nothing More): Some Darwinian Arguments. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 39 (3):338-346.score: 150.0
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  40. Marino Pérez-Álvarez & Louis A. Sass (2009). Phenomenology, Behaviorism, and the Nature of Mental Disorders: Voices From Spain. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (3):195-198.score: 150.0
  41. Dennis Drotar (2008). Ethical Issues in Treatment and Intervention Research with Children and Adolescents with Behavioral and Mental Disorders. Ethics and Behavior 18 (2 & 3):119 – 126.score: 150.0
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  42. Denis Forest & Luc Faucher, Discussing the Harmful Dysfunction View of Mental Disorders.score: 150.0
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  43. John Z. Sadler (2008). Vice and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Disorders: A Philosophical Case Conference. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (1):1-17.score: 150.0
  44. Andreas Heinz Ulrike Kluge (2010). Anthropological and Evolutionary Concepts of Mental Disorders. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (3):292-307.score: 150.0
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  45. Elizabeth H. Flanagan & Roger K. Blashfield (2008). Clinicians' Folk Taxonomies of Mental Disorders. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 14 (3):249-269.score: 150.0
  46. Kay S. Grennan, Chao Chen, Elliot S. Gershon & Chunyu Liu (2014). Molecular Network Analysis Enhances Understanding of the Biology of Mental Disorders. Bioessays 36 (6):606-616.score: 150.0
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  47. Dennis Drotar (2008). Ethics of Treatment and Intervention Research with Children and Adolescents with Behavioral and Mental Disorders: Recommendations for a Future Research Agenda. Ethics and Behavior 18 (2 & 3):307 – 313.score: 150.0
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  48. Woo‐Kyoung Ahn, Caroline C. Proctor & Elizabeth H. Flanagan (2009). Mental Health Clinicians' Beliefs About the Biological, Psychological, and Environmental Bases of Mental Disorders. Cognitive Science 33 (2):147-182.score: 150.0
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  49. Dean Frederick MacKinnon (2004). Descriptions and Prescriptions: Values, Mental Disorders, and the DSMs (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (1):152-157.score: 150.0
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