In Who's Afraid of Idealism? the philosophical concept of idealism, the extent to which reality is mind-made, is examined in new light. Author Luis M. Augusto explores epistemological idealism, at the source of all other kinds of idealism, from the viewpoints of Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche, two philosophers who spent a large part of their lives denigrating the very concept. Working from Kant and Nietzsche's viewpoints that idealism was a scandal to philosophy and the cause of nihilism, (...) class='Hi'>Augusto evaluates these philosophers and their role in shaping epistemological idealism. Using textual evidence from their writings and their reactions to western philosophers such as Plato, Descartes, and Hegel, Who's Afraid of Idealism? argues that in fact Kant and Nietzsche were really idealists at heart. In accessible prose, this text puts forward a theory that goes against current scholarly opinion, and even Kant and Nietzsche's opinions of themselves. (shrink)
Contemporary studies in unconscious cognition are essentially founded on dissociation, i.e., on how it dissociates with respect to conscious mental processes and representations. This is claimed to be in so many and diverse ways that one is often lost in dissociation. In order to reduce this state of confusion we here carry out two major tasks: based on the central distinction between cognitive processes and representations, we identify and isolate the main dissociation paradigms; we then critically analyze their key tenets (...) and reported findings. (shrink)
The concept of unconscious knowledge is fundamental for an understanding of human thought processes and mentation in general; however, the psychological community at large is not familiar with it. This paper offers a survey of the main psychological research currently being carried out into cognitive processes, and examines pathways that can be integrated into a discipline of unconscious knowledge. It shows that the field has already a defined history and discusses some of the features that all kinds of unconscious knowledge (...) seem to share at a deeper level. With the aim of promoting further research, we discuss the main challenges which the postulation of unconscious cognition faces within the psychological community. (shrink)
The traditional model of human cognition (TMHC) postulates an ontological and/or structural gap between conscious and unconscious mental representations. By and large, it sees higher-level mental processes as commonly conceptual or symbolic in nature and therefore conscious, whereas unconscious, lower-level representations are conceived as non-conceptual or sub-symbolic. However, experimental evidence belies this model, suggesting that higher-level mental processes can be, and often are, carried out in a wholly unconscious way and/or without conceptual representations, and that these can be processed unconsciously. (...) This entails that the TMHC, as well as the theories on mental representation it motivates and that in turn support it, is wrong. (shrink)
The representational nature of human cognition and thought in general has been a source of controversies. This is particularly so in the context of studies of unconscious cognition, in which representations tend to be ontologically and structurally segregated with regard to their conscious status. However, it appears evolutionarily and developmentally unwarranted to posit such segregations, as,otherwise, artifact structures and ontologies must be concocted to explain them from the viewpoint of the human cognitive architecture. Here, from a by-and-large Classical cognitivist viewpoint, (...) I show why this segregation is wrong, and elaborate on the need to postulate an ontological and structural continuity between unconscious and conscious representations. Specifically, I hypothesize that this continuity is to be found in the symbolic-based interplay between the syntax and the semantics of thought, and I propose a model of human information processing characterized by the integration of syntactic and semantic representations. (shrink)
The definition of knowledge as justified true belief is the best we presently have. However, the canonical tripartite analysis of knowledge does not do justice to it due to a Platonic conception of a priori truth that puts the cart before the horse. Within a pragmatic approach, I argue that by doing away with a priori truth, namely by submitting truth to justification, and by accordingly altering the canonical analysis of knowledge, this is a fruitful definition. So fruitful indeed that (...) it renders the Gettier counterexamples vacuous, allowing positive work in epistemology and related disciplines. (shrink)
Given the evidence available today, we know that the later Middle Ages knew strong forms of idealism. However, Plato alone will not do to explain some of its features. Aristotle was the most important philosophical authority in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, but until now no one dared explore in his thought the roots of this idealism because of the dogma of realism surrounding him. I challenge this dogma, showing that the Stagirite contained in his thought the roots of idealist (...) aspects that will be developed, namely by Dietrich of Freiberg and Eckhart of Hochheim, into a fully idealist epistemology. (shrink)
Since Freud and his co-author Breuer spoke of dissociation in 1895, a scientific paradigm was painstakingly established in the field of unconscious cognition. This is the dissociation paradigm. However, recent critical analysis of the many and various reported dissociations reveals their blurred, or unveridical, character. Moreover, we remain ignorant with respect to the ways cognitive phenomena transition from consciousness to an unconscious mode. This hinders us from filling in the puzzle of the unified mind. We conclude that we have reached (...) a Kuhnian crisis in the field of unconscious cognition, and we predict that new models, incorporating partly the relevant findings of the dissociation paradigm—but also of dynamic psychology—, will soon be established. We further predict that some of these models will be largely based on the pairs representation–process and analog–digital. (shrink)
This paper defends the view that a correct analysis of knowledge must take empirical data into consideration. The data here provided is from experimental psychology, namely from phenomena involving unconscious cognition.
Translation from the Latin into Portuguese, with extensive introduction and notes, of Dietrich of Freiberg's De origine rerum praedicamentalium, Chapters 1 and 2. This text, a late medieval treatise on reality and human cognition (or human cognition and reality), is a particularly hard nut to crack; hence my having translated it (O.K., I also enjoyed the Latin part).
Translation from the Latin into Portuguese, with extensive introduction and notes, of Dietrich of Freiberg's De origine rerum praedicamentalium, Chapters 3 and 4. This text, a late medieval treatise on reality and human cognition (or human cognition and reality), is a particularly hard nut to crack; hence my having translated it (O.K., I also enjoyed the Latin part).
More often than not, theories of belief and of belief ascription restrict themselves to conscious beliefs, thus obliterating a vast part of our mental life and offering extremely incomplete, unrealistic theories. Indeed, conscious beliefs are the exception, not the rule, as far as human doxastic states are concerned, and a naturalistic, realistic theory of knowledge that aspires to completeness has to take unconscious beliefs into consideration. This paper is the elaboration of such a theory of belief.
Translation from the Latin into Portuguese, with extensive introduction and notes, of Dietrich of Freiberg's De origine rerum praedicamentalium, Chapter 5. This text, a late medieval treatise on reality and human cognition (or human cognition and reality), is a particularly hard nut to crack; hence my having translated it (O.K., I also enjoyed the Latin part).
En la historia aparece el tema de los derechos humanos sólo en el siglo XX. Ninguna reflexión filosófica se había preocupado por la cuestión del ser humano como sujeto de unos derechos inherentes a su propio ser. La filosofía le había reconocido el derecho a la razón, Occidente y su tradición cristiana le había reconocido su derecho a la eternidad y dignidad de hijo de Dios para otorgarle la inmortalidad. Ahora bien, ¿por qué en esta tradición no aparece el hombre (...) como poseedor de unos derechos básicos propios, independientes de su condición social, política y económica? Derechos que le fueran concedidos por el solo hecho de ser hombre. Los derechos humanos adquieren su fundamento metafísico sólo a partir de la realidad histórica del hombre y de allí se evidencia su estatuto epistemológico. Solamente la historicidad del hombre a partir de las raíces en la materialidad le da sentido al derecho humano como tal. Es a partir del hombre como ser material y propio de una realidad histórica que encuentra su carta de ciudadanía en el discurso por los derechos humanos. Y en eso, Ellacuría tendrá mucho que decir. (shrink)
Eckhart’s doctrine of the bilder is highly original not so much for containing new elements as for the conciliation it achieved among sources at first sight incompatible; these sources can be reduced to three main ones: Plato, Aristotle, and Christian thought. In this paper, I show that Eckhart’s doctrine of the bilder is simultaneously a) an Aristotelian epistemic recreation of Plato’s doctrine of ideas, and b) a Christian ontological recreation of Aristotle’s doctrine of cognition. As such, it is a technical (...) manipulation of these sources, rather than a mystical doctrine. (shrink)
This is the first of a two-volume work combining two fundamental components of contemporary computing into classical deductive computing, a powerful form of computation, highly adequate for programming and automated theorem proving, which, in turn, have fundamental applications in areas of high complexity and/or high security such as mathematical proof, software specification and verification, and expert systems. Deductive computation is concerned with truth-preservation: This is the essence of the satisfiability problem, or SAT, the central computational problem in computability and complexity (...) theory. The Turing machine provides the classical version of this theory—classical computing—with its standard model, which is physically concretized—and thus spatial-temporally limited and restricted—in the von Neumann, or digital, computer. Although a number of new technological applications require classical deductive computation with non-classical logics, many key technologies still do well—or exclusively, for that matter—with classical logic. In this first volume, we elaborate on classical deductive computing with classical logic. The objective of the main text is to provide the reader with a thorough elaboration on both classical computing and classical deduction with the classical first-order predicate calculus with a view to computational implementations. As a complement to the mathematical-based exposition of the topics we offer the reader a very large selection of exercises. This selection aims at not only practice of discussed material, but also creative approaches to problems, for both discussed and novel contents, as well as at research into further relevant topics. (shrink)
This is the 2nd edition of Computational logic. Vol. 1: Classical deductive computing with classical logic. This edition has a wholly new chapter on Datalog, a hard nut to crack from the viewpoint of semantics when negation is included.
Introduction - From the Illiad to the Studies on Hysteria: A chronology of the discovery of the unconscious mind - Freud's theories of the unconscious mind - Jung's collective unconscious - Lacan's linguistic paradigm.
Not focusing on the history of classical logic, this book provides discussions and quotes central passages on its origins and development, namely from a philosophical perspective. Not being a book in mathematical logic, it takes formal logic from an essentially mathematical perspective. Biased towards a computational approach, with SAT and VAL as its backbone, this is an introduction to logic that covers essential aspects of the three branches of logic, to wit, philosophical, mathematical, and computational.
This is a mathematical and computational intro to many-valued logics. The approach is mostly mathematical, namely algebraic (via the notion of logical matrix) and computational (via the satisfiability problem). An automated calculus -- the signed resolution calculus for many-valued logics -- is elaborated on.
Many-valued logics are those logics that have more than the two classical truth values, to wit, true and false; in fact, they can have from three to infinitely many truth values. This property, together with truth-functionality, provides a powerful formalism to reason in settings where classical logic—as well as other non-classical logics—is of no avail. Indeed, originally motivated by philosophical concerns, these logics soon proved relevant for a plethora of applications ranging from switching theory to cognitive modeling, and they are (...) today in more demand than ever, due to the realization that inconsistency and vagueness in knowledge bases and information processes are not only inevitable and acceptable, but also perhaps welcome. The main modern applications of (any) logic are to be found in the digital computer, and we thus require the practical knowledge how to computerize—which also means automate—decisions (i.e. reasoning) in many-valued logics. This, in turn, necessitates a mathematical foundation for these logics. This book provides both these mathematical foundation and practical knowledge in a rigorous, yet accessible, text, while at the same time situating these logics in the context of the satisfiability problem (SAT) and automated deduction. The main text is complemented with a large selection of exercises, a plus for the reader wishing to not only learn about, but also do something with, many-valued logics. (shrink)
Resumo Este artigo demonstra a recepção do pensamento de Friedrich Nietzsche pela poesia de Augusto dos Anjos, poeta brasileiro que, em vida, publica sua única obra intitulada Eu. A tragicidade com que o poeta opera, ironicamente, as máscaras que veste e despe ao longo de sua obra ; a força apolínea com que desenha as imagens que carregam uma musicalidade tão dilaceratória e incandescente são estratégias essenciais da poesia angelina que, certamente dialogam com a filosofia poética de Nietzsche.: This (...) article demonstrates the reception of Friedrich Nietzsche's thought by the poetry of Augusto dos Anjos, a brazilian poet who publishes his single poetic work Eu in 1912. The tragic principle wherewith the poet ironically operates the masks he wears and undresses throughout his work ; the apolinean energy with which he draws the images that carry such a lacerating musicality are essential strategies of Augusto dos Anjos´s poetry that certainly dialog with Nietzsche's poetic philosophy. (shrink)
O presente artigo pretende demonstrar os elementos que compõem a realidade paraguaia que delira, segundo o autor Augusto Roa Bastos, e como incorpora tais elementos ao seu gesto escritural resultando em uma escritura caleidoscópica.
La intención de este ensayo es dar cuenta de algunas tendencias del Pensamiento Filosófico-Ético Ambiental colombiano, y su importancia en la Escuela de Pensamiento Ambiental que se está construyendo en la Universidad Nacional Sede Manizales gracias a los aportes de pensadores que han asumido la tarea de pensar lo pensado. En la primera parte presentaremos el pensamiento de of Augusto Angel-Maya, quien inauguró la escuela colombiana de pensamientoambiental y luego concisamente introduciremos las voces de José María Borrero, Julio Carrizosa, (...) Arturo Escobar, Guillermo Hoyos, Rubiel Ramírez y Patricia Noguera. En estas diversas aproximaciones de pensamiento ambiental encontramos potencias creadoras de una visión ambiental alternativa que está consolidándose no sólo en Colombia, sino en América Latina. Estas voces han abierto caminos hacia la reflexión sobre valores emergentes de las relaciones entre los humanos y las tramas de la vida, los valores que todos debemos construir si queremos una "sociedad Ambiental" , y los valores que es necesario superar desde nuevas prácticas educativas, políticas, económicas y culturales, tanto en nuestra región como en otras latitudes. (shrink)
Resumen: El título de Niebla, acaso el relato más importante de toda la obra de Unamuno, sugiere las ideas de confusión, indefinición e imprecisión. Lo contrario de lo que se busca en el ámbito intelectual, aunque caracteres esenciales en toda vida humana. Tomando estas coordenadas como punto de partida, nuestro propósito es relacionar la nebulosa vida de Augusto Pérez, sus acciones y circunstancias, en apariencia azarosas e impredecibles, con la concepción de Schopenhauer en torno a la Voluntad, el querer (...) y el carácter humano. Esto nos permitirá conciliar, o confundir, la libertad con el determinismo y la realidad con la ficción, incurriendo en contradicción, si es preciso, para sugerir que quizá la vida de Augusto, como la nuestra, no sea otra cosa que el despliegue temporal de un eterno e inquebrantable anhelo.: Mist, perhaps the most important of all of Unamuno’s works, suggests ideas of confusion, uncertainty and imprecision; the opposite of what is desired in intellectual spheres, but essential features in every human life. Taking these coordinates as a starting point, the aim of this study is to link the nebulous life of Augusto Pérez, his apparently random and unpredictable actions and circumstances, to Schopenhauer’s conception of Will, desire and human character. This will allow this study to bring together, or confuse, freedom with determinism and reality with fiction. If necessary, we will incur in the contradiction of suggesting that Augusto’s life, much like ours, may just be the temporary display of an eternal and unbreakable fervor. (shrink)
Some tendencies of Colombian environmental philosophical-ethical thought are being developed in the school of environmental thought at the National University of Colombia, Manizales Campus, thanks to the contributions of a group of thinkers who have undertaken the task of rethinking what has been thought. The thought of Augusto Angel-Maya inaugurated the Colombian environmental philosophy school of thought and his work has been followed by the voices of Jose Maria Borrero, Julio Carrizosa, Arturo Escobar, Guillermo Hoyos, Rubiel Ramírez, and Patricia (...) Noguera. In their diverse approaches to environmental thought we find the creative powers of an alternative environmental vision that is crystallizing not only in Colombia, but throughout Latin America. Their voices have opened ways toward reflection on the emerging values of the relationships between humans and the web of life, the values that we all must construct if we want an “environmental society,” and the values that it is necessary to overcome by inaugurating new educational, political, economic, and cultural practices, as much as in our region as in other areas of the world. (shrink)