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  1. Events, Their Names, and Their Synchronic Structure.Nicola Guarino, Riccardo Baratella & Giancarlo Guizzardi - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (2):249-283.
    We present in this paper a novel ontological theory of events whose central tenet is the Aristotelian distinction between the object that changes and the actual subject of change, which is what we call an individual quality. While in the Kimian tradition events are individuated by a triple ⟨ o, P, t ⟩, where o is an object, P a property, and t an interval of time, for us the simplest events are qualitative changes, individuated by a triple ⟨ o, (...)
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  2. Métaphysique analytique, métaphysique naturalisée et ontologie appliquée.Baptiste Le Bihan & Adrien Barton - 2022 - In Raphaël Künstler (ed.), Métaphysique et Sciences, Nouveaux problèmes. Paris: Hermann.
    La pertinence de la métaphysique analytique a fait l'objet de critiques : Ladyman et Ross, par exemple, ont suggéré d'abandonner ce domaine. French et McKenzie ont défendu la métaphysique analytique en affirmant qu'elle développe des outils qui pourraient s'avérer utiles pour la philosophie de la physique. Dans cet article, nous montrons dans un premier temps que cette défense heuristique de la métaphysique peut être étendue au domaine scientifique de l'ontologie appliquée, qui utilise des théories et outils issus de la métaphysique (...)
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  3. Modelling Equivalent Definitions of Concepts.Daniele Porello - 2015 - In Modeling and Using Context - 9th International and Interdisciplinary Conference, {CONTEXT} 2015, Lanarca, Cyprus, November 2-6, 2015. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9405. pp. 506-512.
    We introduce the notions of syntactic synonymy and referential syn- onymy due to Moschovakis. Those notions are capable of accounting for fine- grained aspects of the meaning of linguistic expressions, by formalizing the Fregean distinction between sense and denotation. We integrate Moschovakis’s theory with the theory of concepts developed in the foundational ontology DOLCE, in order to enable a formal treatment of equivalence between concepts.
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  4. Towards Knowledge-Driven Distillation and Explanation of Black-Box Models.Roberto Confalonieri, Guendalina Righetti, Pietro Galliani, Nicolas Toquard, Oliver Kutz & Daniele Porello - 2021 - In Proceedings of the Workshop on Data meets Applied Ontologies in Explainable {AI} {(DAO-XAI} 2021) part of Bratislava Knowledge September {(BAKS} 2021), Bratislava, Slovakia, September 18th to 19th, 2021. CEUR 2998.
    We introduce and discuss a knowledge-driven distillation approach to explaining black-box models by means of two kinds of interpretable models. The first is perceptron (or threshold) connectives, which enrich knowledge representation languages such as Description Logics with linear operators that serve as a bridge between statistical learning and logical reasoning. The second is Trepan Reloaded, an ap- proach that builds post-hoc explanations of black-box classifiers in the form of decision trees enhanced by domain knowledge. Our aim is, firstly, to target (...)
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  5. Towards a Cognitive Semantics of Type.Daniele Porello & Giancarlo Guizzardi - 2017 - In AI*IA 2017 Advances in Artificial Intelligence - XVIth International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence, Bari, Italy, November 14-17, 2017, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10640. pp. 428-440.
    Types are a crucial concept in conceptual modelling, logic, and knowledge representation as they are an ubiquitous device to un- derstand and formalise the classification of objects. We propose a logical treatment of types based on a cognitively inspired modelling that ac- counts for the amount of information that is actually available to a cer- tain agent in the task of classification. We develop a predicative modal logic whose semantics is based on conceptual spaces that model the ac- tual information (...)
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  6. Asymmetric Hybrids: Dialogues for Computational Concept Combination.Guendalina Righetti, Daniele Porello, Nicolas Troquard, Oliver Kutz, Maria Hedblom & Pietro Galliani - 2022 - In Fabian Neuhaus & Boyan Brodaric (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems - Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference, {FOIS} 2021, Bozen-Bolzano, Italy, September 11-18, 2021. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications. IOS Press. pp. 81-96.
    When people combine concepts these are often characterised as “hybrid”, “impossible”, or “humorous”. However, when simply considering them in terms of extensional logic, the novel concepts understood as a conjunctive concept will often lack meaning having an empty extension (consider “a tooth that is a chair”, “a pet flower”, etc.). Still, people use different strategies to produce new non-empty concepts: additive or integrative combination of features, alignment of features, instantiation, etc. All these strategies involve the ability to deal with conflicting (...)
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  7. DOLCE: A Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering.Stefano Borgo, Roberta Ferrario, Aldo Gangemi, Nicola Guarino, Claudio Masolo, Daniele Porello, Sanfilippo Emilio & Laure Vieu - 2022 - Applied ontology 1 (17):45-69.
    DOLCE, the first top-level (foundational) ontology to be axiomatized, has remained stable for twenty years and today is broadly used in a variety of domains. dolce is inspired by cognitive and linguistic considerations and aims to model a commonsense view of reality, like the one human beings exploit in everyday life in areas as diverse as socio-technical systems, manufacturing, financial transactions and cultural heritage. dolce clearly lists the ontological choices it is based upon, relies on philosophical principles, is richly formalized, (...)
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  8. Certifiable AI.Jobst Landgrebe - 2022 - Applied Sciences 12 (3):1050.
    Implicit stochastic models, including both ‘deep neural networks’ (dNNs) and the more recent unsupervised foundational models, cannot be explained. That is, it cannot be determined how they work, because the interactions of the millions or billions of terms that are contained in their equations cannot be captured in the form of a causal model. Because users of stochastic AI systems would like to understand how they operate in order to be able to use them safely and reliably, there has emerged (...)
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  9. The Space Domain Ontologies.Alexander P. Cox, C. K. Nebelecky, R. Rudnicki, W. A. Tagliaferri, J. L. Crassidis & B. Smith - 2021 - In National Symposium on Sensor & Data Fusion Committee.
    Achieving space situational awareness requires, at a minimum, the identification, characterization, and tracking of space objects. Leveraging the resultant space object data for purposes such as hostile threat assessment, object identification, and conjunction assessment presents major challenges. This is in part because in characterizing space objects we reference a variety of identifiers, components, subsystems, capabilities, vulnerabilities, origins, missions, orbital elements, patterns of life, operational processes, operational statuses, and so forth, which tend to be defined in highly heterogeneous and sometimes inconsistent (...)
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  10. An Introduction to Hard and Soft Data Fusion Via Conceptual Spaces Modeling for Space Event Characterization.Jeremy Chapman, David Kasmier, John L. Crassidis, James L. Llinas, Barry Smith & Alex P. Cox - 2021 - In National Symposium on Sensor & Data Fusion (NSSDF), Military Sensing Symposia (MSS).
    This paper describes an AFOSR-supported basic research program that focuses on developing a new framework for combining hard with soft data in order to improve space situational awareness. The goal is to provide, in an automatic and near real-time fashion, a ranking of possible threats to blue assets (assets trying to be protected) from red assets (assets with hostile intentions). The approach is based on Conceptual Spaces models, which combine features from traditional associative and symbolic cognitive models. While Conceptual Spaces (...)
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  11. Foundational Ontologies: From Theory to Practice and Back.C. Maria Keet & Zubeida Khan - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (1):67-71.
    This is a commentary on the article by Augusto (2022; this issue) on categories and foundation ontology (FO). We agree that the notion of categories of kinds of elements to devise a FO deserves more attention than it has received to date. From a practical point of view sensu developing domain ontologies, however, it probably does not matter much as long as a FO is used and that that one was understood.
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  12. Implementing Dempster-Shafer Theory for Property Similarity in Conceptual Spaces Modeling.Jeremy R. Chapman, John L. Crassidis, James Llinas, Barry Smith & David Kasmier - 2022 - Sensor Systems and Information Systems IV, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) SCITECH Forum 2022.
    Previous work has shown that the Complex Conceptual Spaces − Single Observation Mathematical framework is a useful tool for event characterization. This mathematical framework is developed on the basis of Conceptual Spaces and uses integer linear programming to find the needed similarity values. The work of this paper is focused primarily on space event characterization. In particular, the focus is on the ranking of threats for malicious space events such as a kinetic kill. To make the Conceptual Spaces framework work, (...)
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  13. Ontology of Plays for Autonomous Teaming and Collaboration.David Kasmier, Eric Merrell, Robert Kelly, Barry Smith, Curtis Heisey, Donald Evan Maki, Marc Brittain, Ronald Ankner & Kevin Bush - forthcoming - Proceedings of the 14th Seminar on Ontology Research in Brazil (ONTOBRAS 2021), CEUR 3050, 9-22.
    We propose a domain-level ontology of plays for the facilitation of play-based collaborative autonomy among unmanned and manned-unmanned aircraft teams in the Army’s Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) mission domain. We define a play as a type of plan that prescribes some pattern of intentional acts that are intended to reliably result in some goal in some competitive context, and which specifies one or more roles that are realized by those prescribed intentional acts. The ontology is well suited to be extended (...)
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  14. What is a Situation?Mercedes Valmisa - 2021 - In Livia Kohn (ed.), Coming to Terms with Timelessness. Daoist Time in Comparative Perspective. St. Petersburg, FL, USA: pp. 26-49.
    This paper leads us in reflections regarding the ontological status of a situation inspired by two main sources: the Zhuangzi--a multifarious compilation from Warring States China (ca. 4th c. BCE)--and José Ortega y Gasset's (1883-1955) Unas Lecciones de Metafísica (Some Lessons in Metaphysics)--the transcripts of a course on metaphysics by a Spanish philosopher of the early 20th century. Much as other ontologically subjective entities and events, situations do not preexist the intentional subject: instead, they are created alongside our act of (...)
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  15. Capabilities.Eric Merrell, David Limbaugh, Peter Koch & Barry Smith - manuscript
    We propose a definition of capability as a class intermediate between function and disposition as the latter are defined in Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). A disposition inheres in a material entity and is realized in a certain kind of process. An example is the disposition of a glass to break when struck, which is realized when it shatters. A function is a disposition which is (simply put) the rationale for the existence of its bearer. To say for example that a (...)
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  16. A Conceptual Framework for Legal Personality and its Application to AI.Claudio Novelli, Giorgio Bongiovanni & Giovanni Sartor - forthcoming - Jurisprudence:1-26.
    In this paper we provide an analysis of the concept of legal personality and discuss whether personality may be conferred on artificial intelligence systems. Legal personality will be present...
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  17. 房地产的形而上学.Barry Smith & Leo Zaibert - 2021 - In Francesco Di Iorio & Jun Hu (eds.), 能动性与社会动力学——经济学哲学与社会科学哲学论文集 (Agency and Social Dynamics: Essays in the Philosophy of Economics and the Social Sciences). Beijing: Nankai University Press. pp. 111-125.
    The parceling of land into real estate is more than a simple geometrical affair. Real estate is a historical product of interaction between human beings, political, legal and economic institutions, and the physical environment. And while many authors, from Jeremy Bentham to Hernando de Soto, have drawn attention to the ontological (metaphysical) aspect of property in general, no comprehensive analysis of landed property has been attempted. The paper presents such an analysis and shows how landed property differs from other types (...)
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  18. Ontologia em Ciência da Informação. Teoria e Método.Mauricio B. Almeida - 2020 - Curitiba - Brasil: Editora CRV.
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  19. BFO-Based Ontology Enhancement to Promote Interoperability in BIM.Justine Flore Tchouanguem, Mohamed Hedi Karray, Bernard Kamsu Foguem, Camille Magniont, F. Henry Abanda & Barry Smith - 2021 - Applied ontology 16 (4):1–27.
    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a process for managing construction project information in such a way as to provide a basis for enhanced decision-making and for collaboration in a construction supply chain. One impediment to the uptake of BIM is the limited interoperability of different BIM systems. To overcome this problem, a set of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) has been proposed as a standard for the construction industry. Building on IFC, the ifcOWL ontology was developed in order to facilitate representation (...)
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  20. An Ontological Approach to Enhancing Information Sharing in Disaster Response.Linda Elmhadhbi, Mohamed-Hedi Karray, Bernard Archimède, J. Neil Otte & Barry Smith - 2021 - Information 12 (10).
    Managing complex disaster situations is a challenging task because of the large number of actors involved and the critical nature of the events themselves. In particular, the different terminologies and technical vocabularies that are being exchanged among Emergency Responders may lead to misunderstandings. Maintaining a shared semantics for exchanged data is a major challenge. To help to overcome these issues, we elaborate a modular suite of ontologies called POLARISCO that formalizes the complex knowledge of the ERs. Such a shared vocabulary (...)
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  21. Benefits of Realist Ontologies to Systems Engineering.Eric Merrell, Robert M. Kelly, David Kasmier, Barry Smith, Marc Brittain, Ronald Ankner, Evan Maki, Curtis W. Heisey & Kevin Bush - 2021 - 8th International Workshop on Ontologies and Conceptual Modelling (OntoCom).
    Applied ontologies have been used more and more frequently to enhance systems engineering. In this paper, we argue that adopting principles of ontological realism can increase the benefits that ontologies have already been shown to provide to the systems engineering process. Moreover, adopting Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), an ISO standard for top-level ontologies from which more domain specific ontologies are constructed, can lead to benefits in four distinct areas of systems engineering: (1) interoperability, (2) standardization, (3) testing, and (4) data (...)
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  22. Common Core Conformant Definitions for an Ontology of Commercial Exchange.Eric C. Merrell, Olivier Massin & Barry Smith - 2021 - 2nd International Workshop on Ontology of Social, Legal and Economic Entities (SoLEE).
    In “Toward an Ontology of Commercial Exchange” [11], we proposed human readable definitions for terms that are central to an ontology of commercial exchange. This paper furthers that project in two ways. First, the definitions have been modified to be compatible with the Common Core Ontologies (CCO). CCO is used in a wide variety of domains including the industrial and military domains. Having a commerce ontology compatible with CCO allows data about the exchange of goods relevant to those domains to (...)
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  23. Bridging Mainstream and Formal Ontology: A Causality-Based Upper Ontology in Dietrich of Freiberg.Luis M. Augusto - 2021 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 2 (2):35.
    Ontologies are some of the most central constructs in today's large plethora of knowledge technologies, namely in the context of the semantic web. As their coinage indicates, they are direct heirs to the ontological investigations in the long Western philosophical tradition, but it is not easy to make bridges between them. Contemporary ontological commitments often take causality as a central aspect for the ur-segregation of entities, especially in scientific upper ontologies; theories of causality and philosophical ontological investigations often go hand-in-hand, (...)
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  24. Fondements des technologies de l’information d’après la philosophie systémiste de la réalité de Bunge.Roman Lukyanenko, Veda C. Storey & Oscar Pastor - 2022 - Mεtascience 2.
    L’ontologie générale constitue un fondement théorique important pour l’analyse, la conception et le développement dans les technologies de l’information. L’ontologie est une branche de la philosophie qui étudie ce qui existe dans la réalité. Une ontologie largement utilisée dans les systèmes d’information, en particulier pour la modélisation conceptuelle, est l’ontologie BWW (Bunge-Wand-Weber), fondée sur les idées du philosophe et physicien Mario Bunge, telles que synthétisées par Wand et Weber. Cette ontologie a été élaborée à partir d’une ancienne version de la (...)
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  25. Ontology-Driven Multicriteria Decision Support for Victim Evacuation.Linda Elmhadhbi, Mohamed-Hedi Karray, Bernard Archimède, J. Neil Otte & Barry Smith - 2021 - International Journal of Information Technology and Decision Making:1–30.
    Abstract In light of the complexity of unfolding disasters, the diversity of rapidly evolving events, the enormous amount of generated information, and the huge pool of casualties, emergency responders (ERs) may be overwhelmed and in consequence poor decisions may be made. In fact, the possibility of transporting the wounded victims to one of several hospitals and the dynamic changes in healthcare resource availability make the decision process more complex. To tackle this problem, we propose a multicriteria decision support service, based (...)
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  26. The Industrial Ontologies Foundry (IOF) Perspectives.Mohamed Karray, Neil Otte, Rahul Rai, Farhad Ameri, Boonserm Kulvatunyou, Barry Smith, Dimitris Kiritsis, Chris Will, Rebecca Arista & Others - 2021 - Proceedings: Industrial Ontology Foundry (IOF) Achieving Data Interoperability Workshop, International Conference on Interoperability for Enterprise Systems and Applications, Tarbes, France, March 17-24, 2020.
    In recent years there has been a number of promising technical and institutional developments regarding use of ontologies in industry. At the same time, however, most industrial ontology development work remains within the realm of academic research and is without significant uptake in commercial applications. In biomedicine, by contrast, ontologies have made significant inroads as valuable tools for achieving interoperability between data systems whose contents derive from widely heterogeneous sources. In this position paper, we present a set of principles learned (...)
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  27. The Toolbox Dialogue Initiative: The Power of Cross-Disciplinary Practice.Graham Hubbs, Michael O'Rourke & Steven Hecht Orzack (eds.) - 2020 - New York, NY, USA: CRC Press.
    Cross-disciplinary scientific collaboration is emerging as standard operating procedure for many scholarly research enterprises. And yet, the skill set needed for effective collaboration is neither taught nor mentored. The goal of the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative is to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaboration. This book, inspired by this initiative, presents dialogue-based methods designed to increase mutual understanding among collaborators so as to enhance the quality and productivity of cross-disciplinary collaboration. It provides a theoretical context, principal activities, and evidence for effectiveness that will assist (...)
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  28. Making Space: The Natural, Cultural, Cognitive and Social Niches of Human Activity.Barry Smith - 2021 - Cognitive Processing 22 (supplementary issue 1):77-87.
    This paper is in two parts. Part 1 examines the phenomenon of making space as a process involving one or other kind of legal decision-making, for example when a state authority authorizes the creation of a new highway along a certain route or the creation of a new park in a certain location. In cases such as this a new abstract spatial entity comes into existence – the route, the area set aside for the park – followed only later by (...)
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  29. Une Ontologie Dispositionnelle du Risque.Olivier Grenier & Adrien Barton - 2021 - Lato Sensu: Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 8 (2):58-69.
    Risk is an ubiquitous entity in the biomedical domain. Thus, a coherent ontological characterization of risk, which can be used by informatical tools named "applied ontologies", is necessary to help with the exchange and the collection of data for clinical and research uses. We analyze some definitions of risk and draw two general characteristics that risks and dispositions share. We thus suggest that a risk is a disposition which has an undesirable realization for an agent. This definition conciliates the objective (...)
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  30. Ontology (Science).Barry Smith - 2008 - In Carola Eschenbach & Mike Grüninger (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference (FOIS 2008). Amsterdam: IOS Press. pp. 21-35.
    Increasingly, in data-intensive areas of the life sciences, experimental results are being described in algorithmically useful ways with the help of ontologies. Such ontologies are authored and maintained by scientists to support the retrieval, integration and analysis of their data. The proposition to be defended here is that ontologies of this type – the Gene Ontology (GO) being the most conspicuous example – are a part of science. Initial evidence for the truth of this proposition (which some will find self-evident) (...)
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  31. Wind Turbine Analysis Project.Neil Otte, Rahul Rai, Clare Paul & Barry Smith - 2018 - Final Project Report.
    The report describes an application of ontologies to the analysis of wind turbine manufacturing data. We show how applying ontologies to composite materials data may facilitate the discovery of optimum composite material designs that will deliver maximum wind turbine blade performance within environmental constraints.
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  32. SNAPVis and SPANVis: Ontologies for Recognizing Variable Vista Spatial Environments.Tiansi Dong - 2004 - In International Conference on Spatial Cognition. Springer. pp. 344-365.
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  33. Peer Review Report: Ontologies Relevant to Behaviour Change Interventions, Version 3.Robert M. Kelly, David Limbaugh & Barry Smith - 2021 - Human Behaviour Change Project.
    In the present review we focus on what we take to be some remaining issues with the Behaviour Change Intervention Ontology (BCIO). We are in full agreement with the authors’ endorsement of the principles of best practice for ontology development In particular, we agree that an ontology should be “logically consistent and having a clear structures [sic], preferably a well-organised hierarchical structure,” and that “Maximising the new ontology’s interoperability with existing ontologies by reusing entities from existing ontologies where appropriate” is (...)
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  34. Conceptual Spaces for Space Event Characterization Via Hard and Soft Data Fusion.Jeremy R. Chapman, David Kasmier, David Limbaugh, Stephen R. Gagnon, John Crassidis, James Llinas, Barry Smith & Alexander P. Cox - 2021 - AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics) Scitech 2021 Forum.
    The overall goal of the approach developed in this paper is to estimate the likelihood of a given kinetic kill scenario between hostile spacebased adversaries using the mathematical framework of Complex Conceptual Spaces Single Observation. Conceptual spaces are a cognitive model that provide a method for systematically and automatically mimicking human decision making. For accurate decisions to be made, the fusion of both hard and soft data into a single decision framework is required. This presents several challenges to this data (...)
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  35. 本体:广谱的知识集成工具.Barry Smith - 2020 - In 基于基本形式化本体的本体构建. Beijing: pp. 4-8.
    Ontology: Tool for Broad Spectrum Knowledge Integration (Foreword to Chinese translation of Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology).
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  36. 基于基本形式化本体的本体构建.Robert Arp, Barry Smith & Andrew D. Spear - 2020 - Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House.
    In the era of “big data,” science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of (...)
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  37. Modeling Artificial Agents’ Actions in Context – a Deontic Cognitive Event Ontology.Miroslav Vacura - 2020 - Applied Ontology 15 (4):493-527.
    Although there have been efforts to integrate Semantic Web technologies and artificial agents related AI research approaches, they remain relatively isolated from each other. Herein, we introduce a new ontology framework designed to support the knowledge representation of artificial agents’ actions within the context of the actions of other autonomous agents and inspired by standard cognitive architectures. The framework consists of four parts: 1) an event ontology for information pertaining to actions and events; 2) an epistemic ontology containing facts about (...)
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  38. Peer Review Report: Ontologies Relevant to Behaviour Change Interventions, Version 1.Robert M. Kelly, David Limbaugh & Barry Smith - 2020 - Human Behaviour Change Project.
    In “Ontologies Relevant to behaviour change interventions: A Method for their Development” Wright, et al. outline a step by step process for building ontologies of behaviour modification – what the authors call the Refined Ontology Developmental Method (RODM) – and demonstrate its use in the development of the Behaviour Change Intervention Ontology (BCIO). RODM is based on the principles of good ontology building used by the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) Foundry in addition to those outlined in (Arp, Smith, and Spear (...)
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  39. Enriching the Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) Ontology for Digital Manufacturing.Munira Mohd Ali, Ruoyu Yang, Binbin Zhang, Francesco Furini, Rahul Rai, J. Neil Otte & Barry Smith - 2021 - International Journal of Production Research 59 (18):5540-5557.
    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have been used in many different kinds of applications in recent years and have attracted significant research attention. However, we do not yet have a commonly accepted way of representing the various aspects of FGMs. Lack of standardised vocabulary creates obstacles to the extraction of useful information relating to pertinent aspects of different applications. A standard resource is needed for describing various elements of FGMs, including existing applications, manufacturing techniques, and material characteristics. This motivated the creation (...)
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  40. An Ontological Account of the Action Theory of Economic Exchanges.Daniele Porello, Giancarlo Guizzardi, Tiago Prince Sales, Glenda C. M. Amaral & Nicola Guarino - 2020 - In Proceedings of 14th International Workshop on Value Modelling and Business Ontologies, Brussels, Belgium, January 16-17, 2020. pp. 157-169.
    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in thedevelopment of ontologically well-founded conceptual models for Information Systems in areas such as Service Management, Accounting Information Systems and Financial Reporting. Economic exchanges are central phenomena in these areas. For this reason, they occupy a prominent position in modelling frameworks such as the REA (Resource-EventAction) ISO Standard as well as the FIBO (Financial Industry BusinessOntology). In this paper, we begin a well-founded ontological analysisof economic exchanges inspired by a recent ontological (...)
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  41. CIDO, a Community-Based Ontology for Coronavirus Disease Knowledge and Data Integration, Sharing, and Analysis.Oliver He, John Beverley, Gilbert S. Omenn, Barry Smith, Brian Athey, Luonan Chen, Xiaolin Yang, Junguk Hur, Hsin-hui Huang, Anthony Huffman, Yingtong Liu, Yang Wang, Edison Ong & Hong Yu - 2020 - Scientific Data 181 (7):5.
    Ontologies, as the term is used in informatics, are structured vocabularies comprised of human- and computer-interpretable terms and relations that represent entities and relationships. Within informatics fields, ontologies play an important role in knowledge and data standardization, representation, integra- tion, sharing and analysis. They have also become a foundation of artificial intelligence (AI) research. In what follows, we outline the Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO), which covers multiple areas in the domain of coronavirus diseases, including etiology, transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, (...)
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  42. On Credentials.Barry Smith, Olimpia Giuliana Loddo & Giuseppe Lorini - 2020 - Journal of Social Ontology 6 (1):47-67.
    Credentials play an important role in all modern societies, but the analysis of their nature and function has thus far been neglected by social philosophers. We present a view according to which the function of credentials is certify the identity and the institutional status (including the rights) of individuals. More importantly, credentials enable rights-holders to exercise their rights, so that for a particular right to be exercisable the right-holder should possess, carry and sometimes show to an authority (or QR code (...)
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  43. Ontology and Cognitive Outcomes.David Limbaugh, Jobst Landgrebe, David Kasmier, Ronald Rudnicki, James Llinas & Barry Smith - 2020 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 1 (1): 3-22.
    The term ‘intelligence’ as used in this paper refers to items of knowledge collected for the sake of assessing and maintaining national security. The intelligence community (IC) of the United States (US) is a community of organizations that collaborate in collecting and processing intelligence for the US. The IC relies on human-machine-based analytic strategies that 1) access and integrate vast amounts of information from disparate sources, 2) continuously process this information, so that, 3) a maximally comprehensive understanding of world actors (...)
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  44. Realitätsrepräsentation: Das Ziel der Ontologie.Barry Smith - 2008 - In Ludger Jansen & Barry Smith (eds.), Biomedizinische Ontologie. Philosophie – Lebenswissenschaften - Informationstechnik. Zurich: vdf (UTB Forum). pp. 31-46.
    The development of ontologies for the purposes of data curation is an important element in modern-day data and information sciences. Unfortunately, much of the work on these applied ontologies is associated with a relativist or conceptualist point of view, according to which ontologies represent (for example) the concepts in the minds of human beings. The paper describes a series of problems with such views, and defends an alternative realist interpretation.
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  45. Interdyscyplinarne perspektywy rozwoju, integracji i zastosowań ontologii poznawczych.Janna Hastings, Gwen Frishkoff, Barry Smith, Mark Jensen, Russell Poldrack, Jane Lomax, Anita Bandrowski, Fahim Imam, Jessica Turner, Maryann Martone & Przemysław Nowakowski - 2016 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 7 (3):101-117.
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  46. An Ontological Analysis of Drug Prescriptions.Jean-François Ethier, Adrien Barton & Ryeyan Taseen - 2018 - Applied ontology 13 (4):273-294.
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  47. Foundation for a Realist Ontology of Cognitive Processes.David Kasmier, David Limbaugh & Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), University at Buffalo, NY.
    What follows is a first step towards an ontology of conscious mental processes. We provide a theoretical foundation and characterization of conscious mental processes based on a realist theory of intentionality and using BFO as our top-level ontology. We distinguish three components of intentional mental process: character, directedness, and objective referent, and describe several features of the process character and directedness significant to defining and classifying mental processes. We arrive at the definition of representational mental process as a process that (...)
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  48. Endurant Types in Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling: Towards OntoUML 2.0.Giancarlo Guizzardi, Tiago Prince Sales, Claudenir M. Fonseca, Daniele Porello, Joao Paulo Almeida & Nicola Guarino - 2018 - In J. C. Trujillo, K. C. Davis, X. Du, Z. Li, T. W. Ling, G. Li & M. L. Lee (eds.), Conceptual Modeling - 37th International Conference, {ER} 2018, Xi'an, China, October 22-25, 2018, Proceedings. Springer. pp. 136--150.
    For over a decade now, a community of researchers has contributed to the development of the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) - aimed at providing foundations for all major conceptual modeling constructs. This ontology has led to the development of an Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling language dubbed OntoUML, reflecting the ontological micro-theories comprising UFO. Over the years, UFO and OntoUML have been successfully employed in a number of academic, industrial and governmental settings to create conceptual models in a variety of different domains. (...)
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  49. Proceedings of the ECAI-02 Workshop on Ontologies and Semantic Interoperability Lyon, July 22, 2002.Jerome Euzenat, Asuncion Gomez-Perez, Nicola Guarino & Heiner Stuckenschmidt (eds.) - 2002 - CEUR Workshop Proceedings.
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  50. Analytic Metaphysics Versus Naturalized Metaphysics: The Relevance of Applied Ontology.Baptiste Le Bihan & Adrien Barton - 2021 - Erkenntnis 86 (1):21-37.
    The relevance of analytic metaphysics has come under criticism: Ladyman & Ross, for instance, have suggested do discontinue the field. French & McKenzie have argued in defense of analytic metaphysics that it develops tools that could turn out to be useful for philosophy of physics. In this article, we show first that this heuristic defense of metaphysics can be extended to the scientific field of applied ontology, which uses constructs from analytic metaphysics. Second, we elaborate on a parallel by French (...)
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