A continuous spatial automaton is analogous to a cellular automaton, except that the cells form a continuum, as do the possible states of the cells. After an informal mathematical description of spatial automata, we describe in detail a continuous analog of Conway’s “Life,” and show how the automaton can be implemented using the basic operations of ﬁeld computation.
It has been argued that neural networks and other forms of analog computation may transcend the limits of Turing-machine computation; proofs have been offered on both sides, subject to differing assumptions. In this article I argue that the important comparisons between the two models of computation are not so much mathematical as epistemological. The Turing-machine model makes assumptions about information representation and processing that are badly matched to the realities of natural computation (information representation and processing in or inspired by (...) natural systems). This points to the need for new models of computation addressing issues orthogonal to those that have occupied the traditional theory of computation. (shrink)
Modern science developed in the interflow of culture between west and east. Combing of pratice technology with philosophic thoughts formed experimental method. Holistic views contacting atomism produced system theory. System thoughts are applicated in the science and engineering of biosystems, and the cencepts of system biomedicine (Kamada T.1992), systems biology (Zieglgansberger W, Tolle TR.1993), system bioengineering and system genetics (Zeng BJ. 1994) were established. From positive to synthetic thoughts, philosophy have been developed ontology, cosmology, organism theories. Structurity is structure logic (...) system founded on entity, develop, exist axioms, tolerance, adaptation, fluctuate, interweave, transform theorems and integrate, adaptation, construct laws. Structurity be discussed on the cosmos, life, culture system, creation, hologram theories of structure ontology, construct mutation, simi-structure organism and entity emergence, symbol implication. From the relation of structure, function and development, the structurity put forward the cycle, spiral, triangle structure stability patterns of self-organization in structure complement each other and stratification, functional couple and interflow bounds growth, coordinativetransformation and holographic symmetry. (shrink)
This chapter first surveys general issues in the epistemic internalism / externalism debate: what is the distinction, what motivates it, and what arguments can be given on both sides. -/- The second part of the chapter will examine the internalism / externalism debate as regards to the specific case of the epistemology of memory belief.
This historico-critical analysis of the concept of mass is the third in Jammer's series of studies of fundamental physical concepts. His fascinating account traces its intricate historical evolution from early notions of matter and the medieval concept of mass as quantitas materiae to the dynamic conceptions of mass. The concept is followed through the three stages of conceptualization ; systematization ; and formalization. Jammer further treats mass in relation to the electromagnetic theories; special and general relativity; quantum mechanics and the (...) theory of elementary particles; and the modern "space-theories" of matter. He concludes that no final clarification of the concept has yet been attained, despite the efforts of both physicists and philosophers. This difficult material is handled with great scholarship and control, skillfully interpreted, and concisely presented --B. J. H. (shrink)
In this inaugural address, a professor of applied mathematics develops the theme that new concepts such as "entropy" introduced in the mathematical description of nature have an influence far beyond the mathematical sciences, extending to such diverse fields as biology, the social sciences, religion, philosophy, literary analysis, etc.--B. J. H.
Twenty-four scientists and philosophers contribute to this volume, which constitutes the proceedings of the 1959 meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Six symposia deal with theory construction; empirical and conventional elements in physical theory; induction, probability and simplicity; the logic of variables and constants; philosophical issues of quantum theory; and the methodology of psychology and the social sciences. Many of the contributions are excellent; most deal with controversial issues, and generate considerable life in the discussions and (...) commentaries.--B. J. H. (shrink)
In this introduction to social problems, sixteen social scientists discuss the major forms of deviant behavior and social disorganization. The introduction attempts to elicit the general theoretical orientation which is implicit in the specialized studies making up the main body of the book.--B. J. H.
Sherburne has the two-fold purpose of framing an aesthetic theory which gains its coherence and clarity by its derivation from a speculative system, and of exploring the adequacy of that system by applying it to one dimension of experience. He begins by developing clearly the categorial notions of Whitehead's mature philosophy and exhibiting them as integral parts of the speculative scheme, and in some cases revising and reformulating them significantly. Using this material, he then frames an aesthetic theory treating such (...) questions as the ontological status of a work of art, aesthetic experience, and artistic creation. A well-written study that illuminates some of the more difficult aspects of Whitehead's thought, and contributes to the discussion of the metaphysical issues of aesthetics.--B. J. H. (shrink)
Many of the selections included are readily available, but the editor has earned our gratitude for reprinting the series of seven papers read before the Aristotelian Society from 1915-1923, and for making readily accessible the 1927 essay, "Time." The somewhat lengthy introduction adds little to the value of the book, and is occasionally inaccurate. --B. J. H.
This is a book in "theoretical chronometry," a study of the time-concept in its widest scope. It includes discussions of the physiological, psycho logical, and sociological aspects of time. While the treatment of large philosophical issues is sometimes too easy, the author has incorporated an enormous body of material.--B. J. H.
The second in the series from the Philosophy of Science Institute at St. John's University, this volume contains four essays by guest lecturers at the Institute, and provides "a summary introduction to the leading Thomistic philosophies of science in vogue today among those who believe that the philosophy of nature has an autonomy of its own, and is not applied metaphysics." The papers include an essay on Maritain's philosophy of science; a discussion of the Bohr atom; and examinations of scientific (...) method, and the subject-matter of the philosophy of nature.--B. J. H. (shrink)
A series of five lectures delivered at Yale University, this book discusses the historical and technological roots of natural science, its present organization, and its probable future in our scientific civilization. A particularly good chapter on the "Diseases of Science" discusses some of the problems of science's internal economy--its increasing specialization, the exponential growth rate of scientific publications, and the consequent difficulties for scientific education and research. A fascinating and well-written account.--B. J. H.
The essays included are somewhat uneven in value; some advance interpretations and criticisms, others are mainly expositional. Various aspects of Whitehead's later thought are discussed: the doctrine of feelings, actual occasions, causal efficacy, symbolic reference, mathematics, and the philosophy of history. Hartshorne's philosophy is examined in a seventh essay by Andrew Reck.--B. J. H.
A clear presentation and exploration of the philosophical implications of the classical picture of the physical world and the ways in which contemporary physics has changed it. Capek argues that physics has now moved from a universe governed by a "timeless world formula" toward a world which is irreversible and incomplete, where "becoming has been re-instated." The author's careful attention to the differences between the special and general theories of relativity helps to clear up important misconceptions about the space-time continuum (...) and the "dilatation" of time. Capek is more successful in explaining and clarifying physics than he is in assessing its precise philosophic impact.--B. J. H. (shrink)
Fourteen contributors present papers treating a wide variety of subjects. The treatments range from exposition, through sympathetic enlargement and development, to more critical explorations and the formulation of alternative views.--B. J. H.
This study in the philosophy of science analyzes "the logic of scientific inquiry and the logical structure of its intellectual products." The author distinguishes four patterns of scientific explanation: the deductive model, probabilistic explanation, functional and teleological explanation, and genetic explanation. The structure and application of each is explored with respect to some of the more specialized areas of science. Many of the traditional problems of philosophy of science are discussed, and there are excellent treatments of the methodology of the (...) social sciences and historical explanation. A large and important book, presenting a vast amount of material handled in an incisive manner.--B. J. H. (shrink)
The New Evil Demon problem has been hotly debated since the case was introduced in the early 1980’s (e.g. Lehrer and Cohen 1983; Cohen 1984), and there seems to be recent increased interest in the topic. In a forthcoming collection of papers on the New Evil Demon problem (Dutant and Dorsch, forthcoming), at least two of the papers, both by prominent epistemologists, attempt to resist the problem by appealing to the distinction between justification and excuses. My primary aim here is (...) to critically evaluate this new excuse maneuver as a response to the New Evil Demon problem. -/- Their response attempts to give us reason to reject the idea that victims of the New Evil Demon have justification for believing as they do. I shall argue that this approach is ultimately unsuccessful, however much of value can be learned from these attempts. In particular, progress in the debate can be made by following those who advance the excuse maneuver and make explicit the connection between epistemic justification and epistemic norms. By doing so, the questions being debated are clarified, as is the methodology being used to attempt to answer them. (shrink)
In common with traditional forms of epistemic internalism, epistemological disjunctivism attempts to incorporate an awareness condition on justification. Unlike traditional forms of internalism, however, epistemological disjunctivism rejects the so-called New Evil Genius thesis. In so far as epistemological disjunctivism rejects the New Evil Genius thesis, it is revisionary. -/- After explaining what epistemological disjunctivism is, and how it relates to traditional forms of epistemic internalism / externalism, I shall argue that the epistemological disjunctivist’s account of the intuitions underlying the New (...) Evil Genius thought experiment is at best incomplete. As presented, therefore, epistemological disjunctivism is unable to accommodate the core guiding intuitions of epistemic internalism. Given the stated aim of not being revisionary on this score, the view is at a dialectical disadvantage over the traditional forms of epistemic internalism the position is meant to replace. Unfortunately, therefore, at present, the impasse between internalism and externalism remains. (shrink)
How do our brains make choices? How do factors such as Alzheimer's or depression impair decision-making? Presenting the latest research on 'hot' and 'cold' decision-making, Barbara Sahakian and Jamie Nicole LaBuzetta look at the therapeutic smart drugs now available, and raise concerns about their unregulated use to enhance mental performance.
In a series of essays, Miss Rand expounds her "Objectivist Ethics." Man will discover, if he is sufficiently rational, those goals and values which are peculiar to him alone, i.e., those which will enable him to survive, and which require complex thought processes. The result of this search is that the moral man is he who achieves his maximum happiness; relationships, whether economic or emotional, are to be based on trade, and no interests conflict if they are viewed in a (...) properly wide context. The essays are quite readable, although not so arresting as Miss Rand's novels; however, the ethics collapses when it is applied to a populous society whose environment is either agriculturally poor or highly mechanized. Given these conditions, if a man views his interest from the limited standpoint of Objectivism, there is a necessary conflict of interests.—J. M. B. (shrink)
This book, besides meeting a definite need in the field of Kantian ethical studies, is excellent. Professor Beck treats the Practical Reason as an exemplification of a general Kantian method applied to problems organic to the Kantian system as a whole. His interpretation of the 'Transcendental deduction' of the Principle of Pure Practical Reason is particularly brilliant; the Principle is shown to be established in precisely the form required for a complete resolution of the third antinomy of the Critique of (...) Pure Reason, and the procedure has the further warrant of showing the validity of the "deduction" of chapter III of the "Grundlegung."--J. B. (shrink)
A discussion of "the time-concept" which depends heavily upon physical theory for its basis and conclusions. Within these limits, it is thorough, careful, and sometimes illuminating. The physical meanings of "direction" and "irreversibility" of time are thoroughly explored; the relation of time to entropy is discussed, as well as the concept of time in relativity and quantum theory. The principal original contribution of the book is its suggested distinction between "Lorentz-" and "Clausius-processes" as a means for solving the clock problems (...) of special relativity. --B. J. H. (shrink)
Vice epistemology, as Quassim Cassam understands it, is the study of the nature, identity, and significance of the epistemic vices. But what makes an intellectual vice a vice? Cassam calls his own view “Obstructivism” – intellectual vices are those traits, thinking styles, or attitudes that systematically obstruct the acquisition, retention, and transmission of knowledge. -/- I shall argue that Cassam’s account is an improvement upon virtue-reliabilism, and that it fares better against what I call Montmarquet’s objection than its immediate rivals. (...) Nevertheless, I contend that it does not go far enough — Montmarquet’s objection stands. -/- I conclude that either the objection needs to be answered in some other way, or else proponents of Obstructivism need to explain why their account of the nature of the intellectual vices does not have the counterintuitive consequences it appears to have. Alternatively, another account of the nature of the intellectual vices needs to be sought. (shrink)