Results for 'David S. DeMatteo'

987 found
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  1.  95
    Neuropsychological functioning and recall of research consent information among drug court clients.David S. Festinger, Kattiya Ratanadilok, Douglas B. Marlowe, Karen L. Dugosh, Nicholas S. Patapis & David S. DeMatteo - 2007 - Ethics and Behavior 17 (2):163 – 186.
    Evidence suggests that research participants often fail to recall much of the information provided during the informed consent process. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of consent information recalled by drug court participants following a structured informed consent procedure and the neuropsychological factors that were related to recall. Eighty-five participants completed a standard informed consent procedure to participate in an ongoing research study, followed by a 17-item consent quiz and a brief neuropsychological battery 2 weeks later. Participants performed (...)
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  2.  5
    Localization and Identification of Brain Microstructural Abnormalities in Paediatric Concussion.David Stillo, Ethan Danielli, Rachelle A. Ho, Carol DeMatteo, Geoffrey B. Hall, Nicholas A. Bock, John F. Connolly & Michael D. Noseworthy - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    In the United States, approximately 2.53 million people sustain a concussion each year. Relative to adults, youth show greater cognitive deficits following concussion and a longer recovery. An accurate and reliable imaging method is needed to determine injury severity and symptom resolution. The primary objective of this study was to characterize concussions with diffusion tensor imaging. This was performed through a normative Z-scoring analysis of DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity, to quantify patient-specific injuries and identify commonly (...)
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  3.  17
    The Explanation Game: A Formal Framework for Interpretable Machine Learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - In Josh Cowls & Jessica Morley (eds.), The 2020 Yearbook of the Digital Ethics Lab. Springer Verlag. pp. 109-143.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  4. Analiz "Vvedeniia" Porfiriia.S. S. David, Porphyry & Arevshatian - 1976 - Izd-Vo an Armianskoi Ssr.
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  5. John Calvin and Virtue Ethics: Augustinian and Aristotelian Themes.David S. Sytsma - 2020 - Journal of Religious Ethics 48 (3):519-556.
    Many scholars have argued that the Protestant Reformation generally departed from virtue ethics, and this claim is often accepted by Protestant ethicists. This essay argues against such discontinuity by demonstrating John Calvin’s reception of ethical concepts from Augustine and Aristotle. Calvin drew on Augustine’s concept of eudaimonia and many aspects of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics , including concepts of choice, habit, virtue as a mean, and the specific virtues of justice and prudence. Calvin also evaluated the problem of pagan virtue in (...)
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  6.  53
    Human lives: critical essays on consequentialist bioethics.David S. Oderberg & Jacqueline A. Laing (eds.) - 1997 - New York, N.Y.: St. Martin's Press.
    This is a series of essays critical of the utilitarian bioethics now dominating contemporary discussion. Analysing questions of moral theory as well as applied ethics this book aims to supply essays on matters as diverse as beginning and end-of-life issues as well as animal rights, the act-omission distinction and the principle of double effect in caring in medical ethics.
  7. Tolkovanie "Analitiki" Aristotelia Svodnyi Kriticheskii Tekst.S. S. David & Arevshatian - 1967 - Izd-Vo an Armianskoi Ssr.
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  8.  13
    Rights theory.David S. Oderberg - 2013 - In Gerald F. Gaus & Fred D'Agostino (eds.), The Routledge companion to social and political philosophy. New York: Routledge. pp. 375.
  9. Studies on Frege III: Logic and Semantics.David S. Shwayder (ed.) - 1976 - Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog.
     
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  10.  22
    Hippocampal function and interference.Matthew L. Shapiro & David S. Olton - 1994 - In D. Schacter & E. Tulving (eds.), Memory Systems. MIT Press. pp. 1994--87.
  11.  93
    Reconsidering Virtue: Differences of Perspective in Virtue Ethics and the Positive Social Sciences.David S. Bright, Bradley A. Winn & Jason Kanov - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (4):445-460.
    This paper describes differences in two perspectives on the idea of virtue as a theoretical foundation for positive organizational ethics (POE). The virtue ethics perspective is grounded in the philosophical tradition, has classical roots, and focuses attention on virtue as a property of character. The positive social science perspective is a recent movement (e.g., positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship) that has implications for POE. The positive social science movement operationalizes virtue through an empirical lens that emphasizes virtuous behaviors. From (...)
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  12. The media and democracy : using democratic theory in journalism ethics.David S. Allen & Elizabeth Blanks Hindman - 2014 - In Wendy N. Wyatt (ed.), The ethics of journalism: individual, institutional and cultural influences. New York: I.B. Tauris.
     
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  13.  6
    Practical inferences.David S. Clarke - 1985 - Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
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  14. Real Essentialism.David S. Oderberg - 2007 - New York: Routledge.
    _Real Essentialism_ presents a comprehensive defence of neo-Aristotelian essentialism. Do objects have essences? Must they be the kinds of things they are in spite of the changes they undergo? Can we know what things are really like – can we define and classify reality? Many, if not most, philosophers doubt this, influenced by centuries of empiricism, and by the anti-essentialism of Wittgenstein, Quine, Popper, and other thinkers. _Real Essentialism_ reinvigorates the tradition of realist, essentialist metaphysics, defending the reality and knowability (...)
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  15. One the Determination of Reference by Sense.David S. Shwayder - 1976 - In Studies on Frege III: Logic and Semantics. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog. pp. 85-95.
  16.  62
    The Amplifying and Buffering Effects of Virtuousness in Downsized Organizations.David S. Bright, Kim S. Cameron & Arran Caza - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (3):249-269.
    Virtuousness refers to the pursuit of the highest aspirations in the human condition. It is characterized by human impact, moral goodness, and unconditional societal betterment. Several writers have recently argued that corporations, in addition to being concerned with ethics, should also emphasize an ethos of virtuousness in corporate action. Virtuousness emphasizes actions that go beyond the “do no harm” assumption embedded in most ethical codes of conduct. Instead, it emphasizes the highest and best of the human condition. This research empirically (...)
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  17. The Making of a Social Disease: Tuberculosis in Nineteenth-Century France.David S. Barnes & Ann Dally - 1998 - History of Science 36 (1):115-121.
  18.  34
    A meta-science for a global bioethics and biomedicine.David S. Basser - 2017 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 12:9.
    BackgroundAs suggested by Shook and Giordano, understanding and therefore addressing the urgent international governance issues around globalizing bio-medical/technology research and applications is limited by the perception of the underlying science.MethodsA philosophical methodology is used, based on novel and classical philosophical reflection upon existent literature, clinical wisdoms and narrative theory to discover a meta-science and telos of humankind for the development of a relevant and defendable global biomedical bioethics.ResultsIn this article, through pondering an integrative systems approach, I propose a biomedical model (...)
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  19. The explanation game: a formal framework for interpretable machine learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Synthese 198 (10):1–⁠32.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  20. Clinical applications of machine learning algorithms: beyond the black box.David S. Watson, Jenny Krutzinna, Ian N. Bruce, Christopher E. M. Griffiths, Iain B. McInnes, Michael R. Barnes & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - British Medical Journal 364:I886.
    Machine learning algorithms may radically improve our ability to diagnose and treat disease. For moral, legal, and scientific reasons, it is essential that doctors and patients be able to understand and explain the predictions of these models. Scalable, customisable, and ethical solutions can be achieved by working together with relevant stakeholders, including patients, data scientists, and policy makers.
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  21.  60
    Hippocampus, space, and memory.David S. Olton, James T. Becker & Gail E. Handelmann - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (3):313-322.
    We examine two different descriptions of the behavioral functions of the hippocampal system. One emphasizes spatially organized behaviors, especially those using cognitive maps. The other emphasizes memory, particularly working memory, a short-term memory that requires iexible stimulus-response associations and is highly susceptible to interference. The predictive value of the spatial and memory descriptions were evaluated by testing rats with damage to the hippocampal system in a series of experiments, independently manipulating the spatial and memory characteristics of a behavioral task. No (...)
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  22.  41
    Conceptual challenges for interpretable machine learning.David S. Watson - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-33.
    As machine learning has gradually entered into ever more sectors of public and private life, there has been a growing demand for algorithmic explainability. How can we make the predictions of complex statistical models more intelligible to end users? A subdiscipline of computer science known as interpretable machine learning (IML) has emerged to address this urgent question. Numerous influential methods have been proposed, from local linear approximations to rule lists and counterfactuals. In this article, I highlight three conceptual challenges that (...)
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  23.  27
    The explanation game: a formal framework for interpretable machine learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Synthese 198 (10):9211-9242.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealisedexplanation gamein which players collaborate to find the best explanation(s) for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal patterns of (...)
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  24.  38
    A Distributed Connectionist Production System.David S. Touretzky & Geoffrey E. Hinton - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (3):423-466.
    DCPS is a connectionist production system interpreter that uses distributed representations. As a connectionist model it consists of many simple, richly interconnected neuron‐like computing units that cooperate to solve problems in parallel. One motivation for constructing DCPS was to demonstrate that connectionist models are capable of representing and using explicit rules. A second motivation was to show how “coarse coding” or “distributed representations” can be used to construct a working memory that requires far fewer units than the number of different (...)
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  25.  43
    The Ways of Confucianism: Investigations in Chinese Philosophy.David S. Nivison - 1996 - Open Court Publishing.
    "Nivison brings out the exciting variety within Confucian thought, as he interprets and elucidates key thinkers from over two thousand years, from Confucius himself, through Mencius and Xunzi, to such later Confucians as Wang Yangming, Dai Zhen, and Zhang Xuecheng."--Cover.
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  26.  11
    Complexity, Global Politics, and National Security.David S. Alberts & Thomas J. Czerwinski - 2002
    Contents:Acknowledgements Foreword (Lt. Ervin J. Rokke)Preface (Davis S. Alberts and Thomas Czerwinski)SETTING THE SCENEThe Simple and the Complex (Murray Gell-Mann)America in the World Today (Zbigniew Brzezinski)COMPLEXITY THEORY and NATIONAL SECURITY POLICYComplex Systems: The Role of Interactions (Robert Jervis)Many Damn Things Simultaneously: Complexity Theory and World Affairs (James N. Rosenau)Complexity, Chaos, and National Security Policy: Metaphors or Tools? (Alvin M. Saperstein)The Reaction to Chaos (Steven R. Mann)COMPLEXITY THEORY, STRATEGY, and OPERATIONSClausewitz, Nonlinearity, and the Importance of Imagery (Alan D. Beyerchen)Complexity and Organization (...)
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  27.  43
    The Ethical Roots of the Public Forum: Pragmatism, Expressive Freedom, and Grenville Clark.David S. Allen - 2014 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 29 (3):138-152.
    The public forum has been connected to the functioning of democracy, expressive freedom, and the media's role in society. While the public forum's legal contours have been examined, the ethical foundation of the public forum has not. Relying on archival research, this article argues that ideas about the public forum can be traced to the pragmatism of Grenville Clark, who influenced ideas about the public forum through his work on the American Bar Association's Bill of Rights Committee.
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  28.  14
    Deductive logic.David S. Clarke - 1973 - Carbondale,: Southern Illinois University Press.
    This introduction to the basic forms of deductive inference as evaluated by methods of modern symbolic logic is de­signed for sophomore-junior-level stu­dents ready to specialize in the study of deductive logic. It can be used also for an introductory logic course. The inde­pendence of many sections allows the instructor utmost flexibility. The text consists of eight chapters, the first six of which are designed to intro­duce the student to basic topics of sen­tence and predicate logic. The last two chapters extend (...)
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  29. Essence and Properties.David S. Oderberg - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (1):85-111.
    The distinction between the essence of an object and its properties has been obscured in contemporary discussion of essentialism. Locke held that the properties of an object are exclusively those features that ‘flow’ from its essence. Here he follows the Aristotelian theory, leaving aside Locke’s own scepticism about the knowability of essence. I defend the need to distinguish sharply between essence and properties, arguing that essence must be given by form and that properties flow from form. I give a precise (...)
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  30.  13
    Philosophy's Second Revolution: Early and Recent Analytic Philosophy.David S. Clarke - 1997 - Open Court Publishing Company.
    Clarke proposes a conception of philosophy that provides an alternative to the reductions of materialism and the search for normative principles. Philosophy's proper role is to describe similarities and differences among differing levels of language, specifically the familiar level of discourse within an ordinary language shared by all and the specialized discourses of social institutions such as science, law, and the arts. By constructing a logical framework in which these comparisons and contrasts can be made, philosophy performs the indispensable role (...)
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  31.  3
    Rational Acceptance and Purpose: An Outline of a Pragmatic Epistemology.David S. Clarke - 1988 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  32.  41
    The Diverse Values and Motivations of Vermont Farm to Institution Supply Chain Actors.David S. Conner, Noelle Sevoian, Sarah N. Heiss & Linda Berlin - 2014 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (5):695-713.
    Farm to institution (FTI) efforts aim to increase the amount of locally produced foods, typically fruits and vegetables, served by institutions such as schools, colleges, hospitals, senior meal sites, and correctional facilities. Scholars have cited these efforts as contributing to public health and community-based food systems goals. Prior research has found that relationships based on shared values have played a critical role in motivating and sustaining FTI efforts. We review previous studies, discussing values that motivate participation, and affect practices and (...)
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  33.  6
    BoltzCONS: Dynamic symbol structures in a connectionist network.David S. Touretzky - 1990 - Artificial Intelligence 46 (1-2):5-46.
  34. The fourth republic, 1944–1958, Cambridge history of modern France.David S. Bell - 1988 - History of European Ideas 9 (6):756-757.
  35.  17
    The World of Thought in Ancient China.David S. Nivison - 1988 - Philosophy East and West 38 (4):411-419.
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  36. On realism's own "hangover" of natural law philosophy : Llewellyn 'avec' Dooyeweerd.David S. Caudill - 2009 - In Francis J. Mootz (ed.), On Philosophy in American Law. Cambridge University Press.
  37.  27
    Justice Kennedy's gendered world.David S. Cohen - manuscript
    As part of the South Carolina Law Review's symposium on the Roberts Court and Equal Protection, this essay looks at Justice Kennedy's sex discrimination jurisprudence. With the new Court, it's natural to be concerned with how the two new Justices might vote in upcoming sex discrimination cases. However, in this essay, I assume what has been the case so far from Chief Justice Roberts and Justice Alito - that they are reliable votes joining Justices Scalia and Thomas on the Court's (...)
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  38.  27
    On the Philosophy of Unsupervised Learning.David S. Watson - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36 (2):1-26.
    Unsupervised learning algorithms are widely used for many important statistical tasks with numerous applications in science and industry. Yet despite their prevalence, they have attracted remarkably little philosophical scrutiny to date. This stands in stark contrast to supervised and reinforcement learning algorithms, which have been widely studied and critically evaluated, often with an emphasis on ethical concerns. In this article, I analyze three canonical unsupervised learning problems: clustering, abstraction, and generative modeling. I argue that these methods raise unique epistemological and (...)
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  39.  28
    Local Explanations via Necessity and Sufficiency: Unifying Theory and Practice.David S. Watson, Limor Gultchin, Ankur Taly & Luciano Floridi - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (1):185-218.
    Necessity and sufficiency are the building blocks of all successful explanations. Yet despite their importance, these notions have been conceptually underdeveloped and inconsistently applied in explainable artificial intelligence, a fast-growing research area that is so far lacking in firm theoretical foundations. In this article, an expanded version of a paper originally presented at the 37th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, we attempt to fill this gap. Building on work in logic, probability, and causality, we establish the central role of (...)
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  40.  12
    Deductive Logic: An Introduction to Evaluation Technique and Logical Theory.David S. Clarke & Richard Behling - 1973 - Carbondale, IL, USA: Upa.
    Deductive Logic is designed as an intermediate-level text directed at upper-division students from philosophy and the humanities. Its focus is exclusively on deductive logic, avoiding altogether topics such as informal reasoning and scientific method normally included in introductory logic courses. Its exposition of logical topics is informal, with emphasis on explaining the basic concepts and procedures of modern symbolic logic in the simplest and most intuitive manner possible rather than on developing a rigorous formal system and providing proofs of its (...)
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  41.  5
    Rational Acceptance and Purpose: An Outline of a Pragmatic Epistemology.David S. Clarke - 1988 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  42.  33
    Comparative analysis of episodic memory.David S. Olton - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (2):250.
  43.  40
    Critical hermeneutics and american legal interpretation:A search for the meaning of new York times V. Sullivan.David S. Allen - 1999 - Angelaki 4 (1):173 – 188.
    (1999). Critical hermeneutics and American legal interpretation:A search for the meaning of new york times v. sullivan. Angelaki: Vol. 4, Judging the law, pp. 173-188.
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  44.  40
    Professional virtue and the public sphere.David S. Allen - 2008 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (4):320 – 322.
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  45.  55
    Cicero’s De Officiis.David S. Brown - 2002 - Teaching Philosophy 25 (2):151-159.
    The goal of this paper is to increase interest in Cicero’s “De Officiis” as both a textbook and resource for developing curricula at the secondary and post-secondary level. The paper begins by tracing the extensive influence that the work has had in ethics, political philosophy, literature, and education before proceeding to an explanation for why its influence has waned since the nineteenth century. Next, the paper contends that “De Officiis” addresses some of the most relevant and pressing questions in ethics. (...)
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  46.  15
    Cicero’s De Officiis.David S. Brown - 2002 - Teaching Philosophy 25 (2):151-159.
    The goal of this paper is to increase interest in Cicero’s “De Officiis” as both a textbook and resource for developing curricula at the secondary and post-secondary level. The paper begins by tracing the extensive influence that the work has had in ethics, political philosophy, literature, and education before proceeding to an explanation for why its influence has waned since the nineteenth century. Next, the paper contends that “De Officiis” addresses some of the most relevant and pressing questions in ethics. (...)
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  47. Is prime matter energy?David S. Oderberg - 2023 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 101 (3):534-550.
    This paper tests the following hypothesis: that the prime matter of classical Aristotelian-Scholastic metaphysics is numerically identical to energy. Is P=E? After outlining the classical Aristotelian concept of prime matter, I provide the master argument for it based on the phenomenon of substantial change. I then outline what we know about energy as a scientific concept, including its role and application in some key fields. Next, I consider the arguments in favour of prime matter being identical to energy, followed by (...)
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  48. Finality revived: powers and intentionality.David S. Oderberg - 2017 - Synthese 194 (7):2387-2425.
    Proponents of physical intentionality argue that the classic hallmarks of intentionality highlighted by Brentano are also found in purely physical powers. Critics worry that this idea is metaphysically obscure at best, and at worst leads to panpsychism or animism. I examine the debate in detail, finding both confusion and illumination in the physical intentionalist thesis. Analysing a number of the canonical features of intentionality, I show that they all point to one overarching phenomenon of which both the mental and the (...)
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  49.  9
    Placebo control conditions: Tests of theory or of effectiveness?David S. Cordray & Richard R. Bootzin - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):286-287.
  50. Applied Ethics: A Non-Consequentialist Approach.David S. Oderberg - 2000 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Applied Ethics focuses the central concepts of traditional morality from the companion book Moral Theory - rights, justice, the good, virtue, and the fundamental value of human life - on a number of pressing contemporary problems, including abortion, euthanasia, animals, capital punishment, and war.
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