Results for 'Erica Jones'

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  1.  25
    Dynamic Consent: A Potential Solution to Some of the Challenges of Modern Biomedical Research.Isabelle Budin-Ljøsne, Harriet J. A. Teare, Jane Kaye, Stephan Beck, Heidi Beate Bentzen, Luciana Caenazzo, Clive Collett, Flavio D’Abramo, Heike Felzmann, Teresa Finlay, Muhammad Kassim Javaid, Erica Jones, Višnja Katić, Amy Simpson & Deborah Mascalzoni - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):4.
    BackgroundInnovations in technology have contributed to rapid changes in the way that modern biomedical research is carried out. Researchers are increasingly required to endorse adaptive and flexible approaches to accommodate these innovations and comply with ethical, legal and regulatory requirements. This paper explores how Dynamic Consent may provide solutions to address challenges encountered when researchers invite individuals to participate in research and follow them up over time in a continuously changing environment.MethodsAn interdisciplinary workshop jointly organised by the University of Oxford (...)
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  2.  11
    Taxonomizing Views of Clinical Ethics Expertise.Erica K. Salter & Abram Brummett - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (11):50-61.
    Our aim in this article is to bring some clarity to the clinical ethics expertise debate by critiquing and replacing the taxonomy offered by the Core Competencies report. The orienting question for our taxonomy is: Can clinical ethicists offer justified, normative recommendations for active patient cases? Views that answer “no” are characterized as a “negative” view of clinical ethics expertise and are further differentiated based on why they think ethicists cannot give justified normative recommendations and what they think ethicists can (...)
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  3. Laws of Nature, Explanation, and Semantic Circularity.Erica Shumener - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (3):787-815.
    Humeans and anti-Humeans agree that laws of nature should explain scientifically particular matters of fact. One objection to Humean accounts of laws contends that Humean laws cannot explain particular matters of fact because their explanations are harmfully circular. This article distinguishes between metaphysical and semantic characterizations of the circularity and argues for a new semantic version of the circularity objection. The new formulation suggests that Humean explanations are harmfully circular because the content of the sentences being explained is part of (...)
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  4.  74
    XI. Emotion, Weakness of Will, and the Normative Conception of Agency1: Karen Jones.Karen Jones - 2003 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 52:181-200.
    Empirical work on and common observation of the emotions tells us that our emotions sometimes key us to the presence of real and important reason-giving considerations without necessarily presenting that information to us in a way susceptible of conscious articulation and, sometimes, even despite our consciously held and internally justified judgment that the situation contains no such reasons. In this paper, I want to explore the implications of the fact that emotions show varying degrees of integration with our conscious agency—from (...)
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  5.  9
    What Can the Social Sciences Contribute to the Study of Ethics? Theoretical, Empirical and Substanti.Erica Haimes - 2002 - Bioethics 16 (2):89-113.
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  6. Expert Judgment for Climate Change Adaptation.Erica Thompson, Roman Frigg & Casey Helgeson - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):1110-1121.
    Climate change adaptation is largely a local matter, and adaptation planning can benefit from local climate change projections. Such projections are typically generated by accepting climate model outputs in a relatively uncritical way. We argue, based on the IPCC’s treatment of model outputs from the CMIP5 ensemble, that this approach is unwarranted and that subjective expert judgment should play a central role in the provision of local climate change projections intended to support decision-making.
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  7. Machiavelli's Ethics.Erica Benner - 2009 - Princeton University Press.
    Benner, Erica. Machiavelli’s Ethics. Princeton, 2009. 527p bibl index afp; ISBN 9780691141763, $75.00; ISBN 9780691141770 pbk, $35.00.

    Reviewed in CHOICE, April 2010

    This major new study of Machiavelli’s moral and political philosophy by Benner (Yale) argues that most readings of Machiavelli suffer from a failure to appreciate his debt to Greek sources, particularly the Socratic tradition of moral and political philosophy. Benner argues that when read in the light of his Greek sources, Machiavelli appears as much less the immoralist or (...)
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  8. The Virtues of Evidence.Erica Zarkovich & R. E. G. Upshur - 2002 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (4-5):403-412.
    Evidence-based medicine has beendefined as the conscientious and judicious useof current best evidence in making clinicaldecisions. This paper will attempt to explicatethe terms ``conscientious'''' and ``judicious''''within the evidence-based medicine definition.It will be argued that ``conscientious'''' and``judicious'''' represent virtue terms derived fromvirtue ethics and virtue epistemology. Theidentification of explicit virtue components inthe definition and therefore conception ofevidence-based medicine presents an importantstarting point in the connection between virtuetheories and medicine itself. In addition, aunification of virtue theories andevidence-based medicine will illustrate theneed for (...)
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  9.  54
    Deciding for a Child: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Best Interest Standard. [REVIEW]Erica K. Salter - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (3):179-198.
    This article critically examines, and ultimately rejects, the best interest standard as the predominant, go-to ethical and legal standard of decision making for children. After an introduction to the presumption of parental authority, it characterizes and distinguishes six versions of the best interest standard according to two key dimensions related to the types of interests emphasized. Then the article brings three main criticisms against the best interest standard: (1) that it is ill-defined and inconsistently appealed to and applied, (2) that (...)
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  10.  88
    External Validity and Libraries of Phenomena: A Critique of Guala's Methodology of Experimental Economics: Martin K. Jones.Martin K. Jones - 2011 - Economics and Philosophy 27 (3):247-271.
    Francesco Guala has developed some novel and radical ideas on the problem of external validity, a topic that has not received much attention in the experimental economics literature. In this paper I argue that his views on external validity are not justified and the conclusions which he draws from these views, if widely adopted, could substantially undermine the experimental economics enterprise. In rejecting the justification of these views, the paper reaffirms the importance of experiments in economics.
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  11.  36
    What Can the Social Sciences Contribute to the Study of Ethics? Theoretical, Empirical and Substantive Considerations.Erica Haimes - 2002 - Bioethics 16 (2):89–113.
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  12. The Metaphysics of Identity: Is Identity Fundamental?Shumener Erica - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (1):e12397.
    Identity and distinctness facts are ones like “The Eiffel Tower is identical to the Eiffel Tower,” and “The Eiffel Tower is distinct from the Louvre.” This paper concerns one question in the metaphysics of identity: Are identity and distinctness facts metaphysically fundamental or are they nonfundamental? I provide an overview of answers to this question.
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  13.  30
    The Importance of Pleasure in the Moral for Kant's Ethics.Erica A. Holberg - 2016 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (2):226-246.
    I argue for a new reading of Kant's claim that respect is the moral incentive; this reading accommodates the central insights of the affectivist and intellectualist readings of respect, while avoiding shortcomings of each. I show that within Kant's ethical system, the feeling of respect should be understood as paradigmatic of a kind of pleasure, pleasure in the moral. The motivational power of respect arises from its nature as pleasurable feeling, but the feeling does not directly motivate individual dutiful actions. (...)
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  14.  3
    Castes and Trees: Tracing the Link Between European and Mexican Representations of Human Taxonomy.Erica Torrens & Ana Barahona - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    Twenty-two years after Charles Darwin began to think of character divergence from a common ancestor in his Notebook B, the now famous and iconic branching diagram appeared in the fourth chapter of On the Origin of Species.
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  15. Humeans Are Out of This World.Erica Shumener - forthcoming - Synthese.
    I defend the following argument in this paper. Premise 1: Laws of nature are intrinsic to the universe. Premise 2: Humeanism maintains that laws of nature are extrinsic to the universe. Conclusion: Humeanism is false. This argument is inspired by John Hawthorne’s (2004) argument in “Why Humeans are out of their Minds”. My argument differs from his; Hawthorne focuses on Humean views of causation and how they interact with judgments about consciousness. He thinks Humeans are forced to treat certain mental (...)
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  16.  99
    Machines and the Moral Community.Erica L. Neely - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):97-111.
    A key distinction in ethics is between members and nonmembers of the moral community. Over time, our notion of this community has expanded as we have moved from a rationality criterion to a sentience criterion for membership. I argue that a sentience criterion is insufficient to accommodate all members of the moral community; the true underlying criterion can be understood in terms of whether a being has interests. This may be extended to conscious, self-aware machines, as well as to any (...)
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  17.  18
    Authenticity and Corporate Governance.Erica Steckler & Cynthia Clark - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (4):951-963.
    Although personal attributes have gained recognition as an important area of effective corporate governance, scholarship has largely overlooked the value and implications of individual virtue in governance practice. We explore how authenticity—a personal and morally significant virtue—affects the primary monitoring and strategy functions of the board of directors as well as core processes concerning director selection, cultivation, and enactment by the board. While the predominant focus in corporate governance research has been on structural factors that influence firm financial outcomes, this (...)
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  18.  12
    Artifacts and Affordances.Erica Cosentino - forthcoming - Synthese:1-20.
    What are the affordances of artifacts? One view is that the affordances of artifacts, just as the affordances of natural objects, pertain to possible ways in which they can be manipulated. Another view maintains that, given that artifacts are sociocultural objects, their affordances pertain primarily to their culturally-derived function. Whereas some have tried to provide a unifying notion of affordance to capture both aspects, here I argue that they should be kept separate. In this paper, I introduce a distinction between (...)
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  19.  35
    Think-Aloud Protocols and the Selection Task: Evidence for Relevance Effects and Rationalisation Processes.Erica Lucas & Linden Ball - 2005 - Thinking and Reasoning 11 (1):35 – 66.
    Two experiments are reported that employed think-aloud methods to test predictions concerning relevance effects and rationalisation processes derivable from Evans' (1996) heuristic-analytic theory of the selection task. Evans' account proposes that card selections are triggered by relevance-determining heuristics, with analytic processing serving merely to rationalise heuristically cued decisions. As such, selected cards should be associated with more references to both their facing and their hidden sides than rejected cards, which are not subjected to analytic rationalisation. Experiment 1 used a standard (...)
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  20.  73
    Self in Time and Language.Erica Cosentino - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):777-783.
    Time has been considered a crucial factor in distinguishing between two levels of self-awareness: the “core,” or “minimal self,” and the “extended,” or “narrative self.” Herein, I focus on this last concept of the self and, in particular, on the relationship between the narrative self and language. In opposition to the claim that the narrative self is a linguistic construction, my idea is that it is created by the functioning of mental time travel, that is, the faculty of human beings (...)
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  21.  13
    The History of Science and Medicine in the Context of COVID ‐19.Erica Charters & Richard A. McKay - 2020 - Centaurus 62 (2):223-233.
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  22. Pets.Erica Fudge - 2008 - Routledge.
    'When I play with my cat, who knows if I am not a pastime to her more than she is to me?' - Michel de Montaigne. Why do we live with pets? Is there something more to our relationship with them than simply companionship? What is it we look for in our pets and what does this say about us as human beings? In this fascinating book, Erica Fudge explores the nature of this most complex of relationships and the (...)
     
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  23. Communication as Navigation: A New Role for Consciousness in Language.Erica Cosentino & Francesco Ferretti - 2014 - Topoi 33 (1):263-274.
    Classical cognitive science has been characterized by an association with the computational theory of mind. Although this association has produced highly significant results, it has also limited the scope of scientific psychology. In this paper, we analyse the limits of the specific kind of computational model represented by the Chomskian-Fodorian tradition in the study of mind and language. In our opinion, the adhesion to the principle of formality imposed by this specific computational model has motivated the exclusion of consciousness in (...)
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  24. Processing Narrative Coherence: Towards a Top-Down Model of Discourse.Erica Cosentino, Ines Adornetti & Francesco Ferretti - 2013 - Open Access Series in Informatics (OASICS) 32:61-75.
    Models of discourse and narration elaborated within the classical compositional framework have been characterized as bottom-up models, according to which discourse analysis proceeds incrementally, from phrase and sentence local meaning to discourse global meaning. In this paper we will argue against these models. Assuming as a case study the issue of discourse coherence, we suggest that the assessment of coherence is a top-down process, in which the construction of a situational interpretation at the global meaning level guides local meaning analysis. (...)
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  25.  12
    Toddlers Encode Similarities Among Novel Words From Meaningful Sentences.Erica H. Wojcik & Jenny R. Saffran - 2015 - Cognition 138:10-20.
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  26.  12
    Conflating Capacity & Authority: Why We're Asking the Wrong Question in the Adolescent Decision‐Making Debate.Erica K. Salter - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (1):32-41.
    Whether adolescents should be allowed to make their own medical decisions has been a topic of discussion in bioethics for at least two decades now. Are adolescents sufficiently capacitated to make their own medical decisions? Is the mature-minor doctrine, an uncommon legal exception to the rule of parental decision-making authority, something we should expand or eliminate? Bioethicists have dealt with the curious liminality of adolescents—their being neither children nor adults—in a variety of ways. However, recently there has been a trend (...)
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  27.  4
    Academic Integrity Matters: Five Considerations for Addressing Contract Cheating. [REVIEW]Erica J. Morris - 2018 - International Journal for Educational Integrity 14 (1).
    This commentary paper examines the issue of contract cheating in higher education, drawing on research and current debate in the field of academic integrity. Media coverage of this issue has reflected significant concerns in the field about students’ use of custom academic writing services, along with sector and national calls for action that would lead to making such essay mills illegal. However, recent studies have revealed the complex nature of contract cheating, with a relatively low proportion of students engaging in (...)
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  28.  56
    Are There Different Spheres of Conscience?Erica J. Sutton & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):338-343.
  29.  22
    Love as a Regulative Ideal in Surrogate Decision Making.Erica Lucast Stonestreet - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (5):523-542.
    This discussion aims to give a normative theoretical basis for a “best judgment” model of surrogate decision making rooted in a regulative ideal of love. Currently, there are two basic models of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients: the “substituted judgment” model and the “best interests” model. The former draws on the value of autonomy and responds with respect; the latter draws on the value of welfare and responds with beneficence. It can be difficult to determine which of these two (...)
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  30. For Business Ethics.Campbell Jones - 2005 - Routledge.
    Taking a fundamentally critical approach to the subject of business ethics, this book deals with the traditional material of ethics in business, as well as introducing and surveying some of the most interesting developments in critical ethical theory which have not yet been introduced to the mainstream. Including chapters on different philosophical approaches to ethics, this is a highly structured and clearly written textbook, the first book of its kind on this often neglected aspect of business.
     
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  31.  20
    The Time-Course of Sentence Meaning Composition. N400 Effects of the Interaction Between Context-Induced and Lexically Stored Affordances.Erica Cosentino, Giosuè Baggio, Jarmo Kontinen & Markus Werning - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  32.  24
    Why Bad Things Happen to Good Organizations: The Link Between Governance and Asset Diversions in Public Charities.Erica Harris, Christine Petrovits & Michelle H. Yetman - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (1):149-166.
    In the United States, the IRS now requires charities to publicly disclose any significant asset diversion, which is the theft or unauthorized use of assets, that the charity identifies during the year. We use this new disclosure to investigate whether strong governance reduces the likelihood of a charitable asset diversion. Specifically, for a sample of 1528 charities from 2008 to 2012, we simultaneously examine eleven measures of governance that capture four broad governance constructs: board monitoring, independence of key individuals, tone (...)
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  33.  51
    David Jones's Letter to René Hague, 11-12 January 1955.David Jones - 1997 - The Chesterton Review 23 (1/2):103-109.
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  34. Jones, S. (2017) "The Origin of the Faeces: Ten Years of 2Girls1Cup", Porn Studies.Steve Jones - 2017 - Porn Studies 4 (4):473-476.
    On the ten year anniversary of 2Girls1Cup, this article examines the complex balance of shock, pleasure and disgust elicited by this viral video.
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  35. Jones, S. (2018) 'Preserved for Posterity? Present Bias and the Status of Grindhouse Films in the " Home Cinema " Era', Journal of Film and Video, 70:1.Steve Jones - 2018 - Journal of Film and Video 70 (1).
    Despite the closure of virtually all original grindhouse cinemas, ‘grindhouse’ lives on as a conceptual term. This article contends that the prevailing conceptualization of ‘grindhouse’ is problematized by a widening gap between the original grindhouse context (‘past’) and the DVD/home-viewing context (present). Despite fans’ and filmmakers’ desire to preserve this part of exploitation cinema history, the world of the grindhouse is now little more than a blurry set of tall-tales and faded phenomenal experiences, which are subject to present-bias. The continuing (...)
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  36.  40
    Human Agency and the Ideal of Shang Tong in Early Mohist Writings 1.Erica Brindley - 2007 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 34 (3):409-425.
  37.  4
    Sense and Sensibility.Erica Sarah Spatz - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):24-25.
    Volume 20, Issue 5, June 2020, Page 24-25.
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  38.  31
    The Risks of Revolution: Ethical Dilemmas in 3D Printing From a US Perspective.Erica Neely - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (5):1285-1297.
    Additive manufacturing has spread widely over the past decade, especially with the availability of home 3D printers. In the future, many items may be manufactured at home, which raises two ethical issues. First, there are questions of safety. Our current safety regulations depend on centralized manufacturing assumptions; they will be difficult to enforce on this new model of manufacturing. Using current US law as an example, I argue that consumers are not capable of fully assessing all relevant risks and thus (...)
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  39.  41
    Informed Consent and the Misattributed Paternity Problem in Genetic Counseling.Erica K. Lucast - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (1):41–50.
  40.  26
    Kant’s Quasi‐Eudaimonism.Erica A. Holberg - 2018 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 56 (3):317-341.
    In contrast to eudaimonism, Kant argues that moral reasoning and prudential reasoning are two distinct uses of practical reason, each with its own standard for good action. Despite Kant’s commitment to the ineradicable potential for fundamental conflict between these types of practical reasoning, I argue that once we shift to consideration of a developmental narrative of these faculties, we see that virtuous moral reasoning is able to substantively influence prudential reasoning, while prudential reason should be responsive to such influence. Further, (...)
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  41.  42
    Moral Autonomy and Individual Sources of Authority in the Analects.Erica Brindley - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):257-273.
  42.  24
    Necessary Interruption: Traces of the Political in Levinas.Erica Weitzman - 2008 - Theory and Event 11 (2).
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  43.  80
    “Why Use an Ox-Cleaver to Carve a Chicken?” The Sociology of the Junzi Ideal in the Lunyu.Erica Brindley - 2009 - Philosophy East and West 59 (1):pp. 47-70.
    Central to Confucian teachings in the Analects is the ideal of self-cultivation—in particular that of the junzi 君子 (“gentleman” “nobleman”) ideal. At the same time that Confucius recommends that individuals follow such an ideal, he also places limits on who actually might attain it. By examining statements involving such terms as the junzi, the “petty man” ( xiao ren 小人), and the “masses” ( min 民, or zhong 眾), or common people, this essay highlights the sociopolitical and gender restrictions informing (...)
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  44.  22
    Machiavelli's Prince: A New Reading.Erica Benner - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    This book gives a radical, new, chapter-by-chapter reading of Machiavelli's The Prince, arguing that it is an ironic masterpiece with a moral purpose. It outlines Machiavelli's most important ironic techniques: a normatively coded use of language.
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  45.  27
    Perceiving Animals: Humans and Beasts in Early Modern English Culture.Erica Fudge - 1999 - University of Illinois Press.
    When the human understanding of beasts in the past is studied, what are revealed is not only the foundations of our own perception of animals, but humans contemplating their own status. This book argues that what is revealed in a wide range of writing from the early modern period is a recurring attempt to separate the human from the beast. Looking at the representation of the animal in the law, religious writings, literary representation, science and political ideas, what emerges is (...)
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  46.  30
    Music and “Seeking One’s Heart-Mind” in the “Xing Zi Ming Chu”.Erica F. Brindley - 2006 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5 (2):247-255.
  47.  37
    Time, Language and Flexibility of the Mind: The Role of Mental Time Travel in Linguistic Comprehension and Production.Francesco Ferretti & Erica Cosentino - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (1):24-46.
    According to Chomsky, creativity is a critical property of human language, particularly the aspect of ?the creative use of language? concerning the appropriateness to a situation. How language can be creative but appropriate to a situation is an unsolvable mystery from the Chomskyan point of view. We propose that language appropriateness can be explained by considering the role of the human capacity for Mental Time Travel at its foundation, together with social and ecological intelligences within a triadic language-grounding system. Our (...)
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  48.  14
    Uncivilizing “Mental Illness”: Contextualizing Diverse Mental States and Posthuman Emotional Ecologies within The Icarus Project.Erica Hua Fletcher - 2018 - Journal of Medical Humanities 39 (1):29-43.
    This article argues humans should not be defined strictly at their physical boundaries with clear distinctions between anatomical bodies, mental states, and the rest of the world. Rather, diverse mental states, which are often diagnosed as “mental illness,” take shape within greater environmental forces and flows, including those that are constructed online. Drawing from a multi-sited ethnography of The Icarus Project, a radical mental health community, the author situates online narratives written by two of its members within posthuman emotional ecologies (...)
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  49. Racial Cognition and the Ethics of Implicit Bias.Daniel Kelly & Erica Roedder - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (3):522–540.
    We first describe recent empirical research on racial cognition, particularly work on implicit racial biases that suggests they are widespread, that they can coexist with explicitly avowed anti-racist and tolerant attitudes, and that they influence behavior in a variety of subtle but troubling ways. We then consider a cluster of questions that the existence and character of implicit racial biases raise for moral theory. First, is it morally condemnable to harbor an implicit racial bias? Second, ought each of us to (...)
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  50.  2
    The Influence of Initial Beliefs on Judgments of Probability.Erica C. Yu & David A. Lagnado - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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