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  1. added 2018-09-17
    Did Climate Change Cause That?Richard Corry - 2017 - In Kasper Lippert Rasmussen, Kimberley Brownlee & David Coady (eds.), A Companion to Applied Philosophy. Chichester, UK: pp. 469-483.
    Can we attribute individual extreme weather events to human-induced climate change? In this chapter I will be turning a philosophical eye on this question, asking what concept (or concepts) of causation are being employed by scientists and asking which concept of causation is most appropriate. I will show that scientists, politicians, and journalists have made a number of mistakes in their thinking about the causal links between individual extreme events and climate change, and argue that scientists should be less hesitant (...)
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  2. added 2018-06-02
    William Whewell’s Philosophy of Architecture and the Historicization of Biology.Aleta Quinn - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 1 (59):11-19.
    William Whewell’s work on historical science has received some attention from historians and philosophers of science. Whewell’s own work on the history of German Gothic church architecture has been touched on within the context of the history of architecture. To a large extent these discussions have been conducted separately. I argue that Whewell intended his work on Gothic architecture as an attempt to (help) found a science of historical architecture, as an exemplar of historical science. I proceed by analyzing the (...)
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  3. added 2018-05-18
    Using Models to Correct Data: Paleodiversity and the Fossil Record.Alisa Bokulich - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Despite an enormous philosophical literature on models in science, surprisingly little has been written about data models and how they are constructed. In this paper, I examine the case of how paleodiversity data models are constructed from the fossil data. In particular, I show how paleontologists are using various model-based techniques to correct the data. Drawing on this research, I argue for the following related theses: First, the 'purity' of a data model is not a measure of its epistemic reliability. (...)
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  4. added 2018-05-17
    Towards Best Practice Framing of Uncertainty in Scientific Publications: A Review of Water Resources Research Abstracts.Joseph Guillaume, Casey Helgeson, Sondoss Elsawah, Anthony Jakeman & Matti Kummu - 2017 - Water Resources Research 53 (8).
    Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, amongst other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g. uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim —what we call here “framing” the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. 1) It (...)
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  5. added 2018-05-02
    Combining Probability with Qualitative Degree-of-Certainty Metrics in Assessment.Casey Helgeson, Richard Bradley & Brian Hill - 2018 - Climatic Change 149:517-525.
    Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) employ an evolving framework of calibrated language for assessing and communicating degrees of certainty in findings. A persistent challenge for this framework has been ambiguity in the relationship between multiple degree-of-certainty metrics. We aim to clarify the relationship between the likelihood and confidence metrics used in the Fifth Assessment Report (2013), with benefits for mathematical consistency among multiple findings and for usability in downstream modeling and decision analysis. We discuss how our (...)
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  6. added 2018-03-01
    What Does Interdisciplinarity Look Like in Practice: Mapping Interdisciplinarity and its Limits in the Environmental Sciences.Miles MacLeod & Michiru Nagatsu - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 67:74-84.
    In this paper we take a close look at current interdisciplinary modeling practices in the environmental sciences, and suggest that closer attention needs to be paid to the nature of scientific practices when investigating and planning interdisciplinarity. While interdisciplinarity is often portrayed as a medium of novel and transformative methodological work, current modeling strategies in the environmental sciences are conservative, avoiding methodological conflict, while confining interdisciplinary interactions to a relatively small set of pre-existing modeling frameworks and strategies (a process we (...)
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  7. added 2018-02-17
    Assessing Climate Model Projections: State of the Art and Philosophical Reflections.Joel Katzav, Henk A. Dijkstra & A. T. J. de Laat - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 43 (4):258-276.
    The present paper draws on climate science and the philosophy of science in order to evaluate climate-model-based approaches to assessing climate projections. We analyze the difficulties that arise in such assessment and outline criteria of adequacy for approaches to it. In addition, we offer a critical overview of the approaches used in the IPCC working group one fourth report, including the confidence building, Bayesian and likelihood approaches. Finally, we consider approaches that do not feature in the IPCC reports, including three (...)
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  8. added 2018-02-17
    Whewell’s Tidal Researches: Scientific Practice and Philosophical Methodology.Steffen Ducheyne - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):26-40.
    Primarily between 1833 and 1840, William Whewell attempted to accomplish what natural philosophers and scientists since at least Galileo had failed to do: to provide a systematic and broad-ranged study of the tides and to attempt to establish a general scientific theory of tidal phenomena. I document the close interaction between Whewell’s philosophy of science and his scientific practice as a tidologist. I claim that the intertwinement between Whewell’s methodology and his tidology is more fundamental than has hitherto been documented.Keywords: (...)
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  9. added 2018-02-09
    Searching for Noncausal Explanations in a Sea of Causes.Alisa Bokulich - 2018 - In Alexander Reutlinger & Juha Saatsi (eds.), Explanation Beyond Causation Philosophical Perspectives on Non-Causal Explanations. Oxford University Press.
    In the spirit of explanatory pluralism, this chapter argues that causal and noncausal explanations of a phenomenon are compatible, each being useful for bringing out different sorts of insights. After reviewing a model-based account of scientific explanation, which can accommodate causal and noncausal explanations alike, an important core conception of noncausal explanation is identified. This noncausal form of model-based explanation is illustrated using the example of how Earth scientists in a subfield known as aeolian geomorphology are explaining the formation of (...)
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  10. added 2018-01-14
    Technical Advances in Pulsed-Neutron Interpretation for Cased-Hole Logging: Physics, Interpretation, and Log Examples.Larry Jacobson, Venkataraman Jambunathan, Zhipeng Liu & Weijun Guo - 2015 - Interpretation: SEG 3 (1):SA159-SA166.
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  11. added 2017-12-08
    Physics as Theodicy.Don Howard - unknown
    On Saturday, August 26, 1893, thirteen-year-old Edith Low Babson was swimming in her favorite swimming hole on the Annisquam river in her home town of Gloucester, Massachusetts. Though she was a strong swimmer, something went wrong, and she drowned. A tragedy like all such. But this drowning had unusual consequences. Edith’s older brother was Roger W. Babson, who grew up to become one of America’s most prominent businessmen of the early twentieth century. A statistician, prolific author, philanthropist, founder of Babson (...)
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  12. added 2017-11-25
    The Discovery of Cosmic Radiation.Victor Francis Hess - 1940 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 15 (2):225-236.
  13. added 2017-10-28
    The Science of Energy: A Cultural History of Energy Physics in Victorian Britain. Crosbie Smith.Elizabeth Garber - 2001 - Isis 92 (3):615-616.
  14. added 2017-10-24
    Local Skewness Attribute as a Seismic Phase Detector.Sergey Fomel & Mirko van der Baan - 2014 - Interpretation: SEG 2 (1):SA49-SA56.
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  15. added 2017-09-29
    A Mission to the Earth's Core.John Cramer - unknown
    Keywords: geology instrument probe Earth interior crust magma core crack underground nuclear explosion molten iron China Syndrome melting rock Published in the December-2003 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine ; This column was written and submitted 06/22/2003 and is copyrighted ©2003 by John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  16. added 2017-04-03
    The Value of Weather Event Science for Pending UN Climate Policy Decisions.Justin Donhauser - 2017 - Ethics, Policy and Environment (3):263-278.
    This essay furthers debate about the burgeoning science of Probabilistic Event Attribution (PEA) and its relevance to imminent climate policy decisions. It critically examines Allen Thompson and Friederike Otto’s recent arguments concerning the implications of PEA studies for how the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) policy framework should be revised during the 2016 ‘review and decision.’ I show that their contention that PEA studies cannot usefully inform decision-making about adaptation policies and strategies is misguided and argue that (...)
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  17. added 2017-01-27
    Climate Simulations: Uncertain Projections for an Uncertain World.Rafaela Hillerbrand - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (1):17-32.
    Between the fourth and the recent fifth IPCC report, science as well as policy making have made great advances in dealing with uncertainties in global climate models. However, the uncertainties public decision making has to deal with go well beyond what is currently addressed by policy makers and climatologists alike. It is shown in this paper that within an anthropocentric framework, a whole hierarchy of models from various scientific disciplines is needed for political decisions as regards climate change. Via what (...)
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  18. added 2017-01-14
    The Role of Climate Models in Adaptation Decision-Making: The Case of the UK Climate Projections 2009.Liam James Heaphy - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2):233-257.
    When attendant to the agency of models and the general context in which they perform, climate models can be seen as instrumental policy tools that may be evaluated in terms of their adequacy for purpose. In contrast, when analysed independently of their real-world usage for informing decision-making, the tendency can be to prioritise their representative role rather than their instrumental role. This paper takes as a case study the development of the UK Climate Projections 2009 in relation to its probabilistic (...)
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  19. added 2017-01-12
    Building Confidence in Climate Model Projections: An Analysis of Inferences From Fit.Baumberger Christoph, Knutti Reto & Hirsch Hadorn Gertrude - 2017 - Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change:1-20.
    Climate model projections are used to inform policy decisions and constitute a major focus of climate research. Confidence in climate projections relies on the adequacy of climate models for those projections. The question of how to argue for the adequacy of models for climate projections has not gotten sufficient attention in the climate modelling community. The most common way to evaluate a climate model is to assess in a quantitative way degrees of “model fit”; i.e., how well model results fit (...)
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  20. added 2017-01-02
    The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology – Towards an International Information System for Space Data.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 Sept - In Proceedings of The Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies (AMOS) Conference.
    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding (...)
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  21. added 2017-01-02
    Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto & T. S. Kelso - 2016 Feb - In Renato Zanetti, Ryan P. Russell, Martin T. Oximek & Angela L. Bowes (eds.), Proceedings of AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, in Advances in the Astronautical Sciences. Univelt Inc.. pp. 4177-4192.
    Space situational awareness (SSA) is vital for international safety and security, and for the future of space travel. The sharing of SSA data and information should improve the state of global SSA for planetary defense and spaceflight safety. I take steps toward a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Ontology, and outline some central objectives, requirements and desiderata in the ontology development process for this domain. The purpose of this ontological system is to explore the potential for the ontology research topic to (...)
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  22. added 2017-01-02
    The Space Object Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - 2016 1.
    This paper develops the ontology of space objects for theoretical and computational ontology applied to the space (astronautical/astronomical) domain. It follows “An ontological architecture for Orbital Debris Data” (Rovetto, 2015) and “Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology” (Rovetto, Kelso, 2016). Important considerations for developing a space object ontology, or more broadly, a space domain ontology are presented. The main category term ‘Space Object’ is analyzed from a philosophical perspective. The ontological commitments of legal definitions for artificial space objects are (...)
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  23. added 2017-01-02
    Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - In Stefano Borgo, Jean-Rémi Bourguet & Adrien Barton (eds.), CEUR workshop proceedings of The Joint Ontology Workshops, with the 9th International Conference of Formal Ontology for Information Systems (FOIS), Early Career Symposium. CEUR Scientific Workshops.
    A short summary paper of my Orbital Space Domain Ontology project (purl.org/space-ontology), originally conceived in 2011. Since then I've sought (without success) opportunities to realize it (either as a PhD or other degree thesis; or in an employment position) toward my original passion of entering the space sector and gaining further space education. Since then persons in the relevant space disciplines have seen the potential in it, and unfortunately some have taken advantage of my ideas yet excluded me from work. (...)
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  24. added 2017-01-02
    The Essential Role of Human Spaceflight.Robert J. Rovetto - 2013 - Space Policy 29 (4):225-228.
    The question is: should the United States and nations at large pursue a human spaceflight program (and if so, why)? I offer an unwavering positive answer to this question, and state the reasons for it while considering the broad challenges and benefits of (human) spaceflight. Space exploration is a human activity that is intrinsically forward-looking, and as such, has positive potential. Both national and international space programs can galvanize the population, inspire the youth, foster job-creation, and motivate the existing workforce. (...)
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  25. added 2016-12-18
    Philosophy of Science: A Practical Tool for Applied Geologists in the Minerals Industry.J. Vann & M. Stewart - 2012 - .
    For applied geologists working in the minerals industry the tasks of problem formulation, observation and data collection, interpretation and modelling invoke various philosophical considerations whether the practitioner is aware of them or not. A primary goal of applied geologists is to build models that accurately predict reality to an acceptable degree. In this paper, we describe the key philosophical frameworks proposed for conducting scientific investigations and relate them to the field of applied geology. We consider the very important differences in (...)
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  26. added 2016-12-08
    Not Without a Plan: Geography and Natural History in the Late Eighteenth Century.James Larson - 1986 - Journal of the History of Biology 19 (3):447-488.
  27. added 2016-07-12
    Understanding Pluralism in Climate Modeling.W. S. Parker - 2006 - Foundations of Science 11 (4):349-368.
    To study Earth’s climate, scientists now use a variety of computer simulation models. These models disagree in some of their assumptions about the climate system, yet they are used together as complementary resources for investigating future climatic change. This paper examines and defends this use of incompatible models. I argue that climate model pluralism results both from uncertainty concerning how to best represent the climate system and from difficulties faced in evaluating the relative merits of complex models. I describe how (...)
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  28. added 2016-07-12
    Computer Modeling in Climate Science: Experiment, Explanation, Pluralism.Wendy S. Parker - 2003 - Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    Computer simulation modeling is an important part of contemporary scientific practice but has not yet received much attention from philosophers. The present project helps to fill this lacuna in the philosophical literature by addressing three questions that arise in the context of computer simulation of Earth's climate. Computer simulation experimentation commonly is viewed as a suspect methodology, in contrast to the trusted mainstay of material experimentation. Are the results of computer simulation experiments somehow deeply problematic in ways that the results (...)
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  29. added 2016-04-07
    Lightning in a Bottle: Complexity, Chaos, and Computation in Climate Science.Jon Lawhead - 2014 - Dissertation, Columbia University
    Climatology is a paradigmatic complex systems science. Understanding the global climate involves tackling problems in physics, chemistry, economics, and many other disciplines. I argue that complex systems like the global climate are characterized by certain dynamical features that explain how those systems change over time. A complex system's dynamics are shaped by the interaction of many different components operating at many different temporal and spatial scales. Examining the multidisciplinary and holistic methods of climatology can help us better understand the nature (...)
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  30. added 2016-03-18
    Underdetermination, Model-Ensembles and Surprises: On the Epistemology of Scenario-Analysis in Climatology.Gregor Betz - 2009 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (1):3-21.
    As climate policy decisions are decisions under uncertainty, being based on a range of future climate change scenarios, it becomes a crucial question how to set up this scenario range. Failing to comply with the precautionary principle, the scenario methodology widely used in the Third Assessment Report of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) seems to violate international environmental law, in particular a provision of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. To place climate policy advice on a (...)
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  31. added 2016-02-29
    Reference Models: Using Models to Turn Data Into Evidence.Teru Miyake - unknown
    Reference models of the earth’s interior play an important role in the acquisition of knowledge about the earth’s interior and the earth as a whole. Such models are used as a sort of standard reference against which data are compared. I argue that the use of reference models merits more attention than it has gotten so far in the literature on models, for it is an example of a method of doing science that has a long and significant history, and (...)
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  32. added 2016-02-29
    Darcy's Law and Structural Explanation in Hydrology.James R. Hofmann & Paul A. Hofmann - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:23 - 35.
    Darcy's law is a phenomenological relationship for fluid flow rate that finds one of its principle applications in hydrology. Theoretical hydrologists rely upon a multiplicity of conceptual models to carry out approximate derivations of Darcy's law. These derivations provide structural explanations of the law; they require the application of fundamental principles, such as conservation of momentum, to idealized models of the porous media within which the flow occurs. In practice, recognition of the idealized conditions incorporated into models facilitates the empirical (...)
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  33. added 2016-02-18
    Climate Change Assessments: Confidence, Probability and Decision.Richard Bradley, Casey Helgeson & Brian Hill - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (3):500–522.
    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has developed a novel framework for assessing and communicating uncertainty in the findings published in their periodic assessment reports. But how should these uncertainty assessments inform decisions? We take a formal decision-making perspective to investigate how scientific input formulated in the IPCC’s novel framework might inform decisions in a principled way through a normative decision model.
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  34. added 2016-01-04
    Structural Modeling Error and the System Individuation Problem.Jon Lawhead - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Recent work by Frigg et. al. and Mayo-Wilson have called attention to a particular sort of error associated with attempts to model certain complex systems: structural modeling error. The assessment of the degree of SME in a model presupposes agreement between modelers about the best way to individuate natural systems, an agreement which can be more problematic than it appears. This problem, which we dub “the system individuation problem” arises in many of the same contexts as SME, and the two (...)
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  35. added 2015-12-11
    Expert Judgment for Climate Change Adaptation.Erica Thompson, Roman Frigg & Casey Helgeson - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):1110-1121.
    Climate change adaptation is largely a local matter, and adaptation planning can benefit from local climate change projections. Such projections are typically generated by accepting climate model outputs in a relatively uncritical way. We argue, based on the IPCC’s treatment of model outputs from the CMIP5 ensemble, that this approach is unwarranted and that subjective expert judgment should play a central role in the provision of local climate change projections intended to support decision-making.
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  36. added 2015-12-03
    Backend Framework and Software Approach to Compute Earthquake Parameters From Signals Recorded by Seismic Instrumentation System.Raman K. Attri - manuscript
    Computation of seismic parameters and its interpretation from the recorded earthquake signal is empowered by digital data acquisition systems. This enables seismologist to automatically compute all the relevant parameters. Futuristic applications require extensive software development to implement seismic prediction and forecasting models. While developing such models, software developer prefer to write their own in-house analysis & modeling software with complete control over the required computations and models. This paper presents simplified mathematical framework of the seismic events and back-end computational software (...)
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  37. added 2015-12-03
    Implementation of Linear Array of Ultrasonic Transmitter-Receiver Transducers for Detection of Non-Smooth Porous Surface.Raman K. Attri - manuscript
    Level measurements, thickness measurement or remote surface detection using ultrasonic pulse transit method require that the target surface be at 90 O to the incident beam so that reflected beam comes back at 180-degree angle to effectively use this method. This is perfectly true in case of flat, solid surface at right angle to the incident beam. But surface irregularities of a porous, non-smooth, uneven material such as snow cause penetration of incident wave into the surface, absorption of the incident (...)
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  38. added 2015-09-16
    Are Climate Models Credible Worlds? Prospects and Limitations of Possibilistic Climate Prediction.Gregor Betz - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2):191-215.
    Climate models don’t give us probabilistic forecasts. To interpret their results, alternatively, as serious possibilities seems problematic inasmuch as climate models rely on contrary-to-fact assumptions: why should we consider their implications as possible if their assumptions are known to be false? The paper explores a way to address this possibilistic challenge. It introduces the concepts of a perfect and of an imperfect credible world, and discusses whether climate models can be interpreted as imperfect credible worlds. That would allow one to (...)
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  39. added 2015-08-02
    Down to Earth Underdetermination.Gordon Belot - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (2):456-464.
    There are many parts of science in which a certain sort of underdetermination of theory by evidence is known to be common. It is argued that reflection on this fact should serve to shift the burden of proof from scientific anti-realists to scientific realists at a crucial point in the debate between them.
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  40. added 2015-05-31
    Experimentation on Analogue Models.Susan G. Sterrett - manuscript
    Summary Analogue models are actual physical setups used to model something else. They are especially useful when what we wish to investigate is difficult to observe or experiment upon due to size or distance in space or time: for example, if the thing we wish to investigate is too large, too far away, takes place on a time scale that is too long, does not yet exist or has ceased to exist. The range and variety of analogue models is too (...)
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  41. added 2014-12-10
    Teaching Controversies in Earth Science: The Role of History and Philosophy of Science.Glenn Dolphin & Jeff Dodick - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 553-599.
    The state of geoscience education, in terms of numbers of teachers, students taught, and perceived importance, has been lagging behind the other science disciplines for decades. Part of the reason for this is that geology is seen as a “derivative” science as compared to its “experimental” counterparts (for instance, physics and chemistry). However, with current global issues facing the populations of the world (climate change, scarcity of clean water, increasing fossil fuel usage), being geoscience literate is a must. We will (...)
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  42. added 2014-09-06
    Climate Engineering.Gregor Betz - 2013 - In Armin Grunwald (ed.), Handbuch Technikethik. Metzler. pp. 254-257.
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  43. added 2014-09-06
    Chaos, Plurality and Model Metrics in Climate Science.Gregor Betz - 2013 - In Ulrich V. Gähde & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Models, Simulation, and the Reduction of Complexity. de Gruyter. pp. 255-264.
  44. added 2013-11-24
    Craig Martin, Renaissance Meteorology: Pomponazzi to Descartes.Delphine Bellis & Gideon Manning - 2012 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (2):394-398.
  45. added 2013-11-04
    A Possible Origin of Atmospheric Electricity.L. Wåhlin - 1973 - Foundations of Physics 3 (4):459-472.
    A new theory concerning charge separation of atmospheric electricity is proposed, based on the selective capture of negative charge from atmospheric ion pairs by material surfaces. It explains why the earth's surface becomes negatively charged during fine weather, and provides a mechanism for the phenomenon of charge separation within clouds during the violent growth of thunderstorms. Also included is a description of laboratory and field experiments substantiating our views.
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  46. added 2013-10-31
    Charles Lyell Versus the Theory of Central Heat: A Reappraisal of Lyell's Place in the History of Geology.Philip Lawrence - 1978 - Journal of the History of Biology 11 (1):101 - 128.
  47. added 2013-10-16
    Beispiele Für Die Anwendung Und Grenzen Aktualistischer Betrachtungsweise in der Geologie.H. E. Kaiser - 1962 - Acta Biotheoretica 14 (3-4):99-120.
    Nach der Problemumgrenzung werden im zweiten Abschnitt die Möglichkeiten der aktualistischen Methode behandelt. Zuerst werden Beispiele für die Anwendung der Methode auf vorwiegend geologischem Gebiet gebracht, gegliedert in exogene und endogene Vorgänge. Wegen der gleichzeitigen Bedeutung für Geologie und Paläontologie und Biologie schliesst sich eine Besprechung der Biostratonomie an. Der letzte Teil dieses Abschnittes behandelt ausgewählte Beispiele aus der Paläontologie. Der dritte Abschnitt schliesslich behandelt die Grenzen aktualistischer Betrachtungsmethode an Hand typischer Beispiele.The theory of actualism is the most important in (...)
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  48. added 2013-09-23
    Rationality and Irrationality in the History of Continental Drift: Was the Hypothesis of Continental Drift Worthy of Pursuit?Dunja Šešelja & Erik Weber - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):147-159.
  49. added 2013-09-16
    The Whig Interpretation of Geology.Peter J. Bowler - 1988 - Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):99-103.
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  50. added 2013-08-29
    Sonar Technology and Shifts in Environmental Ethics.Christine James - 2005 - Essays in Philosophy 6 (1).
    The history of sonar technology provides a fascinating case study for philosophers of science. During the first and second World Wars, sonar technology was primarily associated with activity on the part of the sonar technicians and researchers. Usually this activity is concerned with creation of sound waves under water, as in the classic “ping and echo”. The last fifteen years have seen a shift toward passive, ambient noise “acoustic daylight imaging” sonar. Along with this shift a new relationship has begun (...)
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