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  1. Proving the Reality of Global Warming.P. Olcott - manuscript
    When we look at 800,000 year ice core data CO2 levels since 1950 have risen at a rate of 123-fold faster than the fastest rate in 800,000 years. When we see that this rise is precisely correlated with global carbon emissions the human link to climate change seems certain and any rebuttal becomes ridiculously implausible. The 800,000 year correlation between CO2 and global temperatures seems to be predicting at least 9 degrees C of more warming based on current CO2 levels.
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  2. Experimentation on Analogue Models.Susan G. Sterrett - 2015
    Summary Analogue models are actual physical setups used to model something else. They are especially useful when what we wish to investigate is difficult to observe or experiment upon due to size or distance in space or time: for example, if the thing we wish to investigate is too large, too far away, takes place on a time scale that is too long, does not yet exist or has ceased to exist. The range and variety of analogue models is too (...)
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  3. Using Models to Correct Data: Paleodiversity and the Fossil Record.Alisa Bokulich - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Despite an enormous philosophical literature on models in science, surprisingly little has been written about data models and how they are constructed. In this paper, I examine the case of how paleodiversity data models are constructed from the fossil data. In particular, I show how paleontologists are using various model-based techniques to correct the data. Drawing on this research, I argue for the following related theses: First, the 'purity' of a data model is not a measure of its epistemic reliability. (...)
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  4. Towards a Taxonomy of the Model-Ladenness of Data.Alisa Bokulich - forthcoming - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association.
    Model-data symbiosis is the view that there is an interdependent and mutually beneficial relationship between data and models, whereby models are not only data-laden, but data are also model-laden or model filtered. In this paper I elaborate and defend the second, more controversial, component of the symbiosis view. In particular, I construct a preliminary taxonomy of the different ways in which theoretical and simulation models are used in the production of data sets. These include data conversion, data correction, data interpolation, (...)
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  5. Structural Modeling Error and the System Individuation Problem.Jon Lawhead - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Recent work by Frigg et. al. and Mayo-Wilson have called attention to a particular sort of error associated with attempts to model certain complex systems: structural modeling error. The assessment of the degree of SME in a model presupposes agreement between modelers about the best way to individuate natural systems, an agreement which can be more problematic than it appears. This problem, which we dub “the system individuation problem” arises in many of the same contexts as SME, and the two (...)
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  6. Dinosaurs and Reasonable Disagreement.Margaret Greta Turnbull - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Research.
    Most philosophical discussions of disagreement have used idealized disagreements to draw conclusions about the nature of disagreement. I closely examine an actual, non-idealized disagreement in dinosaur paleobiology and show that it can not only teach us about the features of some of our real world disagreements, but can help us to argue for the possibility of reasonable real world disagreement.
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  7. The Skeptic and the Climate Change Skeptic.Alex Worsnip - forthcoming - In Michael Hannon & Jeroen de Ridder (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology. Routledge.
    Outside the philosophy classroom, global skeptics – skeptics about all (purported) knowledge of the external world – are rare. But there are people who describe themselves as “skeptics” about various more specific domains, including self-professed “skeptics” about the reality of anthropogenic climate change. There is little to no philosophical literature that juxtaposes the climate change skeptic with the external world skeptic. While many “traditional” epistemologists assume that the external world skeptic poses a serious philosophical challenge in a way that the (...)
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  8. A River Is Not a Pendulum: Sediments of Science in the World of Tides.Debjani Bhattacharyya - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):141-149.
  9. Water and Planetary History. [REVIEW]Lino Camprubí - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):164-167.
  10. Gillen D’Arcy Wood. Land of Wondrous Cold: The Race to Discover Antarctica and Unlock the Secrets of Its Ice. 312 Pp., Figs., Bibl., Index. Princeton, N.J./Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2020. $27.95 (Cloth); ISBN 9780691172200. E-Book and Audiobook Available. [REVIEW]Vanessa Heggie - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):194-195.
  11. Why Simpler Computer Simulation Models Can Be Epistemically Better for Informing Decisions.Casey Helgeson, Vivek Srikrishnan, Klaus Keller & Nancy Tuana - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (2):213-233.
    For computer simulation models to usefully inform climate risk management, uncertainties in model projections must be explored and characterized. Because doing so requires running the model many ti...
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  12. The Science of Shallow Waters: Connecting and Classifying the Early Modern Atlantic.Christopher L. Pastore - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):122-129.
  13. Reflections on the Knowledge of Shallow Waters.Marina Tolmacheva - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):150-153.
  14. Knowing the Littoral: Perception and Representation of Terraqueous Spaces in a Global Perspective.Wilko Graf von Hardenberg - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):108-110.
  15. Making a Stable Sea: The Littorals of Eighteenth-Century Europe and the Origins of a Spatial Concept.Wilko Graf von Hardenberg - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):130-140.
  16. Understanding Scientific Types: Holotypes, Stratotypes, and Measurement Prototypes.Alisa Bokulich - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (5):1-28.
    At the intersection of taxonomy and nomenclature lies the scientific practice of typification. This practice occurs in biology with the use of holotypes (type specimens), in geology with the use of stratotypes, and in metrology with the use of measurement prototypes. In this paper I develop the first general definition of a scientific type and outline a new philosophical theory of types inspired by Pierre Duhem. I use this general framework to resolve the necessity-contingency debate about type specimens in philosophy (...)
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  17. Calibration, Coherence, and Consilience in Radiometric Measures of Geologic Time.Alisa Bokulich - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (3):425-456.
    In 2012, the Geological Time Scale, which sets the temporal framework for studying the timing and tempo of all major geological, biological, and climatic events in Earth’s history, had one-quarter of its boundaries moved in a widespread revision of radiometric dates. The philosophy of metrology helps us understand this episode, and it, in turn, elucidates the notions of calibration, coherence, and consilience. I argue that coherence testing is a distinct activity preceding calibration and consilience, and I highlight the value of (...)
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  18. Philosophical Perspectives on Earth System Modeling: Truth, Adequacy and Understanding.G. Gramelsberger, J. Lenhard & Wendy Parker - 2020 - Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12 (1):e2019MS001720.
    We explore three questions about Earth system modeling that are of both scientific and philosophical interest: What kind of understanding can be gained via complex Earth system models? How can the limits of understanding be bypassed or managed? How should the task of evaluating Earth system models be conceptualized?
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  19. What is Paradoxical About ‘Fermi’s Paradox’?: Review of Milan Ćirković: The Great Silence, Oxford University Press, 2018.Cansu Hepçağlayan, Aja Watkins & Russell Powell - 2020 - Acta Biotheoretica 68 (4):469-477.
    In this review of Milan Ćirković’s The Great Silence: Science and Philosophy of Fermi’s Paradox, we attempt to reconstruct the logic of Fermi’s paradox as understood by the author, and we critically examine the reasoning that leads to the paradox. We show that there is no plausible solution to Fermi’s paradox that can satisfy all of Ćirković’s proposed desiderata, which in turn suggests that the author’s standards for hypothesis adjudication need to be revised.
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  20. Multi-Model Ensembles in Climate Science: Mathematical Structures and Expert Judgements.Julie Jebeile & Michel Crucifix - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 83:44-52.
    Projections of future climate change cannot rely on a single model. It has become common to rely on multiple simulations generated by Multi-Model Ensembles (MMEs), especially to quantify the uncertainty about what would constitute an adequate model structure. But, as Parker points out (2018), one of the remaining philosophically interesting questions is: “How can ensemble studies be designed so that they probe uncertainty in desired ways?” This paper offers two interpretations of what General Circulation Models (GCMs) are and how MMEs (...)
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  21. Understanding Climate Phenomena with Data-Driven Models.Benedikt Knüsel & Christoph Baumberger - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84:46-56.
    In climate science, climate models are one of the main tools for understanding phenomena. Here, we develop a framework to assess the fitness of a climate model for providing understanding. The framework is based on three dimensions: representational accuracy, representational depth, and graspability. We show that this framework does justice to the intuition that classical process-based climate models give understanding of phenomena. While simple climate models are characterized by a larger graspability, state-of-the-art models have a higher representational accuracy and representational (...)
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  22. Understanding and Assessing Uncertainty of Observational Datasets for Model Evaluation Using Ensembles.Marius Zumwald, Benedikt Knüsel, Christoph Baumberger, Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn, David Bresch & Reto Knutti - 2020 - WIREs Climate Change 10:1-19.
    In climate science, observational gridded climate datasets that are based on in situ measurements serve as evidence for scientific claims and they are used to both calibrate and evaluate models. However, datasets only represent selected aspects of the real world, so when they are used for a specific purpose they can be a source of uncertainty. Here, we present a framework for understanding this uncertainty of observational datasets which distinguishes three general sources of uncertainty: (1) uncertainty that arises during the (...)
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  23. Unveiling Thomas Moynihan's Spinal Catastrophism: The Spine Considered as Chronogenetic Media Artifact. [REVIEW]Ekin Erkan - 2019 - Cosmos and History 15 (1):564-571.
    A review of Thomas Moynihan's Spinal Catastrophism: A Secret History (2019).
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  24. Uncertainty Quantification Using Multiple Models - Prospects and Challenges.Reto Knutti, Christoph Baumberger & Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn - 2019 - In Claus Beisbart & Nicole J. Saam (eds.), Computer Simulation Validation: Fundamental Concepts, Methodological Frameworks, and Philosophical Perspectives. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 835-855.
    Model evaluation for long term climate predictions must be done on quantities other than the actual prediction, and a comprehensive uncertainty quantification is impossible. An ad hoc alternative is provided by coordinated model intercomparisons which typically use a “one model one vote” approach. The problem with such an approach is that it treats all models as independent and equally plausible. Reweighting all models of the ensemble for performance and dependence seems like an obvious way to improve on model democracy, yet (...)
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  25. Mineral Misbehavior: Why Mineralogists Don’T Deal in Natural Kinds.Carlos Santana - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (3):333-343.
    Mineral species are, at first glance, an excellent candidate for an ideal set of natural kinds somewhere beyond the periodic table. Mineralogists have a detailed set of rules and formal procedure for ratifying new species, and minerals are a less messy subject matter than biological species, psychological disorders, or even chemicals more broadly—all areas of taxonomy where the status of species as natural kinds has been disputed. After explaining how philosophers have tended to get mineralogy wrong in discussions of natural (...)
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  26. Waiting for the Anthropocene.Carlos Santana - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (4):1073-1096.
    The idea that we are living in the Anthropocene, a new geological epoch defined by human activity, has gained substantial currency across the academy and with the broader public. Within the earth sciences, however, the question of the Anthropocene is hotly debated, recognized as a question that gets at both the foundations of geological science and issues of broad philosophical importance. For example, official recognition of the Anthropocene requires us to find a way to use the methods of historical science (...)
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  27. Searching for Noncausal Explanations in a Sea of Causes.Alisa Bokulich - 2018 - In Alexander Reutlinger & Juha Saatsi (eds.), Explanation Beyond Causation: Philosophical Perspectives on Non-Causal Explanations. Oxford University Press.
    In the spirit of explanatory pluralism, this chapter argues that causal and noncausal explanations of a phenomenon are compatible, each being useful for bringing out different sorts of insights. After reviewing a model-based account of scientific explanation, which can accommodate causal and noncausal explanations alike, an important core conception of noncausal explanation is identified. This noncausal form of model-based explanation is illustrated using the example of how Earth scientists in a subfield known as aeolian geomorphology are explaining the formation of (...)
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  28. Combining Probability with Qualitative Degree-of-Certainty Metrics in Assessment.Casey Helgeson, Richard Bradley & Brian Hill - 2018 - Climatic Change 149:517-525.
    Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) employ an evolving framework of calibrated language for assessing and communicating degrees of certainty in findings. A persistent challenge for this framework has been ambiguity in the relationship between multiple degree-of-certainty metrics. We aim to clarify the relationship between the likelihood and confidence metrics used in the Fifth Assessment Report (2013), with benefits for mathematical consistency among multiple findings and for usability in downstream modeling and decision analysis. We discuss how our (...)
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  29. What Does Interdisciplinarity Look Like in Practice: Mapping Interdisciplinarity and its Limits in the Environmental Sciences.Miles MacLeod & Michiru Nagatsu - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 67:74-84.
    In this paper we take a close look at current interdisciplinary modeling practices in the environmental sciences, and suggest that closer attention needs to be paid to the nature of scientific practices when investigating and planning interdisciplinarity. While interdisciplinarity is often portrayed as a medium of novel and transformative methodological work, current modeling strategies in the environmental sciences are conservative, avoiding methodological conflict, while confining interdisciplinary interactions to a relatively small set of pre-existing modeling frameworks and strategies (a process we (...)
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  30. Scientific Realism and the Earth Sciences.Teru Miyake - 2018 - In Juha Saatsi (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Scientific Realism. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 333-344.
  31. Climate Change Assessments: Confidence, Probability and Decision.Richard Bradley, Casey Helgeson & Brian Hill - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (3):500–522.
    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has developed a novel framework for assessing and communicating uncertainty in the findings published in their periodic assessment reports. But how should these uncertainty assessments inform decisions? We take a formal decision-making perspective to investigate how scientific input formulated in the IPCC’s novel framework might inform decisions in a principled way through a normative decision model.
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  32. Building Confidence in Climate Model Projections: An Analysis of Inferences From Fit.Baumberger Christoph, Knutti Reto & Hirsch Hadorn Gertrude - 2017 - Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change:1-20.
    Climate model projections are used to inform policy decisions and constitute a major focus of climate research. Confidence in climate projections relies on the adequacy of climate models for those projections. The question of how to argue for the adequacy of models for climate projections has not gotten sufficient attention in the climate modelling community. The most common way to evaluate a climate model is to assess in a quantitative way degrees of “model fit”; i.e., how well model results fit (...)
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  33. Did Climate Change Cause That?Richard Corry - 2017 - In Kasper Lippert Rasmussen, Kimberley Brownlee & David Coady (eds.), A Companion to Applied Philosophy. Chichester, UK: pp. 469-483.
    Can we attribute individual extreme weather events to human-induced climate change? In this chapter I will be turning a philosophical eye on this question, asking what concept (or concepts) of causation are being employed by scientists and asking which concept of causation is most appropriate. I will show that scientists, politicians, and journalists have made a number of mistakes in their thinking about the causal links between individual extreme events and climate change, and argue that scientists should be less hesitant (...)
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  34. The Value of Weather Event Science for Pending UN Climate Policy Decisions.Justin Donhauser - 2017 - Ethics, Policy and Environment (3):263-278.
    This essay furthers debate about the burgeoning science of Probabilistic Event Attribution (PEA) and its relevance to imminent climate policy decisions. It critically examines Allen Thompson and Friederike Otto’s recent arguments concerning the implications of PEA studies for how the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) policy framework should be revised during the 2016 ‘review and decision.’ I show that their contention that PEA studies cannot usefully inform decision-making about adaptation policies and strategies is misguided and argue that (...)
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  35. Towards Best Practice Framing of Uncertainty in Scientific Publications: A Review of Water Resources Research Abstracts.Joseph Guillaume, Casey Helgeson, Sondoss Elsawah, Anthony Jakeman & Matti Kummu - 2017 - Water Resources Research 53 (8).
    Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, amongst other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g. uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim —what we call here “framing” the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. 1) It (...)
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  36. Whewell on Classification and Consilience.Aleta Quinn - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 1 (64):65-74.
    In this paper I sketch William Whewell’s attempts to impose order on classificatory mineralogy, which was in Whewell’s day (1794e1866) a confused science of uncertain prospects. Whewell argued that progress was impeded by the crude reductionist assumption that all macroproperties of crystals could be straightforwardly explained by reference to the crystals’ chemical constituents. By comparison with biological classification, Whewell proposed methodological reforms that he claimed would lead to a natural classification of minerals, which in turn would support advances in causal (...)
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  37. The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology – Towards an International Information System for Space Data.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 Sept - In Proceedings of The Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies (AMOS) Conference.
    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding (...)
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  38. Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto & T. S. Kelso - 2016 Feb - In Renato Zanetti, Ryan P. Russell, Martin T. Oximek & Angela L. Bowes (eds.), Proceedings of AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, in Advances in the Astronautical Sciences. Univelt Inc.. pp. 4177-4192.
    Space situational awareness (SSA) is vital for international safety and security, and for the future of space travel. The sharing of SSA data and information should improve the state of global SSA for planetary defense and spaceflight safety. I take steps toward a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Ontology, and outline some central objectives, requirements and desiderata in the ontology development process for this domain. The purpose of this ontological system is to explore the potential for the ontology research topic to (...)
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  39. Role Of Women In Development Of Pakistan: A Case Study of Women Participation in Labour Force in Pakistan.Sadaf Mustafa, M. Sadiq Ali Khan & Ammad Zafar - 2016 - Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 13 (1):221-34.
    This paper highlights the “role of women in development of Pakistan”. Women participation is very vital for the prosperity of economy of Pakistan. Pakistan is a male dominated society despite the fact that its major population consists of women. In Pakistan the women face lots of obstacles when they want to utilize their skills for the growth and development of the country such as religious, political, social and environmental, although education, health and nutrition are the main issues on the top (...)
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  40. William Whewell’s Philosophy of Architecture and the Historicization of Biology.Aleta Quinn - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 1 (59):11-19.
    William Whewell’s work on historical science has received some attention from historians and philosophers of science. Whewell’s own work on the history of German Gothic church architecture has been touched on within the context of the history of architecture. To a large extent these discussions have been conducted separately. I argue that Whewell intended his work on Gothic architecture as an attempt to (help) found a science of historical architecture, as an exemplar of historical science. I proceed by analyzing the (...)
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  41. Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - In Stefano Borgo, Jean-Rémi Bourguet & Adrien Barton (eds.), CEUR workshop proceedings of The Joint Ontology Workshops, with the 9th International Conference of Formal Ontology for Information Systems (FOIS), Early Career Symposium. CEUR Scientific Workshops.
    A short summary paper of my Orbital Space Domain Ontology project (purl.org/space-ontology), originally conceived in 2011. Since then I've sought (without success) opportunities to realize it (either as a PhD or other degree thesis; or in an employment position) toward my original passion of entering the space sector and gaining further space education. Since then persons in the relevant space disciplines have seen the potential in it, and unfortunately some have taken advantage of my ideas yet excluded me from work. (...)
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  42. The Space Object Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - 2016 1.
    This paper develops the ontology of space objects for theoretical and computational ontology applied to the space (astronautical/astronomical) domain. It follows “An ontological architecture for Orbital Debris Data” (Rovetto, 2015) and “Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology” (Rovetto, Kelso, 2016). Important considerations for developing a space object ontology, or more broadly, a space domain ontology are presented. The main category term ‘Space Object’ is analyzed from a philosophical perspective. The ontological commitments of legal definitions for artificial space objects are (...)
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  43. Expert Judgment for Climate Change Adaptation.Erica Thompson, Roman Frigg & Casey Helgeson - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):1110-1121.
    Climate change adaptation is largely a local matter, and adaptation planning can benefit from local climate change projections. Such projections are typically generated by accepting climate model outputs in a relatively uncritical way. We argue, based on the IPCC’s treatment of model outputs from the CMIP5 ensemble, that this approach is unwarranted and that subjective expert judgment should play a central role in the provision of local climate change projections intended to support decision-making.
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  44. Down to Earth Underdetermination.Gordon Belot - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (2):456-464.
    There are many parts of science in which a certain sort of underdetermination of theory by evidence is known to be common. It is argued that reflection on this fact should serve to shift the burden of proof from scientific anti-realists to scientific realists at a crucial point in the debate between them.
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  45. Are Climate Models Credible Worlds? Prospects and Limitations of Possibilistic Climate Prediction.Gregor Betz - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2):191-215.
    Climate models don’t give us probabilistic forecasts. To interpret their results, alternatively, as serious possibilities seems problematic inasmuch as climate models rely on contrary-to-fact assumptions: why should we consider their implications as possible if their assumptions are known to be false? The paper explores a way to address this possibilistic challenge. It introduces the concepts of a perfect and of an imperfect credible world, and discusses whether climate models can be interpreted as imperfect credible worlds. That would allow one to (...)
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  46. The Role of Climate Models in Adaptation Decision-Making: The Case of the UK Climate Projections 2009.Liam James Heaphy - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2):233-257.
    When attendant to the agency of models and the general context in which they perform, climate models can be seen as instrumental policy tools that may be evaluated in terms of their adequacy for purpose. In contrast, when analysed independently of their real-world usage for informing decision-making, the tendency can be to prioritise their representative role rather than their instrumental role. This paper takes as a case study the development of the UK Climate Projections 2009 in relation to its probabilistic (...)
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  47. Technical Advances in Pulsed-Neutron Interpretation for Cased-Hole Logging: Physics, Interpretation, and Log Examples.Larry Jacobson, Venkataraman Jambunathan, Zhipeng Liu & Weijun Guo - 2015 - Interpretation: SEG 3 (1):SA159-SA166.
    Recently developed multidetector pulsed-neutron tools can provide three-phase formation fluid analysis in cased wells. These tools are 43 mm or 54 mm in diameter and can be logged in or below most tubing sizes. We reviewed traditional oil- and water-saturation techniques as well as indirect gas-saturation techniques, and we compared them with recently developed direct gas-saturation techniques, now available from MDPNTs. A log example developed the data verification and interpretation process. The interpretation process was divided into two parts: First, we (...)
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  48. Reference Models: Using Models to Turn Data Into Evidence.Teru Miyake - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):822-832.
    Reference models of the earth’s interior play an important role in the acquisition of knowledge about the earth’s interior and the earth as a whole. Such models are used as a sort of standard reference against which data are compared. I argue that the use of reference models merits more attention than it has gotten so far in the literature on models, for it is an example of a method of doing science that has a long and significant history, and (...)
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  49. Novel Science: Fiction and the Invention of Nineteenth-Century Geology. [REVIEW]Jonathan Smith - 2015 - Annals of Science 72 (2):268-270.
  50. Teaching Controversies in Earth Science: The Role of History and Philosophy of Science.Glenn Dolphin & Jeff Dodick - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 553-599.
    The state of geoscience education, in terms of numbers of teachers, students taught, and perceived importance, has been lagging behind the other science disciplines for decades. Part of the reason for this is that geology is seen as a “derivative” science as compared to its “experimental” counterparts (for instance, physics and chemistry). However, with current global issues facing the populations of the world (climate change, scarcity of clean water, increasing fossil fuel usage), being geoscience literate is a must. We will (...)
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