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  1. Hypotheses, Probability, and Waves.Peter Achinstein - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):73-102.
  2. On the Character of Statistical-Mechanical Probabilities'.D. Albert - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64.
  3. The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and the Approach to Thermodynamic Equilibrium.David Z. Albert - 1994 - Erkenntnis 41 (2):191-206.
  4. The Statistical Nature of Quantum Mechanics.James Albertson - 1962 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 13 (51):229-233.
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  5. What Fitness Can’T Be.André Ariew & Zachary Ernst - 2009 - Erkenntnis 71 (3):289-301.
    Recently advocates of the propensity interpretation of fitness have turned critics. To accommodate examples from the population genetics literature they conclude that fitness is better defined broadly as a family of propensities rather than the propensity to contribute descendants to some future generation. We argue that the propensity theorists have misunderstood the deeper ramifications of the examples they cite. These examples demonstrate why there are factors outside of propensities that determine fitness. We go on to argue for the more general (...)
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  6. Non-Kolmogorovian Approach to the Context-Dependent Systems Breaking the Classical Probability Law.Masanari Asano, Irina Basieva, Andrei Khrennikov, Masanori Ohya & Ichiro Yamato - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (7):895-911.
    There exist several phenomena breaking the classical probability laws. The systems related to such phenomena are context-dependent, so that they are adaptive to other systems. In this paper, we present a new mathematical formalism to compute the joint probability distribution for two event-systems by using concepts of the adaptive dynamics and quantum information theory, e.g., quantum channels and liftings. In physics the basic example of the context-dependent phenomena is the famous double-slit experiment. Recently similar examples have been found in biological (...)
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  7. Prediction and Typicality in Multiverse Cosmology.Feraz Azhar - unknown
    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning (...)
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  8. Probability, Arrow of Time and Decoherence.Guido Bacciagaluppi - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (2):439-456.
    This paper relates both to the metaphysics of probability and to the physics of time asymmetry. Using the formalism of decoherent histories, it investigates whether intuitions about intrinsic time directedness that are often associated with probability can be justified in the context of no-collapse approaches to quantum mechanics. The standard approach to time symmetry in the decoherent histories literature is criticised, and an alternative approach is proposed, based on two decoherence conditions within the one-vector formalism. In turn, considerations of forwards (...)
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  9. Proof of Kolmogorovian Censorship.Gergely Bana & Thomas Durt - 1997 - Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1355-1373.
  10. Ensemble Steering, Weak Self-Duality, and the Structure of Probabilistic Theories.Howard Barnum, Carl Philipp Gaebler & Alexander Wilce - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (12):1411-1427.
    In any probabilistic theory, we say that a bipartite state ω on a composite system AB steers its marginal state ω B if, for any decomposition of ω B as a mixture ω B =∑ i p i β i of states β i on B, there exists an observable {a i } on A such that the conditional states $\omega_{B|a_{i}}$ are exactly the states β i . This is always so for pure bipartite states in quantum mechanics, a fact (...)
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  11. Is That a Fact? Revised Edition: A Field Guide to Statistical and Scientific Information.Mark Battersby - 2013 - Broadview Press.
    We are inundated by scientific and statistical information, but what should we believe? How much should we trust the polls on the latest electoral campaign? When a physician tells us that a diagnosis of cancer is 90% certain or a scientist informs us that recent studies support global warming, what should we conclude? How can we acquire reliable statistical information? Once we have it, how do we evaluate it? Despite the importance of these questions to our lives, many of us (...)
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  12. Is That a Fact?: A Field Guide for Evaluating Statistical and Scientific Information.Mark Battersby - 2009 - Broadview Press.
    We are inundated by scientific and statistical information, but what should we believe? How much should we trust the polls on the latest electoral campaign? When a physician tells us that a diagnosis of cancer is 90% certain or a scientist informs us that recent studies support global warming, what should we conclude? How can we acquire reliable statistical information? Once we have it, how do we evaluate it? Despite the importance of these questions to our lives, many of us (...)
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  13. Probabilistic Modeling in Physics.Claus Beisbart - 2011 - In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press. pp. 143.
  14. Quantum Mechanics and Operational Probability Theory.E. G. Beltrametti & S. Bugajski - 2002 - Foundations of Science 7 (1-2):197-212.
    We discuss a generalization of the standard notion of probability space and show that the emerging framework, to be called operational probability theory, can be considered as underlying quantal theories. The proposed framework makes special reference to the convex structure of states and to a family of observables which is wider than the familiar set of random variables: it appears as an alternative to the known algebraic approach to quantum probability.
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  15. Probability in Physics.Yemima Ben-Menahem & Meir Hemmo (eds.) - 2012 - Springer.
    Emch, G.G., Liu, C.: The Logic of Thermostatistical Physics. Springer, Berlin/ Heidelberg (2002) 11. Frigg, R., Werndl, C.: Entropy – a guide for the perplexed. Forthcoming in: Beisbart, C., Hartmann, S. (eds.) Probabilities in Physics. Oxford  ...
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  16. Statistical Analyses.Glenys Bishop - 2013 - In Katrina Hutchison & Fiona Jenkins (eds.), Women in Philosophy: What Needs to Change? Oup Usa. pp. 253.
  17. Turning Points in Physics.R. J. Blin-Stoyle, D. ter Haar, K. Mendelssohn, G. Temple, F. Waismann & D. H. Wilkinson - 1960 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 11 (42):167-168.
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  18. Probabilistic Thinking, Thermodynamics, and the Interaction of the History and Philosophy of Science: Proceedings of the 1978 Pisa Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science, Volume IIJaakko Hintikka David Gruender Evandro Agazzi.Stephen G. Brush - 1982 - Isis 73 (2):286-287.
  19. Subjective Probability and Quantum Certainty.Carlton M. Caves, Christopher A. Fuchs & Rüdiger Schack - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (2):255-274.
  20. Probability Theory. III. Non-Mechanical Concepts.C. W. Churchman - 1945 - Philosophy of Science 12 (3):165-173.
  21. Three's a Crowd: On Causes, Entropy and Physical Eschatology. [REVIEW]Milan M. Ćirković & Vesna Milošević-Zdjelar - 2004 - Foundations of Science 9 (1):1-24.
    Recent discussions of theorigins of the thermodynamical temporal asymmetry (thearrow of time) by Huw Price and others arecritically assessed. This serves as amotivation for consideration of relationshipbetween thermodynamical and cosmologicalcauses. Although the project of clarificationof the thermodynamical explanandum is certainlywelcome, Price excludes another interestingoption, at least as viable as the sort ofAcausal-Particular approach he favors, andarguably more in the spirit of Boltzmannhimself. Thus, the competition of explanatoryprojects includes three horses, not two. Inaddition, it is the Acausal-Particular approachthat could benefit enormously (...)
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  22. The Mechanical Versus the Statistical Interpretation of Natural Law.Marie T. Collins - 1921 - Philosophical Review 30 (3):255-270.
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  23. A Probabilistic Foundation of Statistical Mechanics.D. Costantini & U. Garibaldi - 1994 - In Dag Prawitz & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Science in Uppsala. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 85--98.
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  24. Probability and Thermodynamics: The Reduction of the Second Law.Edward E. Daub - 1969 - Isis 60 (3):318-330.
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  25. The Special Status of Mathematical Probability: A Historical Sketch.Xavier De Scheemaekere & Ariane Szafarz - 2008 - Epistemologia 32 (1):91.
    The history of the mathematical probability includes two phases: 1) From Pascal and Fermat to Laplace, the theory gained in application fields; 2) In the first half of the 20th Century, two competing axiomatic systems were respectively proposed by von Mises in 1919 and Kolmogorov in 1933. This paper places this historical sketch in the context of the philosophical complexity of the probability concept and explains the resounding success of Kolmogorov’s theory through its ability to avoid direct interpretation. Indeed, unlike (...)
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  26. On Tracks in a Cloud Chamber.G. F. Dell’Antonio - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (1):11-21.
    It is an experimental fact that \ -decays produce in a cloud chamber at most one track and that this track points in a random direction. This seems to contradict the description of decay in Quantum Mechanics: according to Gamow a spherical wave is produced and moves radially according to Schrödinger’s equation. It is as if the interaction with the supersaturated vapor turned the wave into a particle. The aim of this note is to place this effect in the context (...)
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  27. Physical and Philosophical Perspectives on Probability, Explanation and Time (Workshop of the ESF Programme "The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective", Utrecht University, 19–20 October 2009). [REVIEW]Dennis Dieks - 2010 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (2):383 - 388.
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  28. GRW as an Ontology of Dispositions.Mauro Dorato & Michael Esfeld - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (1):41-49.
    The paper argues that the formulation of quantum mechanics proposed by Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber is a serious candidate for being a fundamental physical theory and explores its ontological commitments from this perspective. In particular, we propose to conceive of spatial superpositions of non-massless microsystems as dispositions or powers, more precisely propensities, to generate spontaneous localizations. We set out five reasons for this view, namely that it provides for a clear sense in which quantum systems in entangled states possess properties (...)
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  29. Probability and Relative Frequency.Michael Drieschner - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (1):28-43.
    The concept of probability seems to have been inexplicable since its invention in the seventeenth century. In its use in science, probability is closely related with relative frequency. So the task seems to be interpreting that relation. In this paper, we start with predicted relative frequency and show that its structure is the same as that of probability. I propose to call that the ‘prediction interpretation’ of probability. The consequences of that definition are discussed. The “ladder”-structure of the probability calculus (...)
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  30. Failure and Uses of Jaynes’ Principle of Transformation Groups.Alon Drory - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (4):439-460.
    Bertand’s paradox is a fundamental problem in probability that casts doubt on the applicability of the indifference principle by showing that it may yield contradictory results, depending on the meaning assigned to “randomness”. Jaynes claimed that symmetry requirements solve the paradox by selecting a unique solution to the problem. I show that this is not the case and that every variant obtained from the principle of indifference can also be obtained from Jaynes’ principle of transformation groups. This is because the (...)
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  31. Selected Papers on Epistemology and Physics. [REVIEW]M. M. E. - 1979 - Review of Metaphysics 32 (3):552-553.
  32. Probability.Antony Eagle - 2016 - In Paul Humphreys (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science,. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 417-439.
    Rather than entailing that a particular outcome will occur, many scientific theories only entail that an outcome will occur with a certain probability. Because scientific evidence inevitably falls short of conclusive proof, when choosing between different theories it is standard to make reference to how probable the various options are in light of the evidence. A full understanding of probability in science needs to address both the role of probabilities in theories, or chances, as well as the role of probabilistic (...)
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  33. The Place of Probability in Science.Ellery Eells & James H. Fetzer (eds.) - 2010 - Springer.
    To clarify and illuminate the place of probability in science Ellery Eells and James H. Fetzer have brought together some of the most distinguished philosophers ...
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  34. Complex and Unpredictable Cardano.Artur Ekert - unknown
    At a purely instrumental level, quantum theory is all about multiplication, addition and taking mod squares of complex numbers called probability amplitudes. The rules for combining amplitudes are deceptively simple. When two or more events are independent you multiply their respective probability amplitudes and when they are mutually exclusive you add them. Whenever you want to calculate probabilities you take mod squares of respective amplitudes. That’s it. If you are prepared to ignore the explanatory power of the theory (which you (...)
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  35. Quantum Statistical Physics.Gérard Emch - 2007 - In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman (eds.), Philosophy of Physics. Elsevier. pp. 1075--1182.
  36. Generalized Probabilities in Statistical Theories.Holik Federico, Massri Cesar, Plastino Angel & Sáenz Manuel - unknown
    In this review article we present different formal frameworks for the description of generalized probabilities in statistical theories. We discuss the particular cases of probabilities appearing in classical and quantum mechanics, possible generalizations of the approaches of A. N. Kolmogorov and R. T. Cox to non-commutative models, and the approach to generalized probabilities based on convex sets.
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  37. On Noncontextual, Non-Kolmogorovian Hidden Variable Theories.Benjamin H. Feintzeig & Samuel C. Fletcher - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):294-315.
    One implication of Bell’s theorem is that there cannot in general be hidden variable models for quantum mechanics that both are noncontextual and retain the structure of a classical probability space. Thus, some hidden variable programs aim to retain noncontextuality at the cost of using a generalization of the Kolmogorov probability axioms. We generalize a theorem of Feintzeig to show that such programs are committed to the existence of a finite null cover for some quantum mechanical experiments, i.e., a finite (...)
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  38. Logic, Probability, and Quantum Theory.Arthur I. Fine - 1968 - Philosophy of Science 35 (2):101-111.
    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss a probabilistic framework that is adequate for the formulation of quantum theory and faithful to its applications. Contrary to claims, which are examined and rebutted, that quantum theory employs a nonclassical probability theory based on a nonclassical "logic," the probabilistic framework set out here is entirely classical and the "logic" used is Boolean. The framework consists of a set of states and a set of quantities that are interrelated in a (...)
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  39. Decision Theory and Information Propagation in Quantum Physics.Alan Forrester - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (4):815-831.
  40. The Conceptual Role of 'Temperature'in Statistical Mechanics: Or How Probabilistic Averages Maximize Predictive Accuracy.Malcolm R. Forster, I. A. Kieseppä, Dan Hausman, Alexei Krioukov, Stephen Leeds, Alan Macdonald & Larry Shapiro - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
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  41. Situations Probabilistes Pour N-Univers Goodmaniens.Paul Franceschi - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Research 31:123-141.
    I describe several applications of the theory of n-universes through several different probabilistic situations. I describe fi rst how n-universes can be used as an extension of the probability spaces used in probability theory. The extended probability spaces thus defined allow for a finer modeling of complex probabilistic situations and fi ts more intuitively with our intuitions related to our physical universe. I illustrate then the use of n-universes as a methodological tool, with two thought experiments described by John Leslie. (...)
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  42. What About Foundations of Physics.Hans Freudenthal - 1970 - Synthese 21 (1):93 - 106.
  43. Introduction.Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (2):231-232.
  44. Weak Value, Quasiprobability and Bohmian Mechanics.Kazuki Fukuda, Jaeha Lee & Izumi Tsutsui - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):236-255.
    We clarify the significance of quasiprobability in quantum mechanics that is relevant in describing physical quantities associated with a transition process. Our basic quantity is Aharonov’s weak value, from which the QP can be defined up to a certain ambiguity parameterized by a complex number. Unlike the conventional probability, the QP allows us to treat two noncommuting observables consistently, and this is utilized to embed the QP in Bohmian mechanics such that its equivalence to quantum mechanics becomes more transparent. We (...)
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  45. Open Parallel Cooperative and Competitive Decision Processes: A Potential Provenance for Quantum Probability Decision Models.Ian G. Fuss & Daniel J. Navarro - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):818-843.
    In recent years quantum probability models have been used to explain many aspects of human decision making, and as such quantum models have been considered a viable alternative to Bayesian models based on classical probability. One criticism that is often leveled at both kinds of models is that they lack a clear interpretation in terms of psychological mechanisms. In this paper we discuss the mechanistic underpinnings of a quantum walk model of human decision making and response time. The quantum walk (...)
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  46. The Basis of Indeterminism.Shan Gao - manuscript
  47. Pure Possibilities and Some Striking Scientific Discoveries.Amihud Gilead - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):149-163.
    Regardless or independent of any actuality or actualization and exempt from spatiotemporal and causal conditions, each individual possibility is pure. Actualism excludes the existence of individual pure possibilities, altogether or at least as existing independently of actual reality. In this paper, I demonstrate, on the grounds of my possibilist metaphysics—panenmentalism—how some of the most fascinating scientific discoveries in chemistry could not have been accomplished without relying on pure possibilities and the ways in which they relate to each other . The (...)
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  48. Shechtman's Three Question Marks: Possibility, Impossibility, and Quasicrystals. [REVIEW]Amihud Gilead - 2013 - Foundations of Chemistry 15 (2):209-224.
    The revolutionary discovery of actual quasicrystals, thanks to Dan Shechtman’s stamina, is a golden opportunity to analyze once again the role that pure (“theoretical”) possibilities and saving them plays in scientific progress. Some theoreticians, primarily Alan Mackay, contributed to saving pure possibilities of quasicrystalline structures and to opening materials science for them. My analysis rests upon an original modal metaphysics—panenmentalism—which I introduced and have been developing since 1999, quite independently of any familiarity with modern crystallography, and which deals with saving (...)
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  49. Many Simple Universes or Only a Very Complex One?Luis Girela - 1999 - Theoria 14 (2):331-337.
    Through the mental experiment that I suggest, it is possiblc to demonstrate that Hugh Everett’s quantum interpretation, known as of the “many universes”, is incongruent with the special theory of relativity.
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  50. Instrumental Probability.Clark Glymour - 2001 - The Monist 84 (2):284-300.
    The claims of science and the claims of probability combine in two ways. In one, probability is part of the content of science, as in statistical mechanics and quantum theory and an enormous range of "models" developed in applied statistics. In the other, probability is the tool used to explain and to justify methods of inference from records of observations, as in every science from psychiatry to physics. These intimacies between science and probability are logical sports, for while we think (...)
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