Results for 'Philip M. Scherer'

1000+ found
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  1.  86
    Layoffs and their ethical implications under scientific management, quality management and open-book management.Roland E. Kidwell & Philip M. Scherer - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 29 (1-2):113-124.
    Two major management philosophies of the 20th Century, scientific management and quality management, are often contrasted. Scientific management is seen as a system that focuses on task efficiencies whereas quality management is described as a collaborative, people-centered process approach to continuous improvement. This paper examines the ethical implications of these diverse approaches, particularly in the way information is used to decide which employees to lay off in times of economic difficulty. The paper uses case examples of quality management as teaching (...)
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  2.  65
    Consciousness is a “subjective” state.Philip M. Merikle & Jim Cheesman - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):42-42.
  3.  85
    How Common is Cheating in Online Exams and did it Increase During the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Systematic Review.Philip M. Newton & Keioni Essex - 2024 - Journal of Academic Ethics 22 (2):323-343.
    Academic misconduct is a threat to the validity and reliability of online examinations, and media reports suggest that misconduct spiked dramatically in higher education during the emergency shift to online exams caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reviewed survey research to determine how common it is for university students to admit cheating in online exams, and how and why they do it. We also assessed whether these self-reports of cheating increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, along with an evaluation of (...)
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  4. Habituation: A dual-process theory.Philip M. Groves & Richard F. Thompson - 1970 - Psychological Review 77 (5):419-450.
  5.  53
    Toward a definition of awareness.Philip M. Merikle - 1984 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (5):449-50.
  6.  26
    Spatial selectivity in vision: Field size depends upon noise size.Philip M. Merikle & Nancy J. Gorewich - 1979 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 14 (5):343-346.
  7. Perception without awareness: Perspectives from cognitive psychology.Philip M. Merikle & Daniel Smilek - 2001 - Cognition 79 (1):115-34.
  8. Comparing direct (explicit) to indirect (implicit) measures to study unconscious memory.Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - 1991 - Journal Of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory And Cognition 17 (2):224-233.
  9. Parallels between perception without attention and perception without awareness.Philip M. Merikle & Steve Joordens - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):219-36.
    Do studies of perception without awareness and studies of perception without attention address a similar underlying concept of awareness? To answer this question, we compared qualitative differences in performance across variations in stimulus quality with qualitative differences in performance across variations in the direction of attention . The qualitative differences were based on three different phenomena: Stroop priming, false recognition, and exclusion failure. In all cases, variations in stimulus quality and variations in the direction of attention led to parallel findings. (...)
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  10.  36
    When good evidence goes bad: The weak evidence effect in judgment and decision-making.Philip M. Fernbach, Adam Darlow & Steven A. Sloman - 2011 - Cognition 119 (3):459-467.
  11. Measuring unconscious perceptual processes.Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - 1992 - In R. F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 55-80.
     
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  12.  30
    Unconscious perception revisited.Philip M. Merikle - 1982 - Perception and Psychophysics 31:298-301.
  13.  34
    Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in a Tertiary Care Veterinary Specialty Hospital: Adaptation of the Human Clinical Consultation Committee Model.Philip M. Rosoff, Rachel Ruderman, Jeannine Moga, Bruce Keene, Christopher Adin, Callie Fogle, Heather Hopkinson & Charity Weyhrauch - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (2):7-10.
    Technological advances in veterinary medicine have produced considerable progress in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous diseases in animals. At the same time, veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and owners of animals face increasingly complex situations that raise questions about goals of care and correct or reasonable courses of action. These dilemmas are frequently controversial and can generate conflicts between clients and health care providers. In many ways they resemble the ethical challenges confronted by human medicine and that spawned the creation of (...)
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  14.  40
    Perception without awareness: Critical issues.Philip M. Merikle - 1992 - American Psychologist 47:792-5.
  15.  27
    Don't throw out the Bayes with the bathwater.Philip M. Fernbach & Steven A. Sloman - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):198-199.
    We highlight one way in which Jones & Love (J&L) misconstrue the Bayesian program: Bayesian models do not represent a rejection of mechanism. This mischaracterization obscures the valid criticisms in their article. We conclude that computational-level Bayesian modeling should not be rejected or discouraged a priori, but should be held to the same empirical standards as other models.
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  16.  73
    Measuring the relative magnitude of unconscious influences.Philip M. Merikle, Steve Joordens & Jennifer A. Stolz - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):422-39.
    As an alternative to establishing awareness thresholds, stimulus contexts in which there were either greater conscious or greater unconscious influences were defined on the basis of performance on an exclusion task. Target words were presented for brief durations and each target word was followed immediately by its three-letter stem. Subjects were instructed to complete each stem with any word other than the target word. With this task, failures to exclude target words indicate greater unconscious influences, whereas successful exclusion indicates greater (...)
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  17. Psychological investigations of unconscious perception.Philip M. Merikle & M. Daneman - 1998 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (1):5-18.
    This paper reviews the history of psychological investigations of unconscious perception and summarizes the current status of experimental research in this area of investigation. The research findings described in the paper illustrate how it is possible to distinguish experimentally between conscious and unconscious perception. The most successful experimental strategy has been to show that a stimulus can have qualitatively different consequences on cognitive and affective reactions depending on whether it was consciously or unconsciously perceived. In addition, recent studies of patients (...)
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  18.  91
    Unpredictable Drug Shortages: An Ethical Framework for Short-Term Rationing in Hospitals.Philip M. Rosoff - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (1):1 - 9.
    Periodic and unexpected shortages of drugs, biologics, and even medical devices have become commonplace in the United States. When shortages occur, hospitals and clinics need to decide how to ration their available stock. When such situations arise, institutions can choose from several different allocation schemes, such as first-come, first-served, a lottery, or a more rational and calculated approach. While the first two approaches sound reasonable at first glance, there are a number of problems associated with them, including the inability to (...)
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  19.  26
    A legal approach to tackling contract cheating?Philip M. Newton & Michael J. Draper - 2017 - International Journal for Educational Integrity 13 (1).
    The phenomenon of contract cheating presents, potentially, a serious threat to the quality and standards of Higher Education around the world. There have been suggestions, cited below, to tackle the problem using legal means, but we find that current laws are not fit for this purpose. In this article we present a proposal for a specific new law to target contract cheating, which could be enacted in most jurisdictions.We test our proposed new law against a number of issues that would (...)
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  20.  35
    Licensing Surrogate Decision-Makers.Philip M. Rosoff - 2017 - HEC Forum 29 (2):145-169.
    As medical technology continues to improve, more people will live longer lives with multiple chronic illnesses with increasing cumulative debilitation, including cognitive dysfunction. Combined with the aging of society in most developed countries, an ever-growing number of patients will require surrogate decision-makers. While advance care planning by patients still capable of expressing their preferences about medical interventions and end-of-life care can improve the quality and accuracy of surrogate decisions, this is often not the case, not infrequently leading to demands for (...)
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  21.  79
    The myth of genetic enhancement.Philip M. Rosoff - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (3):163-178.
    The ongoing revolution in molecular genetics has led many to speculate that one day we will be able to change the expression or phenotype of numerous complex traits to improve ourselves in many different ways. The prospect of genetic enhancements has generated heated controversy, with proponents advocating research and implementation, with caution advised for concerns about justice, and critics tending to see the prospect of genetic enhancements as an assault on human freedom and human nature. Both camps base their arguments (...)
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  22.  87
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Irrational Exuberance: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation as Fetish”.Philip M. Rosoff & Lawrence J. Schneiderman - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (2):W1 - W3.
    The Institute of Medicine and the American Heart Association have issued a “call to action” to expand the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Widespread advertising campaigns have been created to encourage more members of the lay public to undergo training in the technique of closed-chest compression-only CPR, based upon extolling the virtues of rapid initiation of resuscitation, untempered by information about the often distressing outcomes, and hailing the “improved” results when nonprofessional bystanders are involved. We (...)
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  23. Causal beliefs influence the perception of temporal order.Philip M. Fernbach, Preston Linson-Gentry & Steven A. Sloman - 2007 - In McNamara D. S. & Trafton J. G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 269--74.
     
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  24.  24
    The Learning Styles Myth is Thriving in Higher Education.Philip M. Newton - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  25. Conscious vs. unconscious perception.Philip M. Merikle & M. Daneman - 2000 - In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences: 2nd Edition. MIT Press.
     
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  26. Measuring unconscious processes.Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - 1992 - In Robert F. Bornstein & Thane S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness: Cognitive, Clinical, and Social Perspectives. Guilford.
     
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  27.  4
    Respecting Patients’ Authority to Make Healthcare Decisions.Philip M. Rosoff - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (11):84-86.
    What characteristics or attributes of a healthcare decision qualify it as acceptable to those who are empowered to judge it as adequate and hence suitable to either proceed (or not) with a recommen...
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  28.  38
    Cognitive shortcuts in causal inference.Philip M. Fernbach & Bob Rehder - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):64 - 88.
    (2013). Cognitive shortcuts in causal inference. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 64-88. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2012.682655.
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  29.  5
    Awakening the Dreamer: Clinical Journeys.Philip M. Bromberg - 2006 - Routledge.
    In _Awakening the Dreamer: Clinical Journeys_, Philip Bromberg continues the illuminating explorations into dissociation and clinical process begun in _Standing in the Spaces_. Bromberg is among our most gifted clinical writers, especially in his unique ability to record peripheral variations in relatedness - those subtle, split-second changes that capture the powerful workings of dissociation and chart the changing self-states that analyst and patient bring to the moment. For Bromberg, a model of mind premised on the centrality of self-states and (...)
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  30. Dynamics of Operational Systems: Markov and Queuing Processes.Philip M. Morse - 1961 - In Russell Lincoln Ackoff (ed.), Progress in Operations Research. New York: Wiley. pp. 1.
     
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  31.  26
    Last Resort and Just War.Philip M. Mouch - 2006 - Public Affairs Quarterly 20 (3):235-246.
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  32. Causal conditional reasoning and conditional likelihood.Philip M. Fernbach & Adam Darlow - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1088--1093.
     
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  33.  33
    Should palliative care be a necessity or a luxury during an overwhelming health catastrophe?Philip M. Rosoff - 2010 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (4):312.
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  34.  12
    The generation and recognition components of encoding specificity.Philip M. Salzberg & James W. Pellegrino - 1974 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 4 (1):9-11.
  35.  69
    Memory for unconsciously perceived events: Evidence from anesthetized patients.Philip M. Merikle & Meredyth Daneman - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):525-541.
    Studies investigating memory for events during anesthesia show a confusing pattern of positive and negative results. To establish whether there are any consistent patterns of findings across studies, we conducted a meta-analysis of the data from 2517 patients in 44 studies. The meta-analysis included two measures of the effects of positive suggestions on postoperative recovery: the duration of postoperative hospitalization and the amount of morphine administered via patient-controlled anesthesia, as well as two measures of memory for specific information presented during (...)
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  36.  21
    Recognition and lexical decision without detection: Unconscious perception?Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - 1990 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 16:574-83.
  37.  65
    John Dewey's aesthetic philosophy.Philip M. Zeltner - 1975 - Amsterdam: Grüner.
    CHAPTER I DEWEY'S CONCEPT OF EXPERIENCE AND NATURE John Dewey, ever the celebrant of experience, did not attempt to write a formal work in aesthetics until ...
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  38.  15
    New Wilderness Boundaries.Philip M. Smith & Richard A. Watson - 1979 - Environmental Ethics 1 (1):61-64.
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  39.  22
    Marriage and the unconscious.Philip M. Bloom - 1957 - The Eugenics Review 49 (3):148.
  40.  9
    The chromosomal signal for sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans.Philip M. Meneely - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (11):945-948.
    In Caenorhabditis elegans, sex is determined by the number of X chromosomes which, in turn, determines the expression of the X‐linked gene xol‐1. Recent work(1) has shown that xol‐1 expression is controlled by least two distinct regulatory mechanisms, one transcriptional and another post‐transcriptional. The transcriptional regulator is a repressor acting in XX embryos; although the specific gene has not been identified, the chromosome region has been defined. A previously defined regulator of xol‐1, known as fox‐1, maps to a different region (...)
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  41.  30
    Conscious and unconscious processes: Same or different?Philip M. Merikle & Jim Cheesman - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):547-548.
  42.  25
    Selective backward masking with an unpredictable mask.Philip M. Merikle - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (3):589.
  43.  16
    Unit size and interpolated-task difficulty as determinants of short-term retention.Philip M. Merikle - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):370.
  44.  61
    An Ethical and Legal Framework for Physicians as Surrogate Decision‐Makers for Their Patients.Philip M. Rosoff & Kelly M. Leong - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):857-877.
    Over the last century, and especially since the publication of the Belmont Report in 1978, respect for persons, as exemplified by respect for autonomous decision-making, has become a central tenet in the practice of medicine. The authority of cognitively competent adults to make their own healthcare decisions is enshrined in both law and practice in most advanced industrialized nations. The right to consent to or to refuse medical interventions is virtually absolute, but is contingent on the provision of materially relevant (...)
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  45. Creating a Broader Political Center for Science and Policy.Philip M. Smith - 2006 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (3):1049-1056.
  46.  8
    William A. Gerhard 1915-1964.Philip M. Kretschmann - 1965 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 39:118 - 119.
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  47. “Divination”: A Way of Knowing?”.Philip M. Peek - forthcoming - African Philosophy.
     
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  48. Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes.J. Cheesman & Philip M. Merikle - 1986 - Canadian Journal of Psychology 40:343-67.
  49.  20
    Host cell–plasmid interactions in the expression of DNA donor activity by F + strains of Escherichia coli K‐12.Philip M. Silverman - 1985 - Bioessays 2 (6):254-259.
    DNA transfer directly from cell to cell (conjugation) is common among prokaryotes, particularly Gram‐negative bacteria like Escherichia coli. The phenomenon invariably requires a set of plasmid genes in the DNA donor cell. In addition, E. coli itself makes limited and specific contributions to the donor activity of strains carrying the conjugative plasmid F. These contributions have yet to be defined biochemically, but it is already clear that the cell envelope is an importan nexus between plasmid‐ and chromosome‐encoded proteins required for (...)
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  50. Priming with and without awareness.J. Cheesman & Philip M. Merikle - 1984 - Perception and Psychophysics 36:387-95.
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