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Philippe Huneman
University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne
  1. Topological Explanations and Robustness in Biological Sciences.Philippe Huneman - 2010 - Synthese 177 (2):213-245.
    This paper argues that besides mechanistic explanations, there is a kind of explanation that relies upon “topological” properties of systems in order to derive the explanandum as a consequence, and which does not consider mechanisms or causal processes. I first investigate topological explanations in the case of ecological research on the stability of ecosystems. Then I contrast them with mechanistic explanations, thereby distinguishing the kind of realization they involve from the realization relations entailed by mechanistic explanations, and explain how both (...)
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  2. From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality.Frédéric Bouchard & Philippe Huneman (eds.) - 2013 - MIT Press.
    Our intuitive assumption that only organisms are the real individuals in the natural world is at odds with developments in cell biology, ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and other fields. Although organisms have served for centuries as nature’s paradigmatic individuals, science suggests that organisms are only one of the many ways in which the natural world could be organized. When living beings work together—as in ant colonies, beehives, and bacteria-metazoan symbiosis—new collective individuals can emerge. In this book, leading scholars consider the (...)
     
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  3.  72
    Diversifying the Picture of Explanations in Biological Sciences: Ways of Combining Topology with Mechanisms.Philippe Huneman - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):115-146.
    Besides mechanistic explanations of phenomena, which have been seriously investigated in the last decade, biology and ecology also include explanations that pinpoint specific mathematical properties as explanatory of the explanandum under focus. Among these structural explanations, one finds topological explanations, and recent science pervasively relies on them. This reliance is especially due to the necessity to model large sets of data with no practical possibility to track the proper activities of all the numerous entities. The paper first defines topological explanations (...)
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  4.  38
    Outlines of a Theory of Structural Explanations.Philippe Huneman - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (3):665-702.
    This paper argues that in some explanations mathematics are playing an explanatory rather than a representational role, and that this feature unifies many types of non-causal or non-mechanistic explanations that some philosophers of science have been recently exploring under various names. After showing how mathematics can play either a representational or an explanatory role by considering two alternative explanations of a same biological pattern—“Bergmann’s rule”—I offer an example of an explanation where the bulk of the explanatory job is done by (...)
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  5.  22
    Individuality as a Theoretical Scheme. II. About the Weak Individuality of Organisms and Ecosystems.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):374-381.
    Following a previous elaboration of the concept of weak individuality and some examples of its instances in ecology and biology, the article focuses on general features of the concept, arguing that in any ontological field individuals are understood on the basis of our knowledge of interactions, through the application of these general formulas for extracting individuals from interactions. Then, the specificities of the individuality in the sense of this weak concept are examined in ecology; I conclude by addressing the differences (...)
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  6.  88
    Natural Selection: A Case for the Counterfactual Approach. [REVIEW]Philippe Huneman - 2012 - Erkenntnis 76 (2):171-194.
    This paper investigates the conception of causation required in order to make sense of natural selection as a causal explanation of changes in traits or allele frequencies. It claims that under a counterfactual account of causation, natural selection is constituted by the causal relevance of traits and alleles to the variation in traits and alleles frequencies. The “statisticalist” view of selection (Walsh, Matthen, Ariew, Lewens) has shown that natural selection is not a cause superadded to the causal interactions between individual (...)
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  7.  20
    Individuality as a Theoretical Scheme. I. Formal and Material Concepts of Individuality.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):361-373.
    Biological individuals are usually defined by evolutionists through a reference to natural selection. This article looks for a concept of individuality that would hold at the same time for organisms and for communities or ecosystems, the latter being unaffected by natural selection. In the wake of Simon’s notion of “quasi-independence,” I elaborate a concept of “weak individuality” defined by probabilistic connections between sub-entities, read off our knowledge of their interactions. This formal scheme of connections allows one to infer what are (...)
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  8.  36
    Inscrutability and the Opacity of Natural Selection and Random Genetic Drift: Distinguishing the Epistemic and Metaphysical Aspects.Philippe Huneman - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (S3):491-518.
    ‘Statisticalists’ argue that the individual interactions of organisms taken together constitute natural selection. On this view, natural selection is an aggregated effect of interactions rather than some added cause acting on populations. The statisticalists’ view entails that natural selection and drift are indistinguishable aggregated effects of interactions, so that it becomes impossible to make a difference between them. The present paper attempts to make sense of the difference between selection and drift, given the main insights of statisticalism; basically, it will (...)
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  9. “Man-Machines and Embodiment: From Cartesian Physiology to Claude Bernard’s ‘Living Machine’”.Charles T. Wolfe & Philippe Huneman - forthcoming - In Justin E. H. Smith (ed.), Embodiment, Oxford Philosophical Concepts. Oxford University Press.
    A common and enduring early modern intuition is that materialists reduce organisms in general and human beings in particular to automata. Wasn’t a famous book of the time entitled L’Homme-Machine? In fact, the machine is employed as an analogy, and there was a specifically materialist form of embodiment, in which the body is not reduced to an inanimate machine, but is conceived as an affective, flesh-and-blood entity. We discuss how mechanist and vitalist models of organism exist in a more complementary (...)
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  10.  17
    Assessing the Prospects for a Return of Organisms in Evolutionary Biology.Philippe Huneman - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2/3).
  11.  65
    Understanding Purpose: Kant and the Philosophy of Biology.Philippe Huneman (ed.) - 2007 - University of Rochester Press.
    A collection of essays investigating key historical and scientific questions relating to the concept of natural purpose in Kant's philosophy of biology.
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  12.  64
    Emergence Made Ontological? Computational Versus Combinatorial Approaches.Philippe Huneman - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):595-607.
    I challenge the usual approach of defining emergence in terms of properties of wholes “emerging” upon properties of parts. This approach indeed fails to meet the requirement of nontriviality, since it renders a bunch of ordinary properties emergent; however, by defining emergence as the incompressibility of a simulation process, we have an objective meaning of emergence because the difference between the processes satisfying the incompressibility criterion and the other processes does not depend on our cognitive abilities. Finally, this definition fulfills (...)
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  13.  86
    Determinism, Predictability and Open-Ended Evolution: Lessons From Computational Emergence.Philippe Huneman - 2012 - Synthese 185 (2):195-214.
    Among many properties distinguishing emergence, such as novelty, irreducibility and unpredictability, computational accounts of emergence in terms of computational incompressibility aim first at making sense of such unpredictability. Those accounts prove to be more objective than usual accounts in terms of levels of mereology, which often face objections of being too epistemic. The present paper defends computational accounts against some objections, and develops what such notions bring to the usual idea of unpredictability. I distinguish the objective unpredictability, compatible with determinism (...)
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  14.  11
    The behavioural ecology of irrational behaviours.Philippe Huneman & Johannes Martens - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39 (3):23.
    Natural selection is often envisaged as the ultimate cause of the apparent rationality exhibited by organisms in their specific habitat. Given the equivalence between selection and rationality as maximizing processes, one would indeed expect organisms to implement rational decision-makers. Yet, many violations of the clauses of rationality have been witnessed in various species such as starlings, hummingbirds, amoebas and honeybees. This paper attempts to interpret such discrepancies between economic rationality and biological rationality. After having distinguished two kinds of rationality we (...)
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  15. Titles, Uses and Instructions of Use: The Status of Intention in Art and Artefacts.Philippe Huneman - 2007 - Facta Philosophica 9 (1):3-21.
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  16.  7
    Organisms as Ecosystems/Ecosystems as Organisms.Minus van Baalen & Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):357-360.
  17.  12
    Naturalising Purpose: From Comparative Anatomy to the ‘Adventure of Reason’.Philippe Huneman - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):649-674.
    Kant’s analysis of the concept of natural purpose in the Critique of judgment captured several features of organisms that he argued warranted making them the objects of a special field of study, in need of a special regulative teleological principle. By showing that organisms have to be conceived as self-organizing wholes, epigenetically built according to the idea of a whole that we must presuppose, Kant accounted for three features of organisms conflated in the biological sciences of the period: adaptation, functionality (...)
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  18.  24
    Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences.Thomas Heams, Philippe Huneman, Guillaume Lecointre & Marc Silberstein (eds.) - 2015 - Springer.
  19.  63
    From the Critique of Judgment to the Hermeneutics of Nature: Sketching the Fate of Philosophy of Nature After Kant. [REVIEW]Philippe Huneman - 2006 - Continental Philosophy Review 39 (1):1-34.
    This paper proposes an interpretative framework for some developments of the philosophy of nature after Kant. I emphasize the critique of the economy of nature in the Critique of judgement. I argue that it resulted in a split of a previous structure of knowledge; such a structure articulated natural theology and natural philosophy on the basis of the consideration of the order displayed by living beings, both in their internal organisation and their ecological distribution. The possibility of a philosophical discourse (...)
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  20.  4
    Essay Review: Exploring the Conceptual Foundations of Post-Hamiltonian Evolutionary Biology—Rationality and Evolution of Social Agents.Philippe Huneman - forthcoming - Acta Biotheoretica.
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  21.  12
    Realizability and the Varieties of Explanation.Philippe Huneman - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 68:37-50.
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  22.  80
    Emergence and Adaptation.Philippe Huneman - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (4):493-520.
    I investigate the relationship between adaptation, as defined in evolutionary theory through natural selection, and the concept of emergence. I argue that there is an essential correlation between the former, and “emergence” defined in the field of algorithmic simulations. I first show that the computational concept of emergence (in terms of incompressible simulation) can be correlated with a causal criterion of emergence (in terms of the specificity of the explanation of global patterns). On this ground, I argue that emergence in (...)
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  23. Reflexive Judgement and Wolffian Embryology: Kant's Shift Between the First and the Third Critique.Philippe Huneman - unknown
    The problem of generation has been, for Kant scholars, a kind of test of Kant's successive concepts of finality. Although he deplores the absence of a naturalistic account of purposiveness (and hence of reproduction) in his pre-critical writings, in the First Critique he nevertheless presents a "reductionist" view of finality in the Transcendental Dialectic's Appendices. This finality can be used only as a language, extended to the whole of nature, but which must be filled with mechanistic explanations. Therefore, in 1781, (...)
     
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  24. Functions: Selection and Mechanisms.Philippe Huneman (ed.) - 2013 - Springer.
  25.  11
    Weak Realism in the Etiological Theory of Functions.Philippe Huneman - 2013 - In Functions: Selection and Mechanisms. Springer. pp. 105--130.
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  26.  12
    Mapping an Expanding Territory: Computer Simulations in Evolutionary Biology.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 36 (1):60-89.
    The pervasive use of computer simulations in the sciences brings novel epistemological issues discussed in the philosophy of science literature since about a decade. Evolutionary biology strongly relies on such simulations, and in relation to it there exists a research program (Artificial Life) that mainly studies simulations themselves. This paper addresses the specificity of computer simulations in evolutionary biology, in the context (described in Sect. 1) of a set of questions about their scope as explanations, the nature of validation processes (...)
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  27. Computer Sciences Meet Evolutionary Biology: Issues in Gradualism.Philippe Huneman - 2012 - In Torres Juan, Pombo Olga, Symons John & Rahman Shahid (eds.), Special sciences and the Unity of Science. Springer.
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  28.  41
    Assessing Statistical Views of Natural Selection: Room for Non-Local Causation?Philippe Huneman - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):604-612.
    Recently some philosophers have emphasized a potentially irreconcilable conceptual antagonism between the statistical characterization of natural selection and the standard scientific discussion of natural selection in terms of forces and causes. Other philosophers have developed an account of the causal character of selectionist statements represented in terms of counterfactuals. I examine the compatibility between such statisticalism and counterfactually based causal accounts of natural selection by distinguishing two distinct statisticalist claims: firstly the suggested impossibility for natural selection to be a cause (...)
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  29.  39
    From the Neutral Theory to a Comprehensive and Multiscale Theory of Ecological Equivalence.François Munoz & Philippe Huneman - unknown
    The neutral theory of biodiversity assumes that coexisting organisms are equally able to survive, reproduce and disperse, but predicts that stochastic fluctuations of these abilities drive diversity dynamics. It predicts remarkably well many biodiversity patterns, although substantial evidence for the role of niche variation across organisms seems contradictory. Here, we discuss this apparent paradox by exploring the meaning and implications of ecological equivalence. We address the question whether neutral theory provides an explanation for biodiversity patterns and acknowledges causal processes. We (...)
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  30. From Groups to Individuals. New Issues in Biological Individuality.Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard - unknown
    Our intuitive assumption that only organisms are the real individuals in the natural world is at odds with developments in cell biology, ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and other fields. Although organisms have served for centuries as nature's paradigmatic individuals, science suggests that organisms are only one of the many ways in which the natural world could be organized. When living beings work together--as in ant colonies, beehives, and bacteria-metazoan symbiosis--new collective individuals can emerge. In this book, leading scholars consider the (...)
     
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  31.  37
    Causal Parity and Externalisms: Extensions in Life and Mind. [REVIEW]Philippe Huneman - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (3):377-404.
    This paper questions the form and prospects of “extended theories” which have been simultaneously and independently advocated both in the philosophy of mind and in the philosophy of biology. It focuses on Extend Mind Theory (EMT) and Developmental Systems Theory (DST). It shows first that the two theories vindicate a parallel extension of received views, the former concerning extending cognition beyond the brain, the latter concerned with extending evolution and development beyond the genes. It also shows that both arguments rely (...)
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  32.  9
    Special Issue Editor’s Introduction: “Revisiting the Modern Synthesis”.Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):509-518.
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  33.  43
    Kant Vs. Leibniz in the Second Antinomy: Organisms Are Not Infinitely Subtle Machines.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Kant-Studien 105 (2):155-195.
    This paper interprets the two pages devoted in the Critique of Pure Reason to a critique of Leibniz’s view of organisms as infinitely organized machines. It argues that this issue of organisms represents a crucial test-case for Kant in regard to the conflicting notions of space, continuity and divisibility held by classical metaphysics and by criticism. I first present Leibniz’s doctrine and its justification. In a second step, I explain the general reasoning by which Kant defines the problem of the (...)
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  34.  37
    Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus.Philippe Huneman - unknown
    This chapter surveys the philosophical problems raised by the two Darwinian claims of the existence of a Tree of a life, and the explanatory power of natural selection. It explores the specificity of explanations by natural selection, emphasizing the high context-dependency of any process of selection. Some consequences are drawn about the difficulty of those explanations to fit a nomological model of explanation, and the irreducibility of their historic-narrative dimension. The paper introduces to the debates about units of selection, stating (...)
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  35.  60
    Dynamical Emergence and Computation: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Philippe Huneman & Paul Humphreys - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (4):425-430.
  36. Kant's Critique Of Leibnizian Theory Of Organisms: An Unnoticed Cornerstone For Criticism?Philippe Huneman - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 4.
  37. Espece Et Adaptation Chez Kant Et Buffon.Philippe Huneman - 2005 - In Jean Ferrari (ed.), Kant Et la France. G. Olms. pp. 107--120.
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  38.  16
    A Pluralist Framework to Address Challenges to the Modern Synthesis in Evolutionary Theory.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (2):163-177.
    This paper uses formal Darwinism as elaborated by Alan Grafen to articulate an explanatory pluralism that casts light upon two strands of controversies running across evolutionary biology, viz., the place of organisms versus genes, and the role of adaptation. Formal Darwinism shows that natural selection can be viewed either physics-style, as a dynamics of alleles, or in the style of economics as an optimizing process. After presenting such pluralism, I argue first that whereas population genetics does not support optimization, optimality (...)
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  39.  8
    The Modern Synthesis: Theoretical or Institutional Event?Jean Gayon & Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):519-535.
    This paper surveys questions about the nature of the Modern Synthesis as a historical event : was it rather theoretical than institutional? When and where did it actually happen? Who was involved? It argues that all answers to these questions are interrelated, and that systematic sets of answers define specific perspectives on the Modern Synthesis that are all complementary.
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  40.  7
    How the Modern Synthesis Came to Ecology.Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):635-686.
    Ecology in principle is tied to evolution, since communities and ecosystems result from evolution and ecological conditions determine fitness values. Yet the two disciplines of evolution and ecology were not unified in the twentieth-century. The architects of the Modern Synthesis, and especially Julian Huxley, constantly pushed for such integration, but the major ideas of the Synthesis—namely, the privileged role of selection and the key role of gene frequencies in evolution—did not directly or immediately translate into ecological science. In this paper (...)
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  41.  11
    The Multifaceted Legacy of the Human Genome Program for Evolutionary Biology: An Epistemological Perspective.Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Perspectives on Science 27 (1):117-152.
    Evolutionary biology, in the sense of the Modern Synthesis, which in the 1930s and 1940s articulated Darwinian natural selection and Mendelian genetics around population and quantitative genetics, is currently undergoing a set of theoretical challenges based on various empirical and conceptual advances. Some authors propose an "Extended Synthesis," which should integrate novel processes and modeling styles within our approach to evolution and adaptation; other authors argue that the new empirical advances in evolutionary biology, such as the acknowledgment of the role (...)
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  42.  12
    Montpellier Vitalism and the Emergence of Alienism in France : The Case of the Passions.Philippe Huneman - 2008 - Science in Context 21 (4):615-647.
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  43.  5
    Revisiting Darwinian Teleology: A Case for Inclusive Fitness as Design Explanation.Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 76:101188.
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  44.  10
    Neutral Spaces and Topological Explanations in Evolutionary Biology: Lessons From Some Landscapes and Mappings.Philippe Huneman - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):969-983.
    I consider recent uses of the notion of neutrality in evolutionary biology and ecology, questioning their relevance to the kind of explanation recently labeled ‘topological explanation’. Focusing on fitness landscapes and genotype-phenotype maps, I explore the explanatory uses of neutral subspaces, as modeled in two perspectives: hyperdimensional fitness landscapes and RNA sequence-structure maps. I argue that topological properties of such spaces account for features of evolutionary systems: respectively, capacity for adaptive evolution toward global optima and mutational robustness of genotypes. Thus (...)
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  45. From the Critique of Judgement to the Hermeneutics of Nature.Philippe Huneman - 2007 - Hegel-Jahrbuch 2007 (1).
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  46.  20
    On Probabilities in Biology and Physics.Joseph Berkovitz & Philippe Huneman - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (S3):433-456.
    This volume focuses on various questions concerning the interpretation of probability and probabilistic reasoning in biology and physics. It is inspired by the idea that philosophers of biology and philosophers of physics who work on the foundations of their disciplines encounter similar questions and problems concerning the role and application of probability, and that interaction between the two communities will be both interesting and fruitful. In this introduction we present the background to the main questions that the volume focuses on (...)
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  47.  5
    Jean Gayon.Philippe Huneman - 2018 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 71 (2):311.
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  48.  12
    Écrire le cas – Pinel aliéniste.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Philosophie 120 (1):67-94.
    Dans cet article, j’entends analyser la spécificité du cas clinique tel qu’il apparaît dans l’aliénisme de Pinel, et la manière dont la structure de son récit éclaire certains aspects de l’institution de la psychiatrie médicale. Le cas clinique est si naturellement vu comme un objet de plein droit médical, qu’il nous semble que le médecin parle de cas comme le botaniste parle de plantes. Rien de plus...
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  49.  9
    Introduction: The Plurality of Modeling.Philippe Huneman & Maël Lemonie - 2014 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 36 (1):5-15.
    Philosophers of science have recently focused on the scientific activity of modeling phenomena, and explicated several of its properties, as well as the activities embedded into it. A first approach to modeling has been elaborated in terms of representing a target system: yet other epistemic functions, such as producing data or detecting phenomena, are at least as relevant. Additional useful distinctions have emerged, such as the one between phenomenological and mechanistic models. In biological sciences, besides mathematical models, models now come (...)
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  50. Possibility, Necessity and Purposiveness: The Metaphysical Novelties in the Critique of Judgement.Philippe Huneman - unknown
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