78 found
Order:
See also
Philippe Huneman
University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne
  1. Topological Explanations and Robustness in Biological Sciences.Philippe Huneman - 2010 - Synthese 177 (2):213-245.
    This paper argues that besides mechanistic explanations, there is a kind of explanation that relies upon “topological” properties of systems in order to derive the explanandum as a consequence, and which does not consider mechanisms or causal processes. I first investigate topological explanations in the case of ecological research on the stability of ecosystems. Then I contrast them with mechanistic explanations, thereby distinguishing the kind of realization they involve from the realization relations entailed by mechanistic explanations, and explain how both (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   73 citations  
  2.  81
    Diversifying the Picture of Explanations in Biological Sciences: Ways of Combining Topology with Mechanisms.Philippe Huneman - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):115-146.
    Besides mechanistic explanations of phenomena, which have been seriously investigated in the last decade, biology and ecology also include explanations that pinpoint specific mathematical properties as explanatory of the explanandum under focus. Among these structural explanations, one finds topological explanations, and recent science pervasively relies on them. This reliance is especially due to the necessity to model large sets of data with no practical possibility to track the proper activities of all the numerous entities. The paper first defines topological explanations (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  3. From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality.Frédéric Bouchard & Philippe Huneman (eds.) - 2013 - MIT Press.
    Our intuitive assumption that only organisms are the real individuals in the natural world is at odds with developments in cell biology, ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and other fields. Although organisms have served for centuries as nature’s paradigmatic individuals, science suggests that organisms are only one of the many ways in which the natural world could be organized. When living beings work together—as in ant colonies, beehives, and bacteria-metazoan symbiosis—new collective individuals can emerge. In this book, leading scholars consider the (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  4.  46
    Outlines of a Theory of Structural Explanations.Philippe Huneman - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (3):665-702.
    This paper argues that in some explanations mathematics are playing an explanatory rather than a representational role, and that this feature unifies many types of non-causal or non-mechanistic explanations that some philosophers of science have been recently exploring under various names. After showing how mathematics can play either a representational or an explanatory role by considering two alternative explanations of a same biological pattern—“Bergmann’s rule”—I offer an example of an explanation where the bulk of the explanatory job is done by (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  5.  25
    Individuality as a Theoretical Scheme. II. About the Weak Individuality of Organisms and Ecosystems.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):374-381.
    Following a previous elaboration of the concept of weak individuality and some examples of its instances in ecology and biology, the article focuses on general features of the concept, arguing that in any ontological field individuals are understood on the basis of our knowledge of interactions, through the application of these general formulas for extracting individuals from interactions. Then, the specificities of the individuality in the sense of this weak concept are examined in ecology; I conclude by addressing the differences (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  6.  89
    Natural Selection: A Case for the Counterfactual Approach. [REVIEW]Philippe Huneman - 2012 - Erkenntnis 76 (2):171-194.
    This paper investigates the conception of causation required in order to make sense of natural selection as a causal explanation of changes in traits or allele frequencies. It claims that under a counterfactual account of causation, natural selection is constituted by the causal relevance of traits and alleles to the variation in traits and alleles frequencies. The “statisticalist” view of selection (Walsh, Matthen, Ariew, Lewens) has shown that natural selection is not a cause superadded to the causal interactions between individual (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  7.  25
    Individuality as a Theoretical Scheme. I. Formal and Material Concepts of Individuality.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):361-373.
    Biological individuals are usually defined by evolutionists through a reference to natural selection. This article looks for a concept of individuality that would hold at the same time for organisms and for communities or ecosystems, the latter being unaffected by natural selection. In the wake of Simon’s notion of “quasi-independence,” I elaborate a concept of “weak individuality” defined by probabilistic connections between sub-entities, read off our knowledge of their interactions. This formal scheme of connections allows one to infer what are (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  8.  67
    Understanding Purpose: Kant and the Philosophy of Biology.Philippe Huneman (ed.) - 2007 - University of Rochester Press.
    A collection of essays investigating key historical and scientific questions relating to the concept of natural purpose in Kant's philosophy of biology.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  9. Functions: Selection and Mechanisms.Philippe Huneman (ed.) - 2013 - Springer.
    This volume handles in various perspectives the concept of function and the nature of functional explanations, topics much discussed since two major and conflicting accounts have been raised by Larry Wright and Robert Cummins’s papers in the 1970s. Here, both Wright’s ”etiological theory of functions’ and Cummins’s ”systemic’ conception of functions are refined and elaborated in the light of current scientific practice, with papers showing how the ”etiological’ theory faces several objections and may in reply be revisited, while its counterpart (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  10.  39
    Inscrutability and the Opacity of Natural Selection and Random Genetic Drift: Distinguishing the Epistemic and Metaphysical Aspects.Philippe Huneman - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (S3):491-518.
    ‘Statisticalists’ argue that the individual interactions of organisms taken together constitute natural selection. On this view, natural selection is an aggregated effect of interactions rather than some added cause acting on populations. The statisticalists’ view entails that natural selection and drift are indistinguishable aggregated effects of interactions, so that it becomes impossible to make a difference between them. The present paper attempts to make sense of the difference between selection and drift, given the main insights of statisticalism; basically, it will (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  11.  18
    Assessing the Prospects for a Return of Organisms in Evolutionary Biology.Philippe Huneman - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2/3).
  12.  15
    Naturalising Purpose: From Comparative Anatomy to the ‘Adventure of Reason’.Philippe Huneman - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):649-674.
    Kant’s analysis of the concept of natural purpose in the Critique of judgment captured several features of organisms that he argued warranted making them the objects of a special field of study, in need of a special regulative teleological principle. By showing that organisms have to be conceived as self-organizing wholes, epigenetically built according to the idea of a whole that we must presuppose, Kant accounted for three features of organisms conflated in the biological sciences of the period: adaptation, functionality (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  13.  15
    Realizability and the Varieties of Explanation.Philippe Huneman - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 68:37-50.
  14.  92
    Determinism, Predictability and Open-Ended Evolution: Lessons From Computational Emergence.Philippe Huneman - 2012 - Synthese 185 (2):195-214.
    Among many properties distinguishing emergence, such as novelty, irreducibility and unpredictability, computational accounts of emergence in terms of computational incompressibility aim first at making sense of such unpredictability. Those accounts prove to be more objective than usual accounts in terms of levels of mereology, which often face objections of being too epistemic. The present paper defends computational accounts against some objections, and develops what such notions bring to the usual idea of unpredictability. I distinguish the objective unpredictability, compatible with determinism (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  15.  64
    Emergence Made Ontological? Computational Versus Combinatorial Approaches.Philippe Huneman - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):595-607.
    I challenge the usual approach of defining emergence in terms of properties of wholes “emerging” upon properties of parts. This approach indeed fails to meet the requirement of nontriviality, since it renders a bunch of ordinary properties emergent; however, by defining emergence as the incompressibility of a simulation process, we have an objective meaning of emergence because the difference between the processes satisfying the incompressibility criterion and the other processes does not depend on our cognitive abilities. Finally, this definition fulfills (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  16.  67
    From the Critique of Judgment to the Hermeneutics of Nature: Sketching the Fate of Philosophy of Nature After Kant. [REVIEW]Philippe Huneman - 2006 - Continental Philosophy Review 39 (1):1-34.
    This paper proposes an interpretative framework for some developments of the philosophy of nature after Kant. I emphasize the critique of the economy of nature in the Critique of judgement. I argue that it resulted in a split of a previous structure of knowledge; such a structure articulated natural theology and natural philosophy on the basis of the consideration of the order displayed by living beings, both in their internal organisation and their ecological distribution. The possibility of a philosophical discourse (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  17.  7
    Organisms as Ecosystems/Ecosystems as Organisms.Minus van Baalen & Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):357-360.
  18.  11
    Special Issue Editor’s Introduction: “Revisiting the Modern Synthesis”.Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):509-518.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  19.  24
    Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences.Thomas Heams, Philippe Huneman, Guillaume Lecointre & Marc Silberstein (eds.) - 2015 - Springer.
  20.  82
    Emergence and Adaptation.Philippe Huneman - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (4):493-520.
    I investigate the relationship between adaptation, as defined in evolutionary theory through natural selection, and the concept of emergence. I argue that there is an essential correlation between the former, and “emergence” defined in the field of algorithmic simulations. I first show that the computational concept of emergence (in terms of incompressible simulation) can be correlated with a causal criterion of emergence (in terms of the specificity of the explanation of global patterns). On this ground, I argue that emergence in (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  21.  11
    Weak Realism in the Etiological Theory of Functions.Philippe Huneman - 2013 - In Functions: Selection and Mechanisms. Springer. pp. 105--130.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  22.  13
    The behavioural ecology of irrational behaviours.Philippe Huneman & Johannes Martens - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39 (3):23.
    Natural selection is often envisaged as the ultimate cause of the apparent rationality exhibited by organisms in their specific habitat. Given the equivalence between selection and rationality as maximizing processes, one would indeed expect organisms to implement rational decision-makers. Yet, many violations of the clauses of rationality have been witnessed in various species such as starlings, hummingbirds, amoebas and honeybees. This paper attempts to interpret such discrepancies between economic rationality and biological rationality. After having distinguished two kinds of rationality we (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  23. From Groups to Individuals. New Issues in Biological Individuality.Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard - unknown
    Our intuitive assumption that only organisms are the real individuals in the natural world is at odds with developments in cell biology, ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and other fields. Although organisms have served for centuries as nature's paradigmatic individuals, science suggests that organisms are only one of the many ways in which the natural world could be organized. When living beings work together--as in ant colonies, beehives, and bacteria-metazoan symbiosis--new collective individuals can emerge. In this book, leading scholars consider the (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  24. Reflexive Judgement and Wolffian Embryology: Kant's Shift Between the First and the Third Critique.Philippe Huneman - unknown
    The problem of generation has been, for Kant scholars, a kind of test of Kant's successive concepts of finality. Although he deplores the absence of a naturalistic account of purposiveness (and hence of reproduction) in his pre-critical writings, in the First Critique he nevertheless presents a "reductionist" view of finality in the Transcendental Dialectic's Appendices. This finality can be used only as a language, extended to the whole of nature, but which must be filled with mechanistic explanations. Therefore, in 1781, (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  25.  47
    Kant Vs. Leibniz in the Second Antinomy: Organisms Are Not Infinitely Subtle Machines.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Kant-Studien 105 (2):155-195.
    This paper interprets the two pages devoted in the Critique of Pure Reason to a critique of Leibniz’s view of organisms as infinitely organized machines. It argues that this issue of organisms represents a crucial test-case for Kant in regard to the conflicting notions of space, continuity and divisibility held by classical metaphysics and by criticism. I first present Leibniz’s doctrine and its justification. In a second step, I explain the general reasoning by which Kant defines the problem of the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  26.  45
    Assessing Statistical Views of Natural Selection: Room for Non-Local Causation?Philippe Huneman - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):604-612.
    Recently some philosophers have emphasized a potentially irreconcilable conceptual antagonism between the statistical characterization of natural selection and the standard scientific discussion of natural selection in terms of forces and causes. Other philosophers have developed an account of the causal character of selectionist statements represented in terms of counterfactuals. I examine the compatibility between such statisticalism and counterfactually based causal accounts of natural selection by distinguishing two distinct statisticalist claims: firstly the suggested impossibility for natural selection to be a cause (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  27.  13
    Mapping an Expanding Territory: Computer Simulations in Evolutionary Biology.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 36 (1):60-89.
    The pervasive use of computer simulations in the sciences brings novel epistemological issues discussed in the philosophy of science literature since about a decade. Evolutionary biology strongly relies on such simulations, and in relation to it there exists a research program (Artificial Life) that mainly studies simulations themselves. This paper addresses the specificity of computer simulations in evolutionary biology, in the context (described in Sect. 1) of a set of questions about their scope as explanations, the nature of validation processes (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  28.  16
    A Pluralist Framework to Address Challenges to the Modern Synthesis in Evolutionary Theory.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (2):163-177.
    This paper uses formal Darwinism as elaborated by Alan Grafen to articulate an explanatory pluralism that casts light upon two strands of controversies running across evolutionary biology, viz., the place of organisms versus genes, and the role of adaptation. Formal Darwinism shows that natural selection can be viewed either physics-style, as a dynamics of alleles, or in the style of economics as an optimizing process. After presenting such pluralism, I argue first that whereas population genetics does not support optimization, optimality (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  29.  38
    Causal Parity and Externalisms: Extensions in Life and Mind. [REVIEW]Philippe Huneman - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (3):377-404.
    This paper questions the form and prospects of “extended theories” which have been simultaneously and independently advocated both in the philosophy of mind and in the philosophy of biology. It focuses on Extend Mind Theory (EMT) and Developmental Systems Theory (DST). It shows first that the two theories vindicate a parallel extension of received views, the former concerning extending cognition beyond the brain, the latter concerned with extending evolution and development beyond the genes. It also shows that both arguments rely (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  30.  62
    Dynamical Emergence and Computation: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Philippe Huneman & Paul Humphreys - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (4):425-430.
  31.  40
    From the Neutral Theory to a Comprehensive and Multiscale Theory of Ecological Equivalence.François Munoz & Philippe Huneman - unknown
    The neutral theory of biodiversity assumes that coexisting organisms are equally able to survive, reproduce and disperse, but predicts that stochastic fluctuations of these abilities drive diversity dynamics. It predicts remarkably well many biodiversity patterns, although substantial evidence for the role of niche variation across organisms seems contradictory. Here, we discuss this apparent paradox by exploring the meaning and implications of ecological equivalence. We address the question whether neutral theory provides an explanation for biodiversity patterns and acknowledges causal processes. We (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  32. Espece Et Adaptation Chez Kant Et Buffon.Philippe Huneman - 2005 - In Jean Ferrari (ed.), Kant Et la France. G. Olms. pp. 107--120.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  33.  5
    Kant’s Concept of Organism Revisited: A Framework for a Possible Synthesis Between Developmentalism and Adaptationism?Philippe Huneman - 2017 - The Monist 100 (3):373-390.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  34.  37
    Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus.Philippe Huneman - unknown
    This chapter surveys the philosophical problems raised by the two Darwinian claims of the existence of a Tree of a life, and the explanatory power of natural selection. It explores the specificity of explanations by natural selection, emphasizing the high context-dependency of any process of selection. Some consequences are drawn about the difficulty of those explanations to fit a nomological model of explanation, and the irreducibility of their historic-narrative dimension. The paper introduces to the debates about units of selection, stating (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  35. Natural Sciences.Philippe Huneman - 2011 - In Alan Woods & Susan Hahn (eds.), Cambridge History of Philosophy in the 19th Century (1790-1870). Cambridge University Press.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  36.  14
    Écrire le cas – Pinel aliéniste.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Philosophie 120 (1):67-94.
    Dans cet article, j’entends analyser la spécificité du cas clinique tel qu’il apparaît dans l’aliénisme de Pinel, et la manière dont la structure de son récit éclaire certains aspects de l’institution de la psychiatrie médicale. Le cas clinique est si naturellement vu comme un objet de plein droit médical, qu’il nous semble que le médecin parle de cas comme le botaniste parle de plantes. Rien de plus...
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  37. Titles, Uses and Instructions of Use: The Status of Intention in Art and Artefacts.Philippe Huneman - 2007 - Facta Philosophica 9 (1):3-21.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  38.  15
    Montpellier Vitalism and the Emergence of Alienism in France : The Case of the Passions.Philippe Huneman - 2008 - Science in Context 21 (4):615-647.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  39.  20
    On Probabilities in Biology and Physics.Joseph Berkovitz & Philippe Huneman - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (S3):433-456.
    This volume focuses on various questions concerning the interpretation of probability and probabilistic reasoning in biology and physics. It is inspired by the idea that philosophers of biology and philosophers of physics who work on the foundations of their disciplines encounter similar questions and problems concerning the role and application of probability, and that interaction between the two communities will be both interesting and fruitful. In this introduction we present the background to the main questions that the volume focuses on (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. Temps de la nature, nature du temps.Christophe Bouton & Philippe Huneman (eds.) - 2018 - CNRS Editions.
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  23
    The Ontology of Organismic Agency: A Kantian Approach.Hugh Desmond & Philippe Huneman - 2020 - In Andrea Altobrando & Pierfrancesco Biasetti (eds.), Natural Born Monads: On the Metaphysics of Organisms and Human Individuals. De Gruyter. pp. 33-64.
    Biologists explain organisms’ behavior not only as having been programmed by genes and shaped by natural selection, but also as the result of an organism’s agency: the capacity to react to environmental changes in goal-driven ways. The use of such ‘agential explanations’ reopens old questions about how justified it is to ascribe agency to entities like bacteria or plants that obviously lack rationality and even a nervous system. Is organismic agency genuinely ‘real’ or is it just a useful fiction? In (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  10
    The Modern Synthesis: Theoretical or Institutional Event?Jean Gayon & Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):519-535.
    This paper surveys questions about the nature of the Modern Synthesis as a historical event : was it rather theoretical than institutional? When and where did it actually happen? Who was involved? It argues that all answers to these questions are interrelated, and that systematic sets of answers define specific perspectives on the Modern Synthesis that are all complementary.
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Adaptation and Multilevel Selection: What Does the Evolutionary Transitions Program Tell Us?Philippe Huneman - unknown
  44.  8
    Adaptations in Transitions: How to Make Sense of Adaptation When.Philippe Huneman - 2013 - In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. MIT Press. pp. 141.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45.  2
    Biodiversity and the Diversities of Life.Philippe Huneman - 2015 - Rivista di Estetica 59:44-62.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  3
    Critique et dialectique.Philippe Huneman - 2002 - Philosophie 75 (4):50.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. Computer Sciences Meet Evolutionary Biology: Issues in Gradualism.Philippe Huneman - 2012 - In Torres Juan, Pombo Olga, Symons John & Rahman Shahid (eds.), Special sciences and the Unity of Science. Springer.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  48.  15
    Computer Science Meets Evolutionary Biology: Pure Possible Processes and the Issue of Gradualism.Philippe Huneman - 2012 - In Torres Juan, Pombo Olga, Symons John & Rahman Shahid (eds.), Special Sciences and the Unity of Science. Springer. pp. 137--162.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49. Ernst Mayr's Major Concepts and Their Fate in the Philosophy of Biology.Philippe Huneman - unknown
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  7
    Essay Review: Exploring the Conceptual Foundations of Post-Hamiltonian Evolutionary Biology—Rationality and Evolution of Social Agents: Samir Okasha. Agents and Goals in Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. 254p. $40. Jonathan Birch. The Philosophy of Social Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. 266p. $19,74.Philippe Huneman - 2020 - Acta Biotheoretica 68 (4):453-467.
    Evolutionary theorists often talk as if natural selection were choosing the most adapted traits, or if organisms were deciding to do the most adaptive strategy. Moreover, the payoff of those decisions often depend on what others are doing, and since Hamilton, biologists possess conceptual tools such as kin selection and inclusive fitness to make sense of outcomes of evolution in these contexts, even when they seem unadaptive. The link between selection and adaptation through which selection or organisms can be seen (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 78