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Summary

Developmental Biology is the study of organisms’ life cycles from single cell to complex reproducing and aging multi-cellular organisms. It endeavours to explain phenomena such as: cellular differentiation (e.g. neurons vs. liver cells) and cellular aging, the development of gross morphology and anatomical structures (e.g. body shape and organs -eyes and limbs-), and the development of an organism as an integrated part of an eco-system (e.g. phenotypic plasticity). The philosophically relevant points, in addition to broader philosophy of science inquiries (e.g. confirmation and explanation) are those that have to do with the ontological status of biological kinds and with inter-level relations, specifically the integration of developmental biology with evolutionary biology and to a lesser extent, with ecology. Keeping this is in mind the subcategories within Developmental Biology can be grouped into three main themes: Evolution, Ecology and Ontology.    

Evolution

(Evolutionary-Developmental Biology, Developmental Constraints and Process Structuralism)

Ecology 

(Ecological Developmental Biology, Epigenetic Inheritance, Nature vs. Nurture and Innateness) 

and 

Ontology 

(Developmental Modularity, Developmental System Theory and Process Structuralism).

Key works Key works will be arranged by sub-category and cited there.
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  1. Het laatste woord is niet gezegd: de moderne synthese voorbij.Nathalie Gontier - 2005 - In I. Tallon (ed.), Evolutie vandaag: hoe de dingen ontstaan en waarom ze veranderen. pp. 57-84.
  2. Evolutionary Epistemology and the Origin and Evolution of Language: Taking Symbiogenesis Seriously.Nathalie Gontier - 2006 - In Nathalie Gontier, Jean Paul Van Bendegem & Diederik Aerts (eds.), Evolutionary Epistemology, Language and Culture: A Non-Adaptationist Systems Theoretical Approach. pp. 195-226.
  3. Introduction to Evolutionary Epistemology, Language and Culture.Nathalie Gontier - 2006 - In Nathalie Gontier, Jean Paul Van Bendegem & Diederik Aerts (eds.), Evolutionary Epistemology, Language and Culture: A Non-Adaptationist Systems Theoretical Approach. pp. 1-29.
  4. Studying Language Evolution: From Ethology and Comparative Zoology to Social Primatology and Evolutionary Psychology.Nathalie Gontier & Marco Pina - 2014 - In Marco Pina & Nathalie Gontier (eds.), The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach. pp. 1-30.
  5. Genes, Brains, and Language: Would Someone Please Pull the Brakes?Nathalie Gontier - 2008 - Review of General Psychology 2 (12):170-180.
  6. Life, Local Constraints and Meaning Generation. An Evolutionary Approach to Cognition (2015).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    The relations between life and cogntion have been addressed through different perspectives [Stewart 1996, Boden 2001, Bourgine and Stewart 2004, van Duijn & all 2006, Di Paolo 2009]. We would like here to address that subject by relating life to cognition through a process of meaning generation. Life emerged on earth as a far from thermodynamic equilibrium performance that had to maintain herself. Life is charactertized by a ‘stay alive’ constraint that has to be satisfied (such constraint can be included (...)
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  7. From Obesity to Energy Metabolism: Ontological Perspectives on the Metrics of Human Bodies.Davide Serpico & Andrea Borghini - 2020 - Topoi:1-10.
    In this paper, we aim at rethinking the concept of obesity in a way that better captures the connection between underlying medical aspects, on the one hand, and an individual’s developmental history, on the other. Our proposal rests on the idea that obesity is not to be understood as a phenotypic trait or character; rather, obesity represents one of the many possible states of a more complex phenotypic trait that we call ‘energy metabolism.’ We argue that this apparently simple conceptual (...)
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  8. Peer Competition and Cooperation.Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera - 2018 - In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Basel:
    Peer competition and peer cooperation can be intuitively seen as opposing phenomena. However, depending on multiple factors, they might be complementary. In a population divided into groups, for instance, members of each group may cooperate with their peers in order to compete with neighboring groups. Alternatively, they may compete with their peers as a means of choosing the best cooperative partners and demonstrate that they are reliable cooperative partners. For instance, if subjects can choose with whom they wish to interact, (...)
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  9. Psychic Unity.Marta Facoetti & Nathalie Gontier - 2020 - Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science.
    Synonyms Cognitive universals; Human nature; Human universals Definition The “psychic unity” idea denotes the existence of a set of psychological and cognitive capacities universally shared by human beings and grounded in biological equality.
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  10. Beyond Quantitative and Qualitative Traits: Three Telling Cases in the Life Sciences.Davide Serpico - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (3):1-26.
    This paper challenges the common assumption that some phenotypic traits are quantitative while others are qualitative. The distinction between these two kinds of traits is widely influential in biological and biomedical research as well as in scientific education and communication. This is probably due to both historical and epistemological reasons. However, the quantitative/qualitative distinction involves a variety of simplifications on the genetic causes of phenotypic variability and on the development of complex traits. Here, I examine three cases from the life (...)
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  11. Developmental Biology as a Science of Dependent Co-Origination.Scott Gilbert - manuscript
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  12. Is the Neo-Aristotelian Concept of Organism Presupposed in Biology?Parisa Moosavi - 2020 - In Martin Hähnel (ed.), Aristotelian Naturalism: A Research Companion. Springer.
    According to neo-Aristotelian ethical naturalism, moral goodness is an instance of natural goodness, a kind of normativity supposedly already present in nature in the biological realm of non-human living things. Proponents of this view appeal to Michael Thompson’s conception of a life-form--the form of a living organism--to give an account of natural goodness. However, although neo-Aristotelians call themselves naturalists, they hardly ever consult the science of biology to defend their commitments regarding biological organisms. This has led many critics to argue (...)
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  13. Civilizational Structure of Regional Integration Organizations.Sergii Sardak & Y. Prysiazhniuk S. Sardak, S. Radziyevska - 2019 - Przegląd Strategiczny 12:59-79.
    The paper advances a new comprehensive complex approach to the investigation of the civilizational aspects in the development of regional associations of countries. The research starts with the overview of historical dimensions of the civilizational approach and the contribution of the founding scholars to its development. It continues with the analysis of the scientific and methodological input of the followers and the critics of this approach. The authors suggest their theoretical approach to the identification of the modern local civilizations according (...)
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  14. Levels of Organization in the Biological Sciences.Daniel Stephen Brooks, James DiFrisco & William C. Wimsatt (eds.) - forthcoming - MIT Press.
    The subject of this edited volume is the idea of levels of organization: roughly, the idea that the natural world is segregated into part-whole relationships of increasing spatiotemporal scale and complexity. The book comprises a collection of essays that raise the idea of levels into its own topic of analysis. Owing to the wide prominence of the idea of levels, the scope of the volume is aimed at theoreticians, philosophers, and practicing researchers of all stripes in the life sciences. The (...)
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  15. The Machine Conception of the Organism in Development and Evolution: A Critical Analysis.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:162-174.
    This article critically examines one of the most prevalent metaphors in modern biology, namely the machine conception of the organism (MCO). Although the fundamental differences between organisms and machines make the MCO an inadequate metaphor for conceptualizing living systems, many biologists and philosophers continue to draw upon the MCO or tacitly accept it as the standard model of the organism. This paper analyses the specific difficulties that arise when the MCO is invoked in the study of development and evolution. In (...)
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  16. Control by Viability in a Chemotherapy Cancer Model.M. Serhani, H. Essaadi, K. Kassara & A. Boutoulout - 2019 - Acta Biotheoretica 67 (3):177-200.
    The aim of this study is to provide a feedback control, called the Chemotherapy Protocol Law, with the purpose to keep the density of tumor cells that are treated by chemotherapy below a “tolerance level” L_c, while retaining the density of normal cells above a “healthy level” N_c. The mathematical model is a controlled dynamical system involving three nonlinear differential equations, based on a Gompertzian law of cell growth. By evoking viability and set-valued theories, we derive sufficient conditions for the (...)
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  17. Beeing & Time: Kiss of Chemoreception & the Bug in Dasein's Mouth.Virgil W. Brower - 2014 - In Laurence Talairach-Vielmas & Marie Bouchet (eds.), Insects in Literature & the Arts. Brussels, Belgium: pp. 197-217.
    "Brower explores the way philosophers were inspired by entomological social systems and communication to reflect on human psyche, social behavior, community organization, communication, and inter-individual relationships. His essay rehearses the swarms of insects embedded in contemporary philosophy and literary theory, not only showing how many of the major concepts (or philosophemes) in continental philosophy – sexuality, politics, thinking, time, interdependence, and language – draw lessons from the world of insects, but also illustrating again how the insect world spurred human reflection.".
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  18. Developmental Roles and Evolutionary Significance of AMPA‐Type Glutamate Receptors.Shinobu Hirai, Kohji Hotta & Haruo Okado - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800028.
    Organogenesis and metamorphosis require the intricate orchestration of multiple types of cellular interactions and signaling pathways. Glutamate (Glu) is an excitatory extracellular signaling molecule in the nervous system, while Ca2+ is a major intracellular signaling molecule. The first Glu receptors to be cloned are Ca2+‐permeable receptors in mammalian brains. Although recent studies have focused on Glu signaling in synaptic mechanisms of the mammalian central nervous system, it is unclear how this signaling functions in development. Our recent article demonstrated that Ca2+‐permeable (...)
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  19. The Energy Maintenance Theory of Aging: Maintaining Energy Metabolism to Allow Longevity.Snehal N. Chaudhari & Edward T. Kipreos - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800005.
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  20. Epigenetic and Transcriptional Variability Shape Phenotypic Plasticity.Simone Ecker, Vera Pancaldi, Alfonso Valencia, Stephan Beck & Dirk S. Paul - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (2):1700148.
    Epigenetic and transcriptional variability contribute to the vast diversity of cellular and organismal phenotypes and are key in human health and disease. In this review, we describe different types, sources, and determinants of epigenetic and transcriptional variability, enabling cells and organisms to adapt and evolve to a changing environment. We highlight the latest research and hypotheses on how chromatin structure and the epigenome influence gene expression variability. Further, we provide an overview of challenges in the analysis of biological variability. An (...)
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  21. The Plant Ontology Facilitates Comparisons of Plant Development Stages Across Species.Ramona Lynn Walls, Laurel Cooper, Justin Lee Elser, Maria Alejandra Gandolfo, Christopher J. Mungall, Barry Smith, Dennis William Stevenson & Pankaj Jaiswal - 2019 - Frontiers in Plant Science 10.
    The Plant Ontology (PO) is a community resource consisting of standardized terms, definitions, and logical relations describing plant structures and development stages, augmented by a large database of annotations from genomic and phenomic studies. This paper describes the structure of the ontology and the design principles we used in constructing PO terms for plant development stages. It also provides details of the methodology and rationale behind our revision and expansion of the PO to cover development stages for all plants, particularly (...)
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  22. Multicellular Individuality: The Case of Bacteria.Rafael Ventura - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (2):131-140.
    Recent attention to complex group-level behavior amongst bacteria has led some to conceive of multicellular clusters of bacteria as individuals. In this article, I assess these recent claims by first drawing a distinction between two concepts of individuality: physiological and evolutionary. I then survey cases that are representative of three different modes of growth: myxobacteria, Bacillus subtilis, and cyanobacteria. A closer look at these cases indicates that multicellular individuality among bacteria is remarkably complex. Physiologically, the three cases of multicellular clusters (...)
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  23. Targeting the Spleen as an Alternative Site for Hematopoiesis.Christie Short, Hong K. Lim, Jonathan Tan & Helen C. O'Neill - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1800234.
    Bone marrow is the main site for hematopoiesis in adults. It acts as a niche for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and contains non‐hematopoietic cells that contribute to stem cell dormancy, quiescence, self‐renewal, and differentiation. HSC also exist in resting spleen of several species, although their contribution to hematopoiesis under steady‐state conditions is unknown. The spleen can however undergo extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) triggered by physiological stress or disease. With the loss of bone marrow niches in aging and disease, the spleen as (...)
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  24. How Does Inflammation‐Induced Hyperglycemia Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Immune Cells?Gustav Niekerk, Tanja Davis, Hugh‐George Patterton & Anna‐Mart Engelbrecht - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1800260.
    Inflammatory mediators have an established role in inducing insulin resistance and promoting hyperglycemia. In turn, hyperglycemia has been argued to drive immune cell dysfunction as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, the authors review the evidence challenging this view. First, it is pointed out that inflammatory mediators are known to induce altered mitochondrial function. In this regard, critical care patients suffer both an elevated inflammatory tone as well as hyperglycemia, rendering it difficult to distinguish between the effects of inflammation and (...)
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  25. Why the Lipid Divide? Membrane Proteins as Drivers of the Split Between the Lipids of the Three Domains of Life.Victor Sojo - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1800251.
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  26. The Nature of Programmed Cell Death.Pierre M. Durand & Grant Ramsey - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):30-41.
    In multicellular organisms, cells are frequently programmed to die. This makes good sense: cells that fail to, or are no longer playing important roles are eliminated. From the cell’s perspective, this also makes sense, since somatic cells in multicellular organisms require the cooperation of clonal relatives. In unicellular organisms, however, programmed cell death poses a difficult and unresolved evolutionary problem. The empirical evidence for PCD in diverse microbial taxa has spurred debates about what precisely PCD means in the case of (...)
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  27. Cell Fate and Developmental Regulation Dynamics by Polycomb Proteins and 3D Genome Architecture.Vincent Loubiere, Anne-Marie Martinez & Giacomo Cavalli - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800222.
    Targeted transitions in chromatin states at thousands of genes are essential drivers of eukaryotic development. Therefore, understanding the in vivo dynamics of epigenetic regulators is crucial for deciphering the mechanisms underpinning cell fate decisions. This review illustrates how, in addition to its cell memory function, the Polycomb group of transcriptional regulators orchestrates temporal, cell and tissue‐specific expression of master genes during development. These highly sophisticated developmental transitions are dependent on the context‐ and tissue‐specific assembly of the different types of Polycomb (...)
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  28. Veins and Arteries Build Hierarchical Branching Patterns Differently: Bottom‐Up Versus Top‐Down.Kristy Red-Horse & Arndt F. Siekmann - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800198.
    A tree‐like hierarchical branching structure is present in many biological systems, such as the kidney, lung, mammary gland, and blood vessels. Most of these organs form through branching morphogenesis, where outward growth results in smaller and smaller branches. However, the blood vasculature is unique in that it exists as two trees (arterial and venous) connected at their tips. Obtaining this organization might therefore require unique developmental mechanisms. As reviewed here, recent data indicate that arterial trees often form in reverse order. (...)
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  29. Cell‐Cycle‐Dependent Regulation of Cell Adhesions: Adhering to the Schedule.Yitong Li & Keith Burridge - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800165.
    Focal adhesions disassemble during mitosis, but surprisingly little is known about how these structures respond to other phases of the cell cycle. Three recent papers reveal unexpected results as they examine adhesions through the cell cycle. A biphasic response is detected where focal adhesions grow during S phase before disassembly begins early in G2. In M phase, activated integrins at the tips of retraction fibers anchor mitotic cells, but these adhesions lack the defining components of focal adhesions, such as talin, (...)
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  30. Reconsidering Morphology Through an Experimental Case Study.Alessandro Minelli, Rocco Micciolo, Mara Rosa, Paolo Chistè, Luisa Canal & Liliana Albertazzi - 2017 - Biological Theory 12 (3):131-141.
    This study analyzes shells of marine gastropods of a zoological museum and the Latin epithets expressing perceptual and connotative attributes that they have received in the standard, Linnaean nomenclature. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with digital 3-D reproductions of the shell specimens to be subjectively evaluated according to 17 pairs of attributes. The results show that, overall, the subjective evaluations given by the subjects are consistent, which suggests that an intersubjective characterization of the shells (...)
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  31. Discrete Mesh Approach in Morphogenesis Modelling: The Example of Gastrulation.E. Promayon, A. Lontos & J. Demongeot - 2016 - Acta Biotheoretica 64 (4):427-446.
    Morphogenesis is a general concept in biology including all the processes which generate tissue shapes and cellular organizations in a living organism. Many hybrid formalizations have been proposed for modelling morphogenesis in embryonic or adult animals, like gastrulation. We propose first to study the ventral furrow invagination as the initial step of gastrulation, early stage of embryogenesis. We focus on the study of the connection between the apical constriction of the ventral cells and the initiation of the invagination. For that, (...)
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  32. Cancer Ecology: The Intracellular Interactome Makes Little Sense Without the Intercellular One.Andrew Moore - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800202.
  33. TGF‐Β Control of Adaptive Immune Tolerance: A Break From Treg Cells.Ming Liu & Shun Li - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800063.
    The vertebrate adaptive immune system has well defined functions in maintaining tolerance to self‐tissues. Suppression of autoreactive T cells is dependent on the regulatory cytokine transforming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) and regulatory T (Treg) cells, a distinct T cell lineage specified by the transcription factor Foxp3. Although TGF‐β promotes thymic Treg (tTreg) cell development by repressing T cell clonal deletion and peripheral Treg cell differentiation by inducing Foxp3 expression, a recent study shows that TGF‐β suppresses autoreactive T cells independent of Foxp3+ (...)
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  34. An Emerging System to Study Photosymbiosis, Brain Regeneration, Chronobiology, and Behavior: The Marine Acoel Symsagittifera Roscoffensis.Enrique Arboleda, Volker Hartenstein, Pedro Martinez, Heinrich Reichert, Sonia Sen, Simon Sprecher & Xavier Bailly - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800107.
  35. Formaliser le vivant : lois, théories, modèles.Franck Varenne - 2010 - Paris, France: Hermann.
    Peut-on formaliser le vivant ? Peut-on réduire une plante à une simple formule mathématique ? Goethe ne l’aurait pas admis. Pour beaucoup encore, cette question ne se pose même pas tant elle peut sembler provocante et contre-nature. Dans une perspective à la fois historique et épistémologique, ce livre rend compte de travaux contemporains qui ont pourtant tous tenté de braver cet interdit. C’est en grande partie sur ce terrain, hautement problématique, que, dans les premières décennies du XXe siècle, on voit (...)
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  36. The Actomyosin Cytoskeleton Drives Micron‐Scale Membrane Remodeling In Vivo Via the Generation of Mechanical Forces to Balance Membrane Tension Gradients.Seham Ebrahim, Jian Liu & Roberto Weigert - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800032.
    The remodeling of biological membranes is crucial for a vast number of cellular activities and is an inherently multiscale process in both time and space. Seminal work has provided important insights into nanometer‐scale membrane deformations, and highlighted the remarkable variation and complexity in the underlying molecular machineries and mechanisms. However, how membranes are remodeled at the micron‐scale, particularly in vivo, remains poorly understood. Here, we discuss how using regulated exocytosis of large (1.5–2.0 μm) membrane‐bound secretory granules in the salivary gland (...)
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  37. Sex Differences in Early Embryogenesis: Inter‐Chromosomal Regulation Sets the Stage for Sex‐Biased Gene Networks.Nora Engel - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800073.
    Sex‐specific transcriptional and epigenomic profiles are detectable in the embryo very soon after fertilization. I propose that in male (XY) and female (XX) pre‐implantation embryos sex chromosomes establish sexually dimorphic interactions with the autosomes, before overt differences become apparent and long before gonadogenesis. Lineage determination restricts expression biases between the sexes, but the epigenetic differences are less constrained and can be perpetuated, accounting for dimorphisms that arise later in life. In this way, sexual identity is registered in the epigenome very (...)
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  38. Mathematical Model and Simulation of Retina and Tectum Opticum of Lower Vertebrates.U. an der Heiden & G. Roth - 1987 - Acta Biotheoretica 36 (3):179-212.
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  39. Sex Cells Through the Phyla. Germilne Development. Ciba Foundation Symposium 182 (1994). Edited by Joan Marsh and Jamie Goode. J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester. Pp. IX+321. £47.50. Isbn 0471 942642. [REVIEW]Paul Lasko - 1994 - Bioessays 16 (12):939-940.
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  40. Splitting: The Difference. Chromosome Segregation and Aneuploidy . Edited by BALDEV K. VIG. . Springer Verlag, NATO AS1 Series . 4. [REVIEW]Duncan J. Clarke - 1994 - Bioessays 16 (11):857-857.
  41. Radical Solutions and Cultural Problems: Could Free Oxygen Radicals Be Responsible for the Impaired Development of Preimplantation Mammalian Embryos in Vitro?Martin H. Johnson & Mohammad H. Nasresfahani - 1994 - Bioessays 16 (1):31-38.
    A major obstacel to the study of mammalian development, and to the practical application of knowledge gained from it in the clinic during therapeutic in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF‐ET), is the propensity of embryos to become retarded or arrested during their culture in vitro. The precise developmental cell cycle in which embryos arrest or delay is characteristic for the species and coincides with the earliest period of embryonic gene expression. Much evidence reviewed here implicates free oxygen radicals (FORs) (...)
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  42. Asymmetric Segregation of Aged Spindle Pole Bodies During Cell Division: Mechanisms and Relevance Beyond Budding Yeast?Jette Lengefeld & Yves Barral - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800038.
    Asymmetric cell division generates cell diversity and contributes to cellular aging and rejuvenation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms enabling budding yeast to recognize spindle pole bodies (SPB, centrosome equivalent) based on their age, and guide their non‐random mitotic segregation: SPB inheritance requires the distinction of old from new SPBs and is regulated by the SPB‐inheritance network (SPIN) and the mitotic exit network (MEN). The SPIN marks the pre‐existing SPB as old and the MEN recognizes these marks translating them into (...)
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  43. Cells in the Non‐Uniform Magnetic World: How Cells Respond to High‐Gradient Magnetic Fields.Vitalii Zablotskii, Tatyana Polyakova & Alexandr Dejneka - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800017.
    Imagine cells that live in a high‐gradient magnetic field (HGMF). Through what mechanisms do the cells sense a non‐uniform magnetic field and how such a field changes the cell fate? We show that magnetic forces generated by HGMFs can be comparable to intracellular forces and therefore may be capable of altering the functionality of an individual cell and tissues in unprecedented ways. We identify the cellular effectors of such fields and propose novel routes in cell biology predicting new biological effects (...)
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  44. Primary Cilia Reconsidered in the Context of Ciliopathies: Extraciliary and Ciliary Functions of Cilia Proteins Converge on a Polarity Theme?Kiet Hua & Russell J. Ferland - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1700132.
    Once dismissed as vestigial organelles, primary cilia have garnered the interest of scientists, given their importance in development/signaling, and for their implication in a new disease category known as ciliopathies. However, many, if not all, “cilia” proteins also have locations/functions outside of the primary cilium. These extraciliary functions can complicate the interpretation of a particular ciliopathy phenotype: it may be a result of defects at the cilium and/or at extraciliary locations, and it could be broadly related to a unifying cellular (...)
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  45. Archaea‐First and the Co‐Evolutionary Diversification of Domains of Life.James T. Staley & Gustavo Caetano-Anollés - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800036.
    The origins and evolution of the Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya remain controversial. Phylogenomic‐wide studies of molecular features that are evolutionarily conserved, such as protein structural domains, suggest Archaea is the first domain of life to diversify from a stem line of descent. This line embodies the last universal common ancestor of cellular life. Here, we propose that ancestors of Euryarchaeota co‐evolved with those of Bacteria prior to the diversification of Eukarya. This co‐evolutionary scenario is supported by comparative genomic and phylogenomic (...)
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  46. Stem Cell Epistemological Issues. Chapter in Charbord P and Durand C (Eds) Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine.Lucie Laplane - 2015 - River Publishers.
    This chapter brings a philosophical perspective to the concept of stem cell. Three general questions both clarify the concept of stem cell and emphasize its ambiguities: (1) How should we define stem cells? (2) What makes them different from non-stem cells? (3) What is their ontology? (i.e. what kind of property is “stemness”?) Following this last question, the Chapter distinguishes four conceptions of stem cells and highlights their respective consequences for the cancer stem cell theory. Determining what kind of property (...)
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  47. Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Channels: Emerging Diversity in Transport Processes.Thomas Becker & Richard Wagner - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (7):1800013.
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  48. Synapse Pruning: Mitochondrial ROS with Their Hands on the Shears.James N. Cobley - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (7):1800031.
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  49. Endothelial Metabolic Control of Lymphangiogenesis.Pengchun Yu, Guosheng Wu, Heon-Woo Lee & Michael Simons - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (6):1700245.
  50. Novel Channels of the Outer Membrane of Mitochondria: Recent Discoveries Change Our View.Vanessa Checchetto & Ildiko Szabo - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (6):1700232.
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