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  1. added 2016-09-26
    Valentin T. Cheshko, Lida V. Ivanitskaya & Yulia V. Kosova (2014). Configuration of Stable Evolutionary Strategy of Homo Sapiens and Evolutionary Risks of Technological Civilization (the Conceptual Model Essay). Biogeosystem Technique 1 (1):58-68.
    Stable evolutionary strategy of Homo sapiens (SESH) is built in accordance with the modular and hierarchical principle and consists of the same type of self-replicating elements, i.e. is a system of systems. On the top level of the organization of SESH is the superposition of genetic, social, cultural and techno-rationalistic complexes. The components of this triad differ in the mechanism of cycles of generation - replication - transmission - fixing/elimination of adoptively relevant information. This mechanism is implemented either in accordance (...)
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  2. added 2016-09-26
    Valentin T. Cheshko, Lida V. Ivanitskaya Ivanitskaya & Yulia V. Kosova (2014). Configuration of Stable Evolutionary Strategy of Homo Sapiens and Evolutionary Risks of Technological Civilization (the Conceptual Model Essay). Biogeosystem Technique 1 (1):58-68.
    Stable evolutionary strategy of Homo sapiens (SESH) is built in accordance with the modular and hierarchical principle and consists of the same type of self-replicating elements, i.e. is a system of systems. On the top level of the organization of SESH is the superposition of genetic, social, cultural and techno-rationalistic complexes. The components of this triad differ in the mechanism of cycles of generation - replication - transmission - fixing/elimination of adoptively relevant information. This mechanism is implemented either in accordance (...)
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  3. added 2016-09-25
    Nathan Kowalsky (forthcoming). Towards an Ethic of Animal Difference in Advance. Environmental Philosophy.
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  4. added 2016-09-24
    Cédric Paternotte & Jonathan Grose (forthcoming). Robustness in Evolutionary Explanations: A Positive Account. Biology and Philosophy:1-24.
    Robustness analysis is widespread in science, but philosophers have struggled to justify its confirmatory power. We provide a positive account of robustness by analysing some explicit and implicit uses of within and across-model robustness in evolutionary theory. We argue that appeals to robustness are usually difficult to justify because they aim to increase the likeliness that a phenomenon obtains. However, we show that robust results are necessary for explanations of phenomena with specific properties. Across-model robustness is necessary for how-possibly explanations (...)
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  5. added 2016-09-24
    Ingo Brigandt (2016). Review of Reductive Explanation in the Biological Sciences by Marie Kaiser. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 201608.
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  6. added 2016-09-24
    Harold F. Blum (1957). On the Origin of Self-Replicating Systems. In D. Rudnick (ed.), Rhythmic and synthetic properties in growth. Princeton University Press 155–70.
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  7. added 2016-09-22
    Vincent Blok (forthcoming). Biomimicry and the Materiality of Ecological Technology and Innovation in Advance. Environmental Philosophy.
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  8. added 2016-09-19
    Victor J. Luque (forthcoming). One Equation to Rule Them All: A Philosophical Analysis of the Price Equation. Biology and Philosophy:1-29.
    This paper provides a philosophical analysis of the Price equation and its role in evolutionary theory. Traditional models in population genetics postulate simplifying assumptions in order to make the models mathematically tractable. On the contrary, the Price equation implies a very specific way of theorizing, starting with assumptions that we think are true and then deriving from them the mathematical rules of the system. I argue that the Price equation is a generalization-sketch, whose main purpose is to provide a unifying (...)
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  9. added 2016-09-17
    Andrew Moore (forthcoming). A “Plan B”: When and How to Develop Your Alternative Research Project. Bioessays.
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  10. added 2016-09-17
    Zhenyu Cheng (forthcoming). APseudomonas Aeruginosa-Secreted Protease Modulates Host Intrinsic Immune Responses, but How? Bioessays.
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  11. added 2016-09-15
    Paul E. Griffiths & John Matthewson (forthcoming). Evolution, Dysfunction and Disease: A Reappraisal. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Some ‘naturalist’ accounts of disease employ a biostatistical account of dysfunction whilst others use a ‘selected effect’ account. Several recent authors have argued that the biostatistical account (BST) offers the best hope for a naturalist account of disease. We show that the selected effect account survives the criticisms levelled by these authors relatively unscathed, and has significant advantages over the BST. Moreover, unlike the BST it has a strong theoretical rationale and can provide substantive reasons to decide difficult cases. This (...)
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  12. added 2016-09-15
    Roberta L. Millstein, Genetic Drift. Stanford Encylopedia of Philosophy.
    Genetic drift (variously called “random drift”, “random genetic drift”, or sometimes just “drift”) has been a source of ongoing controversy within the philosophy of biology and evolutionary biology communities, to the extent that even the question of what drift is has become controversial. There seems to be agreement that drift is a chance (or probabilistic or statistical) element within population genetics and within evolutionary biology more generally, and that the term “random” isn’t invoking indeterminism or any technical mathematical meaning, but (...)
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  13. added 2016-09-13
    Ehud Lamm (forthcoming). Cultural Group Selection and Holobiont Evolution – a Comparison of Structures of Evolution. In Snait Gissis, Ehud Lamm & Ayelet Shavit (eds.), Landscapes of Collectivity in the Life Sciences. MIT Press
    The notion of structure of evolution is proposed to capture what it means to say that two situations exhibit the same or similar constellations of factors affecting evolution. The key features of holobiont evolution and the hologenome theory are used to define a holobiont structure of evolution. Finally, Cultural Group Selection, a set of hypotheses regarding the evolution of human cognition, is shown to match the holobiont structure closely though not perfectly.
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  14. added 2016-09-13
    Derek Hough (2007). Evolution: From Copying Errors to Evolvability. Book Guild.
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  15. added 2016-09-10
    S. Andrew Inkpen (forthcoming). Are Humans Disturbing Conditions in Ecology? Biology and Philosophy:1-21.
    In this paper I argue, first, that ecologists have routinely treated humans—or more specifically, anthropogenic causal factors—as disturbing conditions. I define disturbing conditions as exogenous variables, variables “outside” a model, that when present in a target system, inhibit the applicability or accuracy of the model. This treatment is surprising given that humans play a dominant role in many ecosystems and definitions of ecology contain no fundamental distinction between human and natural. Second, I argue that the treatment of humans as disturbing (...)
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  16. added 2016-09-09
    Mahesh Ananth (2001). Review of Explaining Culture. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (4):563-571.
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  17. added 2016-09-08
    David Ludwig (forthcoming). The Objectivity of Local Knowledege. Lessons From Ethnobiology. Synthese.
    This article develops an account of local epistemic practices on the basis of case studies from ethnobiology. I argue that current debates about objectivity often stand in the way of a more adequate understanding of local knowledge and ethnobiological practices in general. While local knowledge about the biological world often meets criteria for objectivity in philosophy of science, general debates about the objectivity of local knowledge can also obscure their unique epistemic features. In modification of Ian Hacking’s suggestion to discuss (...)
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  18. added 2016-09-08
    Douglas Campbell (2016). A Case for Resurrecting Lost Species—Review Essay of Beth Shapiro’s, “How to Clone a Mammoth: The Science of De-Extinction”. Biology and Philosophy 31 (5):747-759.
    The title of Beth Shapiro’s ‘How to Clone a Mammoth’ contains an implicature: it suggests that it is indeed possible to clone a mammoth, to bring extinct species back from the dead. But in fact Shapiro both denies this is possible, and denies there would be good reason to do it even if it were possible. The de-extinct ‘mammoths’ she speaks of are merely ecological proxies for mammoths—elephants re-engineered for cold-tolerance by the addition to their genomes of a few mammoth (...)
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  19. added 2016-09-07
    Makmiller Pedroso (forthcoming). Inheritance by Recruitment. Biology and Philosophy:1-5.
    Doolittle :351–378, 2013) and Ereshefsky and Pedroso argue that selection can act at the level of biofilms and other microbial communities. Clarke is skeptical and argues that selection acts on microbial cells rather than microbial communities. Her main criticism is that biofilms lack one of the ingredients required for selection to operate: heritability. This paper replies to her concern by elaborating how biofilm-level traits can be inheritable.
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  20. added 2016-09-07
    Justin B. Biddle (2016). Intellectual Property Rights and Global Climate Change: Toward Resolving an Apparent Dilemma. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):301-319.
    This paper addresses an apparent dilemma that must be resolved in order to respond ethically to global climate change. The dilemma can be presented as follows. Responding ethically to global climate change requires technological innovation that is accessible to everyone, including inhabitants of the least developed countries. Technological innovation, according to many, requires strong intellectual property protection, but strong intellectual property protection makes it highly unlikely that patent-protected technologies will be accessible to developing countries at affordable prices. Given this, responding (...)
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  21. added 2016-09-07
    Idil Boran & Joseph Heath (2016). Attributing Weather Extremes to Climate Change and the Future of Adaptation Policy. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):239-255.
    Until recently, climate scientists were unable to link the occurrence of extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change. In recent years, however, climate science has made considerable advancements, making it possible to assess the influence of anthropogenic climate change on single weather events. Using a new technique called ‘probabilistic event attribution’, scientists are able to assess whether anthropogenic climate change has changed the likelihood of the occurrence of a recorded extreme weather event. These advancements raise the expectation that this branch (...)
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  22. added 2016-09-05
    Jesse M. Mulder (2016). A Vital Challenge to Materialism. Philosophy 91 (2):153-182.
    Life poses a threat to materialism. To understand the phenomena of animate nature, we make use of a teleological form of explanation that is peculiar to biology, of explanations in terms of what I call the ‘vital categories’ – and this holds even for accounts of underlying physico-chemical ‘mechanisms’. The materialist claims that this teleological form of explanation does not capture what is metaphysically fundamental, whereas her preferred physical form of explanation does. In this essay, I do three things. (1) (...)
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  23. added 2016-09-05
    Italo Testa & Matteo Bianchin (eds.) (2015). "Life and Action in Ethics and Politics", Book Symposium on Michael Thompson's "Life and Action". Philosophy and Public Issues, Supplementary Volume (2015), Luiss University Press.
    Book Symposium on Michael Thompson's "Life and Action" -/- (downlodable here: http://fqp.luiss.it/category/numero/ns-supplementary-volume-2015-life-and-action) -/- Table of Contents: -/- Paolo Costa, "Where does our understanding of life come from? The riddle about recognizing living things" -/- Constantine Sandis, "He buttered the toast while baking a fresh loaf" -/- Matteo Bianchin, "Intentions and Intentionality" -/- Arto Laitinen, "Practices as ‘actual’ sources of goodness of actions" -/- Italo Testa, "Some consequences of Thompson’s Life and Action for social philosophy" -/- Ingrid Salvatore, "Thompson on Rawls (...)
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  24. added 2016-09-05
    Italo Testa (2015). Some Consequences of Thompson’s Life and Action for Social Philosophy. Philosophy and Public Issues:69-84.
  25. added 2016-09-04
    David R. Morrow (2016). Climate Sins of Our Fathers? Historical Accountability in Distributing Emissions Rights. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):335-349.
    One major question in climate justice is whether developed countries’ historical emissions are relevant to distributing the burdens of mitigating climate change. To argue that developed countries should bear a greater share of the burdens of mitigation because of their past emissions is to advocate ‘historical accountability.’ Standard arguments for historical accountability rely on corrective justice. These arguments face important objections. By using the notion of a global emissions budget, however, we can reframe the debate over historical accountability in terms (...)
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  26. added 2016-09-04
    Laura N. H. Verbrugge, Rob S. E. W. Leuven & Hub A. E. Zwart (2016). Metaphors in Invasion Biology: Implications for Risk Assessment and Management of Non-Native Species. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):273-284.
    Metaphors for describing the introduction, impacts, and management of non-native species are numerous and often quite outspoken. Policy-makers have adopted increasingly disputed metaphorical terms from scientific discourse. We performed a critical analysis of the use of strong metaphors in reporting scientific findings to policy-makers. Our analysis shows that perceptions of harm, invasiveness or nativeness are dynamic and inevitably display multiple narratives in science, policy or management. Improving our awareness of multiple expert and stakeholder narratives that exist in the context of (...)
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  27. added 2016-09-04
    Patrick Clipsham & Katy Fulfer (2016). An Anti-Commodification Defense of Veganism. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):285-300.
    We develop an anti-commodification defense of ethical veganism which holds that common defenses of ethical veganism can benefit from treating the commodification of non-human animals as a serious, distinct moral wrong. Drawing inspiration from Elizabeth Anderson’s account of commodification, we develop an account of commodification that identifies most uses of animals in developed countries as forms of problematic commodification. We then show that this position can make significant contributions to both welfarist defenses of ethical veganism and animal rights theories.
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  28. added 2016-09-03
    Boris Hennig (2009). The Four Causes. Journal of Philosophy 106 (3):137-160.
  29. added 2016-09-02
    Rob Lawlor (2016). The Absurdity of Economists’ Sacrifice-Free Solutions to Climate Change. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):350-365.
    John Broome and Duncan Foley have argued that it is a ‘misperception’ that the ‘control of global warming is costly’ and that we can make ‘sacrifices unnecessary’. There are a number of assumptions that are essential for this idea to work. These assumptions can be challenged. Furthermore, my claim is not merely that the Broome/Foley argument is flawed, and therefore unlikely to be successful. I will argue that it is potentially harmful, leading to harms for the present generation and for (...)
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  30. added 2016-09-02
    Corey Katz (2016). Climate Change and the Moral Agent: Individual Duties in an Interdependent World. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):366-369.
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  31. added 2016-09-02
    Rafael Ziegler (2016). Climate Neutrality – Towards An Ethical Conception of Climate Neutrality. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):256-272.
    Over the last decade, climate neutrality has emerged as an empowering, new concept—and it has given rise to concerns that it may be conducive to greenwashing and a disregard for justice and sustainability. Are these concerns justified? This paper argues that there is a qualified case for climate neutrality as part of an integrated approach to climate ethics. There are ethical and economic arguments for climate neutrality. An ethical conception of climate neutrality puts critical emphasis on reduction as well as (...)
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  32. added 2016-09-02
    Diana Soeiro (2016). International Environmental “Soft Law”: The Functions and Limits of Nobinding Instruments in International Environmental Governance and Law. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):369-371.
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  33. added 2016-09-02
    Teea Kortetmäki (2016). Reframing Climate Justice: A Three-Dimensional View on Just Climate Negotiations. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):320-334.
    This article proposes reframing the justice discourse in climate negotiations. In so doing, it makes two claims. First, global climate negotiations deserve to be addressed as an issue of justice on their own due to their peculiar characteristics. Second, a multidimensional theory of justice is superior to distributional theories for this task. To support these arguments, I apply the multidimensional theory of justice to global climate negotiations. This analysis reveals that injustice in the negotiations is multidimensional and irreducible to distributional (...)
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  34. added 2016-09-01
    Trevor Pearce (2016). Naomi Beck. La Gauche Évolutionniste: Spencer Et Ses Lecteurs En France Et En Italie (Besançon: Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2014). [REVIEW] Isis 107 (2):418-419.
    Review of Naomi Beck, La gauche évolutionniste.
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  35. added 2016-08-31
    Douglas Campbell (2016). A Case for Resurrecting Lost Species—Review Essay of Beth Shapiro’s, “How to Clone a Mammoth: The Science of De-Extinction”. Biology and Philosophy 31 (5):747-759.
    The title of Beth Shapiro’s ‘How to Clone a Mammoth’ contains an implicature: it suggests that it is indeed possible to clone a mammoth, to bring extinct species back from the dead. But in fact Shapiro both denies this is possible, and denies there would be good reason to do it even if it were possible. The de-extinct ‘mammoths’ she speaks of are merely ecological proxies for mammoths—elephants re-engineered for cold-tolerance by the addition to their genomes of a few mammoth (...)
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  36. added 2016-08-31
    Christopher J. Austin (2016). The Ontology of Organisms: Mechanistic Modules or Patterned Processes? Biology and Philosophy 31 (5):639-662.
    Though the realm of biology has long been under the philosophical rule of the mechanistic magisterium, recent years have seen a surprisingly steady rise in the usurping prowess of process ontology. According to its proponents, theoretical advances in the contemporary science of evo-devo have afforded that ontology a particularly powerful claim to the throne: in that increasingly empirically confirmed discipline, emergently autonomous, higher-order entities are the reigning explanantia. If we are to accept the election of evo-devo as our best conceptualisation (...)
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  37. added 2016-08-31
    Francesca Merlin (2016). Monod's Concept of Chance: Its Diversity and Relevance Today. Comptes Rendus de Biologie de l'Académie des Sciences 338:406-412.
    n his famous book Le hasard et la ne ́cessite ́ (1970), Monod claims that natural evolution is based on the interplay between chance and necessity bringing about adaptive evolutionary change. This article addresses a set of related questions about Monod’s conception of chance: what does he mean when he uses the term ‘‘chance’’? Does he invoke one or many different concepts of chance? What are the implications of his conception about the issue of the deterministic or indeterministic nature of (...)
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  38. added 2016-08-30
    Marcel Weber (forthcoming). Which Kind of Causal Specificity Matters Biologically? Philosophy of Science.
    Griffiths et al. (2015) have proposed a quantitative measure of causal specificity and used it to assess various attempts to single out genetic causes as being causally more specific than other cellular mechanisms, for example, alternative splicing. Focusing in particular on developmental processes, they have identified a number of important challenges for this project. In this discussion note, I would like to show how these challenges can be met.
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  39. added 2016-08-27
    A. C. Love (2011). Darwin’s Functional Reasoning and Homology. In M. Wheeler (ed.), 150 Years of Evolution: Darwin’s Impact on Contemporary Thought & Culture. SDSU Press 49–67.
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  40. added 2016-08-27
    A. C. Love (2007). Morphological and Paleontological Perspectives for a History of Evo-Devo. In M. Laubichler & J. Maienschein (eds.), From Embryology to Evo-Devo: A History of Developmental Evolution. MIT Press 267–307.
    Exploring history pertinent to evolutionary developmental biology (hereafter, Evo-devo) is an exciting prospect given its current status as a cutting-edge field of research. The first and obvious question concerns where to begin searching for materials and sources. Since this new discipline adopts a moniker that intentionally juxtaposes ‘evolution’ and development’, individuals, disciplines, and institutional contexts relevant to the history of evolutionary studies and investigations of ontogeny prompt themselves. Each of these topics has received attention from historians and thus there is (...)
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  41. added 2016-08-26
    Jan Baedke & Tobias Schöttler (2016). Visual Metaphors in the Sciences: The Case of Epigenetic Landscape Images. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-22.
    Recent philosophical analyses of the epistemic dimension of images in the sciences show a certain trend in acknowledging potential roles of these images beyond their merely decorative or pedagogical functions. We argue, however, that this new debate has yet paid little attention to a special type of pictures, we call ‘visual metaphor’, and its versatile heuristic potential in organizing data, supporting communication, and guiding research, modeling, and theory formation. Based on a case study of Conrad Hal Waddington’s epigenetic landscape images (...)
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  42. added 2016-08-26
    A. C. Love & D. Urban (2016). Developmental Evolution of Novel Structures – Animals. In R. Kliman (ed.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology. Volume 3. Academic Press 136–145.
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  43. added 2016-08-26
    A. C. Love (2016). Explaining the Origins of Multicellularity: Between Evolutionary Dynamics and Developmental Mechanisms. In K. J. Niklas & S. A. Newman (eds.), Multicellularity: Origins and Evolution. MIT Press 279–295.
    Overview -/- The evolution of multicellularity raises questions regarding genomic and developmental commonalities and discordances, selective advantages and disadvantages, physical determinants of development, and the origins of morphological novelties. It also represents a change in the definition of individuality, because a new organism emerges from interactions among single cells. This volume considers these and other questions, with contributions that explore the origins and consequences of the evolution of multicellularity, addressing a range of topics, organisms, and experimental protocols. -/- Each section (...)
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  44. added 2016-08-26
    A. C. Love (2015). Conceptual Change and Evolutionary Developmental Biology. In Conceptual Change in Biology: Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives on Evolution and Development: Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science. Springer 1-54.
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  45. added 2016-08-26
    A. C. Love, Developmental Biology. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  46. added 2016-08-26
    A. C. Love (2015). Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Philosophical Issues. In T. Heams, P. Huneman, L. Lecointre & M. Silberstein (eds.), Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences. Springer 265-283.
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  47. added 2016-08-26
    A. C. Love (2014). The Erotetic Organization of Developmental Biology. In A. Minelli & T. Pradeu (eds.), Towards a Theory of Development. Oxford University Press 33–55.
    Developmental biology is the science of explaining how a variety of interacting processes generate the heterogeneous shapes, size, and structural features of an organism as it develops rom embryo to adult, or more generally throughout its life cycle (Love, 2008b; Minelli, 2011a). Although it is commonplace in philosophy to associate sciences with theories such that the individuation of a science is dependent on a constitutive theory or group of models, it is uncommon to find presentations of developmental biology making reference (...)
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  48. added 2016-08-26
    A. C. Love (2013). Teaching Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Concepts, Problems, and Controversy. In K. Kampourakis (ed.), Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer 323-341.
    Although sciences are often conceptualized in terms of theory confirmation and hypothesis testing, an equally important dimension of scientific reasoning is the structure of problems that guide inquiry. This problem structure is evident in several concepts central to evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-devo)—constraints, modularity, evolvability, and novelty. Because problems play an important role in biological practice, they should be included in biological pedagogy, especially when treating the issue of scientific controversy. A key feature of resolving controversy is synthesizing methodologies from different (...)
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  49. added 2016-08-26
    A. C. Love (2010). Rethinking the Structure of Evolutionary Theory for an Extended Synthesis. In M. Pigliucci & G. Müller (eds.), Evolution—The Extended Synthesis. MIT Press 403–441.
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  50. added 2016-08-25
    A. P. Moczek, K. E. Sears, A. Stollewerk, P. J. Wittkopp, P. Diggle, I. Dworkin, C. Ledon-Rettig, D. Q. Mattus, S. Roth, E. Abouheif, F. D. Brown, C.-H. Chiu, C. S. Cohen, A. W. De Tomaso, S. F. Gilbert, B. K. Hall, A. C. Love, D. C. Lyons, T. Sanger, J. Smith, C. Specht, M. Vallejo-Marin & C. G. Extavour (2015). The Significance and Scope of Evolutionary Developmental Biology: A Vision for the 21st Century. Evolution & Development 17:198–219.
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