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Philosophy of Biology

Edited by John Wilkins (University of Sydney, University of Melbourne)
Assistant editor: Justin Bzovy (University of Western Ontario)
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  1. added 2015-01-29
    Emanuele Ratti (forthcoming). Big Data Biology: Between Eliminative Inferences and Exploratory Experiments. Philosophy of Science 2015.
    Recently, biologists have argued that data-driven biology fosters a new scientific methodology; namely, one that is irreducible to traditional methodologies of molecular biology defined as the discovery strategies elucidated by mechanistic philosophy. Here I show how data-driven studies can be included into the traditional mechanistic approach in two respects. On the one hand, some studies provide eliminative inferential procedures to prioritize and develop mechanistic hypotheses. On the other, different studies play an exploratory role in providing useful generalizations to complement the (...)
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  2. added 2015-01-24
    William F. Martin (forthcoming). Big Questions and Skepsis: Review of “In Search of Cell History. [REVIEW] Bioessays:n/a-n/a.
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  3. added 2015-01-22
    Massimo Pigliucci (forthcoming). Teaching Evolution While Aiming at the Cautious Middle. [REVIEW] Science & Education.
    As astounding as it sounds, especially to people outside of the USA (and the Middle East, and much of Africa), 13 % of US high school teachers actively advocate creationism and so-called intelligent design theory in their classrooms; another 28 % does the right thing and teaches evolution, but a whopping 60 % falls in the middle: These teachers accept evolutionary theory (though they may be fuzzy on the details), and yet do not teach it in their classrooms, in order (...)
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  4. added 2015-01-22
    Marc Ereshefsky (2014). Species, Historicity, and Path Dependency. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):714-726.
    This paper clarifies the historical nature of species by showing that species are path-dependent entities. A species’ identity is not determined by its intrinsic properties or its origin, but by its unique evolutionary path. Seeing that species are path-dependent entities has three implications: it shows that origin essentialism is mistaken, it rebuts two challenges to the species-are-historical-entities thesis, and it demonstrates that the identity of a species during speciation depends on future events.
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  5. added 2015-01-22
    Michael Marder (2013). Alexandra Cook. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Botany: The Salutary Science. Environmental Philosophy 10 (2):119-122.
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  6. added 2015-01-22
    Roger Paden (2013). A Defense of the Picturesque. Environmental Philosophy 10 (2):1-21.
    The eighteenth century notion of the “picturesque” has been misunderstood by many contemporary environmental aestheticians. This has contributed both to amisunderstanding of the history of environmental aesthetics and, within the discipline, to a misunderstanding of English garden design. This essay contains a discussion of the term as it appears in environmental aesthetics literature and an examination of the history of the term as used in eighteenth-century garden design literature. This history is used to contest the account of the term as (...)
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  7. added 2015-01-20
    Kevin de Queiroz (1999). The General Lineage Concept of Species and the Defining Properties of the Species Category. In R. A. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. MIT Press. 49-89.
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  8. added 2015-01-20
    Ernst Mayr (1969). Principles of Systematic Zoology. McGraw-Hill.
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  9. added 2015-01-19
    Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Ryan Giordano, Michael D. Edge & Rasmus Nielsen (forthcoming). The Mind, the Lab, and the Field: Three Kinds of Populations in Scientific Practice. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.
    Scientists use models to understand the natural world, and it is important not to conflate model and nature. As an illustration, we distinguish three different kinds of populations in studies of ecology and evolution: theoretical, laboratory, and natural populations, exemplified by the work of R.A. Fisher, Thomas Park, and David Lack, respectively. Biologists are rightly concerned with all three types of populations. We examine the interplay between these different kinds of populations, and their pertinent models, in three examples: the notion (...)
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  10. added 2015-01-19
    Hannes Rusch & Charlotte Störmer (forthcoming). An Evolutionary Perspective on War Heroism. Militaire Spectator.
    Humans are one of the most cooperative and altruistic species on the planet. At the same time, humans have a long history of violent and deadly intergroup conflicts, i.e. wars. Recently, contemporary evolutionary theorists have revived Charles Darwin’s idea that human in-group altruism and out-group hostility might have co-evolved. Groups with more cooperatively aggressive men, they suggest, were more likely to prevail in the frequent lethal quarrels of human pre-history, and these men, therefore, more likely to have passed on their (...)
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  11. added 2015-01-15
    Adam P. Kubiak (2014). A Frequentist Solution to Lindley & Phillips’ Stopping Rule Problem in Ecological Realm. Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa 50 (2):135-145.
    In this paper I provide a frequentist philosophical-methodological solution for the stopping rule problem presented by Lindley & Phillips in 1976, which is settled in the ecological realm of testing koalas’ sex ratio. I deliver criteria for discerning a stopping rule, an evidence and a model that are epistemically more appropriate for testing the hypothesis of the case studied, by appealing to physical notion of probability and by analyzing the content of possible formulations of evidence, assumptions of models and meaning (...)
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  12. added 2015-01-15
    Adam P. Kubiak (2011). Dlaczego umieramy? Wobec pytania o śmieć cielesną - krótko i po chrześcijańsku. Philosophia 31:17-20.
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  13. added 2015-01-15
    Joel Cracraft (1992). The Species of the Birds-of-Paradise (Paradisaeidae): Applying the Phylogenetic Species Concept to a Complex Pattern of Diversification. Cladistics 8:1-43.
    The phylogenetic species concept is applied for the first time to a major radiation of birds, the birds-of-paradise (Paradisaeidae) of Australasia. Using the biological species concept, previous workers have postulated approximately 40–42 species in the family. Of these, approximately 13 are monotypic and 27 are polytypic with about 100 subspecies. Phylogenetic species are irreducible (basal) clusters of organisms (terminal taxa) that are diagnosably distinct from other such clusters. Within the context of this concept, approximately 90 species of paradisaeids are postulated (...)
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  14. added 2015-01-12
    M. Porcar, A. Danchin & V. de Lorenzo (2015). Confidence, Tolerance, and Allowance in Biological Engineering: The Nuts and Bolts of Living Things. Bioessays 37 (1):95-102.
    The emphasis of systems and synthetic biology on quantitative understanding of biological objects and their eventual re-design has raised the question of whether description and construction standards that are commonplace in electric and mechanical engineering are applicable to live systems. The tuning of genetic devices to deliver a given activity is generally context-dependent, thereby undermining the re-usability of parts, and predictability of function, necessary for manufacturing new biological objects. Tolerance (acceptable limits within the unavoidable divergence of a nominal value) and (...)
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  15. added 2015-01-09
    T. Pradeu (forthcoming). Toolbox Murders: Putting Genes in Their Epigenetic and Ecological Contexts. Biology and Philosophy:1-18.
    Griffiths and Stotz’s Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction offers a very good overview of scientific and philosophical issues raised by present-day genetics. Examining, in particular, the questions of how a “gene” should be defined and what a gene does from a causal point of view, the authors explore the different domains of the life sciences in which genetics has come to play a decisive role, from Mendelian genetics to molecular genetics, behavioural genetics, and evolution. In this review, I highlight what (...)
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  16. added 2015-01-07
    Andrew R. Deans, Barry Smith & Others (2015). Finding Our Way Through Phenotypes. PLoS Biology 13 (1).
    Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a community-wide, consensus-based, human- and machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most pressing scientific bottleneck to integration across many key fields in biology, including genomics, systems biology, development, medicine, evolution, ecology, and systematics. Here we survey the current phenomics landscape, including data resources and handling, and the progress that (...)
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  17. added 2015-01-05
    Catherine Kendig (2014). Synthetic Biology and Biofuels. In Paul B. Thompson & David M. Kaplan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. Springer.
  18. added 2015-01-05
    Catherine Kendig (2014). Hybridity in Agriculture. In Paul B. Thompson & David M. Kaplan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. Springer.
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  19. added 2015-01-03
    Stavros Ioannidis (2014). The Philosophy of Stem Cells. [REVIEW] Metascience:1-4.
    Melinda Fagan’s book on the philosophy of stem cell biology is a superb discussion of this exciting field of contemporary science, and the first book-length philosophical treatment of the subject. It contains a detailed and insightful examination of stem cell science, its structure, methods, and challenges.The book does not require any previous knowledge of stem cell biology—all the relevant scientific details and concepts, the central experimental procedures and results, as well as the historical development of the field, are presented in (...)
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  20. added 2014-12-30
    Mary P. Winsor (2006). Linaeus' Biology Was Not Essentialist. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 93 (1):2-7.
    The current picture of the history of taxonomy incorporates A. J. Cain's claim that Linnaeus strove to apply the logical method of definition taught by medieval followers of Aristotle. Cain's argument does not stand up to critical examination. Contrary to some published statements, there is no evidence that Linnaeus ever studied logic. His use of the words “genus” and “species” ruined the meaning they had in logic, and “essential” meant to him merely “taxonomically useful.” The essentialism story, a narrative that (...)
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  21. added 2014-12-29
    Stavros Ioannidis (2014). Functions and Functional Explanation Revisited. [REVIEW] Metascience:1-6.
    Functions: selection and mechanisms is a collection of eleven original contributions to the philosophical debates surrounding functions. In the words of Philippe Huneman, editor of the volume, the aim of the book is to reflect “upon the metaphysics of function and the various problems that functional explanations raise” . This is accomplished by a diverse collection of chapters that focus on various aspects of the main topic. A collection such as this is certainly welcome. As Huneman notes in his introduction, (...)
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  22. added 2014-12-27
    Brendan Shea (2014). Runaway Memes. In Nicolas Michaud & Jessica Watkins (eds.), Jurassic Park and Philosophy: The Truth is Terrifying. Open Court. 29-39.
    Charles Darwin famously argued that that life on earth was not the product of intelligent design, and that it instead had arisen through the entirely natural of process of evolution via natural selection. Darwin’s theory of evolution (together with Mendel’s theory of genetics) now forms the foundation of all the biological sciences. Jurassic Park, however, raises an interesting question: just how does Darwin’s theory apply to lifeforms that are the products of explicit, intelligent design? In this essay, I examine cluster (...)
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  23. added 2014-12-21
    Mark A. Musen, Natalya F. Noy, Nigam H. Shah, Patricia L. Whetzel, Christopher G. Chute, Margaret-Anne Story & Barry Smith (2012). The National Center for Biomedical Ontology. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 19 (2):190-195.
    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is now in its seventh year. The goals of this National Center for Biomedical Computing are to: create and maintain a repository of biomedical ontologies and terminologies; build tools and web services to enable the use of ontologies and terminologies in clinical and translational research; educate their trainees and the scientific community broadly about biomedical ontology and ontology-based technology and best practices; and collaborate with a variety of groups who develop and use ontologies and (...)
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  24. added 2014-12-21
    Daniel L. Rubin, Noy N. F. and Musen M. A. Lewis, Chris J. Mungall, Sima Misra, Monty Westerfield, Michael Ashburner, Ida Sim, Christopher G. Chute, Harold Solbrig, Margaret A. Storey, Barry Smith, John D. Richter, Natasha F. Noy & Mark A. Musen (2006). The National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicine Through Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge. Omics: A Journal of Integrative Biology, 10(2), 2006, 10 (2):185-198.
    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap, to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create (...)
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  25. added 2014-12-20
    Daniel Shargel (forthcoming). Emotions Without Objects. Biology and Philosophy:1-14.
    It is widely assumed that emotions have particular intentional objects. This assumption is consistent with the way that we talk: when we attribute states of anger, we often attribute anger at someone, or at something. It is also consistent with leading theories of emotion among philosophers and psychologists, according to which emotions are like judgments or appraisals. However, there is evidence from the social psychology literature suggesting that this assumption is actually false. I will begin by presenting a criterion for (...)
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  26. added 2014-12-20
    Darren Natale, Cecilia N. Arighi, Winona C. Barker, Judith A. Blake, Carol J. Bult, Michael Caudy, Harold J. Drabkin, Peter D’Eustachio, Alexei V. Evsikov, Hongzhan Huang, Jules Nchoutmboube, Natalia V. Roberts, Barry Smith, Jian Zhang & Cathy H. Wu (2011). The Protein Ontology: A Structured Representation of Protein Forms and Complexes. Nucleic Acids Research 39 (1):D539-D545.
    The Protein Ontology (PRO) provides a formal, logically-based classification of specific protein classes including structured representations of protein isoforms, variants and modified forms. Initially focused on proteins found in human, mouse and Escherichia coli, PRO now includes representations of protein complexes. The PRO Consortium works in concert with the developers of other biomedical ontologies and protein knowledge bases to provide the ability to formally organize and integrate representations of precise protein forms so as to enhance accessibility to results of protein (...)
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  27. added 2014-12-18
    Jonathan Birch & Samir Okasha (2015). Kin Selection and Its Critics. BioScience 65 (1):22-32.
    Hamilton’s theory of kin selection is the best-known framework for understanding the evolution of social behavior but has long been a source of controversy in evolutionary biology. A recent critique of the theory by Nowak, Tarnita, and Wilson sparked a new round of debate, which shows no signs of abating. In this overview, we highlight a number of conceptual issues that lie at the heart of the current debate. We begin by emphasizing that there are various alternative formulations of Hamilton’s (...)
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  28. added 2014-12-17
    Lindell Bromham (forthcoming). What is a Gene For? Biology and Philosophy:1-21.
    The word “gene” means different things to different people, and can even be used in multiple ways by the same individual. In this review, I follow a particular thread running through Griffith and Stotz’s “Genetics and Philosophy: an introduction”, which is the way that methods of investigation influence the way we define the concept of “gene”, from nineteen century breeding experiments to twenty-first century big data bioinformatics. These different views lead to a set of gene concepts, which only partially overlap (...)
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  29. added 2014-12-17
    Lucas J. Mix (2014). Proper Activity, Preference, and the Meaning of Life. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 6.
    The primary challenge for generating a useful scientific definition of life comes from competing concepts of biological activity and our failure to make them explicit in our models. I set forth a three-part scheme for characterizing definitions of life, identifying a binary , a range , and a preference . The three components together form a proper activity in biology . To be clear, I am not proposing that proper activity be adopted as the best definition of life or even (...)
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  30. added 2014-12-17
    Andreas Dorschel (1990). Kulturevolution, Biologie und Sprache. Empirische und rationale Selektionskriterien. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 38 (10):984-992.
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  31. added 2014-12-17
    Andreas Dorschel (1990). Der Mensch als Tier. Anmerkungen zum Programm der ‘human sociobiology’. Prima Philosophia 3 (2).
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  32. added 2014-12-17
    Andreas Dorschel (1990). Die soziobiologische Obsoletierung des ‘Reichs der Zwecke’. Zum Versuch der naturwissenschaftlichen Legitimation einer zynischen Anthropologie. Gregorianum 71 (1):5-22.
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  33. added 2014-12-16
    Brian Key (forthcoming). Fish Do Not Feel Pain and its Implications for Understanding Phenomenal Consciousness. Biology and Philosophy:1-17.
    Phenomenal consciousness or the subjective experience of feeling sensory stimuli is fundamental to human existence. Because of the ubiquity of their subjective experiences, humans seem to readily accept the anthropomorphic extension of these mental states to other animals. Humans will typically extrapolate feelings of pain to animals if they respond physiologically and behaviourally to noxious stimuli. The alternative view that fish instead respond to noxious stimuli reflexly and with a limited behavioural repertoire is defended within the context of our current (...)
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  34. added 2014-12-15
    Adrian Currie (forthcoming). Marsupial Lions and Methodological Omnivory: Function, Success and Reconstruction in Paleobiology. Biology and Philosophy:1-23.
    Historical scientists frequently face incomplete data, and lack direct experimental access to their targets. This has led some philosophers and scientists to be pessimistic about the epistemic potential of the historical sciences. And yet, historical science often produces plausible, sophisticated hypotheses. I explain this capacity to generate knowledge in the face of apparent evidential scarcity by examining recent work on Thylacoleo carnifex, the ‘marsupial lion’. Here, we see two important methodological features. First, historical scientists are methodological omnivores, that is, they (...)
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  35. added 2014-12-09
    Ross H. Nehm & Kostas Kampourakis (2014). History and Philosophy of Science and the Teaching of Macroevolution. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 401-421.
    Although macroevolution has been the subject of sustained attention in the history and philosophy of science (HPS) community, only in recent years have science educators begun to more fully engage with the topic. This chapter first explores how science educators have conceptualized macroevolution and how their perspectives align with the views from HPS. Second, it illustrates how science educators’ limited engagement with HPS scholarship on macroevolution has influenced construct delineation, measurement instrument development, and educational arguments about which aspects of macroevolution (...)
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  36. added 2014-12-09
    Kostas Kampourakis & Ross H. Nehm (2014). History and Philosophy of Science and the Teaching of Evolution: Students’ Conceptions and Explanations. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 377-399.
    A large body of work in science education indicates that evolution is one of the least understood and accepted scientific theories. Although scholarship from the history and philosophy of science (HPS) has shed light on many conceptual and pedagogical issues in evolution education, HPS-informed studies of evolution education are also characterized by conceptual weaknesses. In this chapter, we critically review such studies and find that some work lacks historically accurate characterizations of student ideas (preconceptions and misconceptions). In addition, although several (...)
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  37. added 2014-12-09
    Charbel N. El-Hani, Ana Maria R. de Alameida, Gilberto C. Bomfim, Leyla M. Joaquim, João Carlos M. Magalhães, Lia M. N. Meyer, Maiana A. Pitombo & Vanessa C. dos Santos (2014). The Contribution of History and Philosophy to the Problem of Hybrid Views About Genes in Genetics Teaching. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 469-520.
    Currently there are persistent doubts about the meaning and contributions of the gene concept, mostly related to its interpretation as a stretch of DNA encoding a single functional product, i.e., the classical molecular gene concept. There is, however, much conceptual variation around genes, leading to important difficulties in genetics teaching. We investigated whether and how conceptual variation related to the gene concept and gene function models is present in school science and what potential problems it may bring to genetics teaching (...)
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  38. added 2014-12-05
    Ingo Brigandt & Alan C. Love (2012). Conceptualizing Evolutionary Novelty: Moving Beyond Definitional Debates. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 318:417-427.
    According to many biologists, explaining the evolution of morphological novelty and behavioral innovation are central endeavors in contemporary evolutionary biology. These endeavors are inherently multidisciplinary but also have involved a high degree of controversy. One key source of controversy is the definitional diversity associated with the concept of evolutionary novelty, which can lead to contradictory claims (a novel trait according to one definition is not a novel trait according to another). We argue that this diversity should be interpreted in light (...)
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  39. added 2014-12-05
    Ingo Brigandt, Essay: Homology. The Embryo Project Encyclopedia.
    Homology is a central concept of comparative and evolutionary biology, referring to the presence of the same bodily parts (e.g., morphological structures) in different species. The existence of homologies is explained by common ancestry, and according to modern definitions of homology, two structures in different species are homologous if they are derived from the same structure in the common ancestor. Homology has traditionally been contrasted with analogy, the presence of similar traits in different species not necessarily due to common ancestry (...)
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  40. added 2014-12-02
    Brent D. Mishler (1999). Getting Rid of Species? In Robert A. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. MIT Press. 307-315.
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  41. added 2014-12-02
    Kevin de Queiroz & Michael J. Donoghue (1990). Phylogenetic Systematics and Species Revisited. Cladistics 6 (1):83-90.
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  42. added 2014-11-28
    Klaus Gilgenmann & Bertold Schweitzer (2006). Homo – sociologicus – sapiens: Zur evolutionstheoretischen Einbettung soziologischer Menschenmodelle. Zeitschrift für Soziologie 35 (5):348–371.
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  43. added 2014-11-28
    Bertold Schweitzer & Klaus Gilgenmann (2005). Strukturelle Analogien bei biotischer und soziokultureller Evolution. Erwägen Wissen Ethik 16 (3):421–424.
    The article by B. Stephan (this issue) describes characteristics and stages of change of sociobiological and socio-cultural units. However, neither analogy nor evolutionary and developmental concept are sufficiently precise. In addition, Stephan pays no attention to structural analogies between biotic and cultural change, and therefore comes to the misguided assessment that socio-cultural change is to be construed as a developmental rather than an evolutionary process.
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  44. added 2014-11-26
    Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). Toolbox Murders: Putting Genes in Their Epigenetic and Ecological Contexts: A Review of Griffiths and Stotz, Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy.
    Griffiths and Stotz’s Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction offers a very good overview of scientific and philosophical issues raised by present-day genetics. Examining, in particular, the questions of how a “gene” should be defined and what a gene does from a causal point of view, the authors explore the different domains of the life sciences in which genetics has come to play a decisive role, from Mendelian genetics to molecular genetics, behavioural genetics, and evolution. In this review, I highlight what (...)
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  45. added 2014-11-26
    Maureen O'Malley, Ingo Brigandt, Alan C. Love, John W. Crawford, Jack A. Gilbert, Rob Knight, Sandra D. Mitchell & Forest Rohwer (2014). Multilevel Research Strategies and Biological Systems. Philosophy of Science 81:811-828.
    Multilevel research strategies characterize contemporary molecular inquiry into biological systems. We outline conceptual, methodological, and explanatory dimensions of these multilevel strategies in microbial ecology, systems biology, protein research, and developmental biology. This review of emerging lines of inquiry in these fields suggests that multilevel research in molecular life sciences has significant implications for philosophical understandings of explanation, modeling, and representation.
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  46. added 2014-11-24
    Heather Dyke & James Maclaurin (2013). Evolutionary Explanations of Temporal Experience. In Heather Dyke & Adrian Bardon (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Time. Wiley-Blackwell. 521-535.
    A common approach in the Philosophy of Time, particularly in enquiry into the metaphysical nature of time, has been to examine various aspects of the nature of human temporal experience, and ask what, if anything, can be discerned from this about the nature of time itself. Many human traits have explanations that reside in facts about our evolutionary history. We ask whether features of human temporal experience might admit of such evolutionary explanations. We then consider the implications of any proposed (...)
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  47. added 2014-11-19
    Chad J. McGuire (2014). Losing the Message: Some Policy Implications of Anthropocentric Indirect Arguments for Environmental Protection. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (3):261-263.
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  48. added 2014-11-19
    Duncan Purves (2014). Anthropocentric Indirect Arguments and Anthropocentric Moral Attitudes. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (3):267-270.
    Anthropocentric indirect arguments , which call for specific policies or actions because of human benefits that are correlated with but not caused by benefits to the environment, are gaining increasing traction with those who take a pragmatic approach to environmental protection. I contend that nonanthropocentrists might remain justifiably uneasy about AIAs because such arguments fail to challenge prevailing speciesist moral attitudes. I close by considering whether Elliott can address this concern of nonanthropocentrists by appealing to the ability of AIAs to (...)
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  49. added 2014-11-19
    Laura Smith (2014). On the ‘Emotionality’ of Environmental Restoration: Narratives of Guilt, Restitution, Redemption and Hope. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (3):286-307.
    This paper presents a moral–emotional critique of environmental restoration, through discussion of narratives of redemption. The importance of ‘redemption’ vis-à-vis other environmental discourses rests with its capacity to unpack how, why and in what circumstances the idea of ‘putting something back’ for nature exerts a hold on the popular imagination. This paper thus examines the ethical and emotional experiences bound up in restoration discourses, to identify the motives deployed to confront shame and an associated guilt, and achieve restitution. In turn, (...)
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  50. added 2014-11-19
    Greg Bothun (2014). Do Anthropocentric Indirect Arguments Have Any Scientific Validity? A Commentary on Anthropocentric Indirect Arguments for Environmental Protection, by K. Elliot. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (3):275-278.
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