Search results for 'Knowledge representation (Information theory' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  81
    Fred Dretske (1983). Precis of Knowledge and the Flow of Information. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (1):55-90.
    A theory of information is developed in which the informational content of a signal (structure, event) can be specified. This content is expressed by a sentence describing the condition at a source on which the properties of a signal depend in some lawful way. Information, as so defined, though perfectly objective, has the kind of semantic property (intentionality) that seems to be needed for an analysis of cognition. Perceptual knowledge is an information-dependent internal state with a content corresponding (...)
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  2.  6
    Niels Ole Finnemann (1989). Computerization as a Means of Cultural Change: On the Relations Between Information Theories and the Idea of an Information Society. [REVIEW] AI and Society 4 (4):314-328.
    Since World War II the concept of Information has received several new definitions. Information can be understood as knowledge in general, as theoretical, formalized knowledge in general or as knowledge related to specific domains or specific representational forms. Because of these mutually inconsistent concepts the common traits are to be found in a perspective transcendent to those theories. The central cultural changes, it is argued, take place on the level of the societal knowledge infrastructure, evolving from (...)
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  3.  15
    Wayne Wobcke (2000). An Information-Based Theory of Conditionals. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 41 (2):95-141.
    We present an approach to combining three areas of research which we claim are all based on information theory: knowledge representation in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science using prototypes, plans, or schemata; formal semantics in natural language, especially the semantics of the `if-then' conditional construct; and the logic of subjunctive conditionals first developed using a possible worlds semantics by Stalnaker and Lewis. The basic premise of the paper is that both schema-based inference and the semantics of conditionals (...)
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  4.  7
    Ericka Engelstad & Siri Gerrard (eds.) (2005). Challenging Situatedness: Gender, Culture and the Production of Knowledge. Eburon.
    Challenging Situatedness contends that the production of knowledge is just that—a production, and one fraught with intrinsic and often unconscious biases. In fact, to assume that scientific research is inherently objective, neutral, and therefore genderless can, quite literally, be harmful to one's health. The contributors to this volume instead argue for a situated knowledge, a research model that acknowledges different cultural realities and actively articulates context-rich ways of knowing. Drawing on international research studies—from Cameroon, Ghana, India, and Sweden, (...)
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  5. Bruce M. Hood & Laurie Santos (eds.) (2009). The Origins of Object Knowledge. Oxford University Press.
    Do humans start life with the capacity to detect and mentally represent the objects around them? Or is our object knowledge instead derived only as the result of prolonged experience with the external world? Are we simply able to perceive objects by watching their actions in the world, or do we have to act on objects ourselves in order to learn about their behavior? Finally, do we come to know all aspects of objects in the same way, or are (...)
     
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  6.  66
    Christopher Menzel (2011). Knowledge Representation, the World Wide Web, and the Evolution of Logic. Synthese 182 (2):269-295.
    It is almost universally acknowledged that first-order logic (FOL), with its clean, well-understood syntax and semantics, allows for the clear expression of philosophical arguments and ideas. Indeed, an argument or philosophical theory rendered in FOL is perhaps the cleanest example there is of “representing philosophy”. A number of prominent syntactic and semantic properties of FOL reflect metaphysical presuppositions that stem from its Fregean origins, particularly the idea of an inviolable divide between concept and object. These presuppositions, taken at face (...)
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  7.  7
    Michael Levison (2012). The Semantic Representation of Natural Language. Bloomsbury Academic.
    Introduction -- Basic concepts -- Previous approaches -- Semantic expressions: introduction -- Formal issues -- Semantic expressions: basic features -- Advanced features -- Applications: capture -- Three little pigs -- Applications: creation.
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  8. Grzegorz Malinowski (1999). Formalization of Intensional Functions and Epistemic Knowledge Representation Systems. Logica Trianguli 3:111-118.
    o formalization of intensional functions was made for the purpose of many-valued interpretation of the belief-operators within the scope of the classical logic system. The first aim of the paper is to present and discuss this rather unknown many-valued construction and its properties. The fact that the manyvaluedness of o systems is purely formal - their characteristic matrices are Boolean - calls for further consideration. Departing from intristic similarities of the tables for the epistemic operators to the information functions we (...)
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  9.  62
    Peter Gardenfors (2004). Conceptual Spaces as a Framework for Knowledge Representation. Mind and Matter 2 (2):9-27.
    The dominating models of information processes have been based on symbolic representations of information and knowledge. During the last decades, a variety of non-symbolic models have been proposed as superior. The prime examples of models within the non-symbolic approach are neural networks. However, to a large extent they lack a higher-level theory of representation. In this paper, conceptual spaces are suggested as an appropriate framework for non- symbolic models. Conceptual spaces consist of a number of 'quality dimensions' (...)
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  10. Gerard Allwein & Jon Barwise (eds.) (1996). Logical Reasoning with Diagrams. Oxford University Press.
    One effect of information technology is the increasing need to present information visually. The trend raises intriguing questions. What is the logical status of reasoning that employs visualization? What are the cognitive advantages and pitfalls of this reasoning? What kinds of tools can be developed to aid in the use of visual representation? This newest volume on the Studies in Logic and Computation series addresses the logical aspects of the visualization of information. The authors of these specially commissioned papers (...)
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  11.  30
    Dilip Patel & Shushma Patel (2003). The Cognitive Process of Problem Solving: A Soft Systems Approach. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 4 (2):283-295.
    In this paper we describe the nature and problems of business and define one aspect of the business environment. We then propose a framework based on augmented soft systems methodology and object technology that captures both the soft and hard aspects of a business environment within the context of organisational culture. We also briefly discuss cognitive informatics and its relevance to understanding problems and solutions. Pólya's work, which is based around solving mathematical problems, is considered within the context of information (...)
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  12. Leo Corry (2002). Pioneers of Representation Theory: Frobenius, Burnside, Schur, and Brauer. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 93:126-127.
    Charles W. Curtis is a prominent mathematician who has made important contributions to the field of representation theory. His textbooks in this field have been classics for a long time. In Pioneers of Representation Theory he has set out to present the historical development of the main ideas of the discipline, from the work of Georg Ferdinand Frobenius in the 1890s up to 1960. In addition to Frobenius, the book focuses mainly on three other “pioneers”: William (...)
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  13.  30
    Selmer Bringsjord, Micah Clark & Joshua Taylor (forthcoming). Sophisticated Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Requires Philosophy. In Ruth Hagengruber (ed.), Philosophy's Relevance in Information Science.
    Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR&R) is based on the idea that propositional content can be rigorously represented in formal languages long the province of logic, in such a way that these representations can be productively reasoned over by humans and machines; and that this reasoning can be used to produce knowledge-based systems (KBSs). As such, KR&R is a discipline conventionally regarded to range across parts of artificial intelligence (AI), computer science, and especially logic. This standard view of (...)
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  14.  81
    James M. Fielding, Jonathan Simon, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2004). Ontological Theory for Ontological Engineering: Biomedical Systems Information Integration. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. AMIA
    Software application ontologies have the potential to become the keystone in state-of-the-art information management techniques. It is expected that these ontologies will support the sort of reasoning power required to navigate large and complex terminologies correctly and efficiently. Yet, there is one problem in particular that continues to stand in our way. As these terminological structures increase in size and complexity, and the drive to integrate them inevitably swells, it is clear that the level of consistency required for such navigation (...)
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  15. Harry Halpin (2011). Sense and Reference on the Web. Minds and Machines 21 (2):153-178.
    We examine a crucial question for the World Wide Web: What does a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) mean? Crucial for the next-generation Semantic Web, can it refer to things outside web-pages? The Web is a universal information space for naming and accessing information via URIs. However, the classical philosophical problems of meaning and reference that have been the source of debate within the philosophy of language return when the Web is given as the foundation for a knowledge representation (...)
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  16.  44
    Didier Dubois, Petr Hájek & Henri Prade (2000). Knowledge-Driven Versus Data-Driven Logics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (1):65--89.
    The starting point of this work is the gap between two distinct traditions in information engineering: knowledge representation and data - driven modelling. The first tradition emphasizes logic as a tool for representing beliefs held by an agent. The second tradition claims that the main source of knowledge is made of observed data, and generally does not use logic as a modelling tool. However, the emergence of fuzzy logic has blurred the boundaries between these two traditions by (...)
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  17.  65
    Michael Kohlhase, Model Generation for Discourse Representation Theory.
    Semantic analysis, – inference on the basis of semantic information and world knowledge – still is largely uncharted territory in dy- (3) namic semantics. It is needed, among other things, for the reconstruction of linguistically unspecified parts of the discourse or for restricting ambiguities introduced by prior analysis processes, i.e.
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  18.  5
    Kathryn Blackmond Laskey (2014). Information, Physics and the Representing Mind. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 10 (1):131-139.
    A primary function of mind is to form and manipulate representations to identify and choose survival-enhancing behaviors. Representations are themselves physical systems that can be manipulated to reason about, predict, or plan actions involving the objects they designate. The field of knowledge representation and reasoning turns representation upon itself to study how representations are formed and used by biological and computer systems. Some of the most versatile and successful KRR methods have been imported from computational physics. Features (...)
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  19.  9
    Knut H. Rolland (2006). Achieving Knowledge Across Borders: Facilitating Practices of Triangulation, Obliterating “Digital Junkyards”. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 8 (3):143-154.
    International companies expanding and competing in an increasingly global context are currently discovering the necessity of sharing knowledge across geographical and disciplinary borders. Yet, especially in such contexts, sharing knowledge is inherently complex and problematic in practice. Inspired by recent contributions in science studies, this paper argues that knowledge sharing in a global context must take into account the heterogeneous and locally embedded nature of knowledge. In this perspective, knowledge cannot easily be received through advanced (...)
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  20.  10
    Kathryn Blackmond Laskey, Bruce D'Ambrosio, Tod S. Levitt & Suzanne Mahoney (2000). Limited Rationality in Action: Decision Support for Military Situation Assessment. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (1):53-77.
    Information is a force multiplier. Knowledge of the enemy''s capability and intentions may be of far more value to a military force than additional troops or firepower. Situation assessment is the ongoing process of inferring relevant information about the forces of concern in a military situation. Relevant information can include force types, firepower, location, and past, present and future course of action. Situation assessment involves the incorporation of uncertain evidence from diverse sources. These include photographs, radar scans, and other (...)
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  21.  7
    Kathryn Blackmond Laskey, Bruce D'Ambrosio, Tod S. Levitt & Suzanne Mahoney (2000). Limited Rationality in Action: Decision Support for Military Situation Assessment. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (1):53-77.
    Information is a force multiplier. Knowledge of the enemy's capability and intentions may be of far more value to a military force than additional troops or firepower. Situation assessment is the ongoing process of inferring relevant information about the forces of concern in a military situation. Relevant information can include force types, firepower, location, and past, present and future course of action. Situation assessment involves the incorporation of uncertain evidence from diverse sources. These include photographs, radar scans, and other (...)
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  22. Gabriel Vacariu (2014). More Troubles with Cognitive Neuroscience. Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Hyperverse. University of Bucharest Publishing Company.
    In my last two books 2012 and 2014, I investigated some important problems of cognitive neuroscience. The general conclusion of these two works (2012 and 2014) is that cognitive neuroscience is a pseudo-science. In Part I of this book 2014, Chapter 1, I introduce the EDWs perspective (from my book published in 2012). In Part II, I investigate more troubles with cognitive neuroscience. (For other troubles of this “science”, see Vacariu 2012, Vacariu and Vacariu 2013) In Chapter 2, I analyze (...)
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  23.  47
    Dov M. Gabbay (ed.) (2003). Many-Dimensional Modal Logics: Theory and Applications. Elsevier North Holland.
    Modal logics, originally conceived in philosophy, have recently found many applications in computer science, artificial intelligence, the foundations of mathematics, linguistics and other disciplines. Celebrated for their good computational behaviour, modal logics are used as effective formalisms for talking about time, space, knowledge, beliefs, actions, obligations, provability, etc. However, the nice computational properties can drastically change if we combine some of these formalisms into a many-dimensional system, say, to reason about knowledge bases developing in time or moving objects. (...)
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  24. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2002). Mental Imagery: In Search of a Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):157-182.
    It is generally accepted that there is something special about reasoning by using mental images. The question of how it is special, however, has never been satisfactorily spelled out, despite more than thirty years of research in the post-behaviorist tradition. This article considers some of the general motivation for the assumption that entertaining mental images involves inspecting a picture-like object. It sets out a distinction between phenomena attributable to the nature of mind to what is called the cognitive architecture, and (...)
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  25. Hakwan Lau (2008). A Higher Order Bayesian Decision Theory of Consciousness. In Rahul Banerjee & B. K. Chakrabarti (eds.), Models of Brain and Mind: Physical, Computational, and Psychological Approaches. Elsevier
    It is usually taken as given that consciousness involves superior or more elaborate forms of information processing. Contemporary models equate consciousness with global processing, system complexity, or depth or stability of computation. This is in stark contrast with the powerful philosophical intuition that being conscious is more than just having the ability to compute. I argue that it is also incompatible with current empirical findings. I present a model that is free from the strong assumption that consciousness predicts superior performance. (...)
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  26.  1
    Philip Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne (2002). Conditionals: A Theory of Meaning, Pragmatics, and Inference. Psychological Review 109 (4):646-678.
    The authors outline a theory of conditionals of the form If A then C and If A then possibly C. The 2 sorts of conditional have separate core meanings that refer to sets of possibilities. Knowledge, pragmatics, and semantics can modulate these meanings. Modulation can add information about temporal and other relations between antecedent and consequent. It can also prevent the construction of possibilities to yield 10 distinct sets of possibilities to which conditionals can refer. The mental (...) of a conditional normally makes explicit only the possibilities in which its antecedent is true, yielding other possibilities implicitly. Reasoners tend to focus on the explicit possibilities. The theory predicts the major phenomena of understanding and reasoning with conditionals. (shrink)
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  27.  66
    Max Kistler (2000). Source and Channel in the Informational Theory of Mental Content. Facta Philosophica 2 (2):213-36.
    With the aim of giving a naturalistic foundation to the notion of mental representation, Fred Dretske (1981;1988) has put forward and developed the idea that the relation between a representation and its intentional content is grounded on an informational relation. In this explanatory model, mental representations are conceived of as states of organisms which a learning process has selected to play a functional role: a necessary condition for fulfilling this role is that the organism or some proper part (...)
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  28.  5
    Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Investigations Into Information Semantics and Ethics of Computing.
    The recent development of the research field of Computing and Philosophy has triggered investigations into the theoretical foundations of computing and information. This thesis consists of two parts which are the result of studies in two areas of Philosophy of Computing (PC) and Philosophy of Information (PI) regarding the production of meaning (semantics) and the value system with applications (ethics). The first part develops a unified dual-aspect theory of information and computation, in which information is characterized as structure, and (...)
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  29.  12
    Jan Doroszewski & Andrzej Delegacz (1988). Model Structure of a Fragment of Biological Knowledge (Cell Motility). Acta Biotheoretica 37 (3-4):237-266.
    The aim of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of some aspects of the structure of biological knowledge and to make clearer to what extent the methods of reasoning may be useful in this field when only qualitative information is available. A fragment of biological knowledge (theory of cell motility) is analysed from the logico-methodological point of view as a coherent system and the possibility of its formal representation is investigated. The analysis is (...)
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  30. Max Kistler, Source and Channel in the Informational Theory of Mental Content.
    With the aim of giving a naturalistic foundation to the notion of mental representation, Fred Dretske has put forward and developed the idea that the relation between a representation and its intentional content is grounded on an informational relation. In this explanatory model, mental representations are conceived of as states of organisms which a learning process has selected to play a functional role: a necessary condition for fulfilling this role is that the organism or some proper part of (...)
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  31. Carl F. Craver (2014). The Ontic Account of Scientific Explanation. In Marie I. Kaiser, Oliver R. Scholz, Daniel Plenge & Andreas Hüttemann (eds.), Explanation in the Special Sciences: The Case of Biology and History. Springer Netherlands 27-52.
    According to one large family of views, scientific explanations explain a phenomenon (such as an event or a regularity) by subsuming it under a general representation, model, prototype, or schema (see Bechtel, W., & Abrahamsen, A. (2005). Explanation: A mechanist alternative. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 36(2), 421–441; Churchland, P. M. (1989). A neurocomputational perspective: The nature of mind and the structure of science. Cambridge: MIT Press; Darden (2006); Hempel, C. G. (1965). Aspects of (...)
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  32.  12
    Gianni Amati, Luigia Carlucci Aiello & Fiora Pirri (1994). Defaults as Restrictions on Classical Hilbert-Style Proofs. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 3 (4):303-326.
    Since the earliest formalisation of default logic by Reiter many contributions to this appealing approach to nonmonotonic reasoning have been given. The different formalisations are here presented in a general framework that gathers the basic notions, concepts and constructions underlying default logic. Our view is to interpret defaults as special rules that impose a restriction on the juxtaposition of monotonic Hubert-style proofs of a given logicL. We propose to describe default logic as a logic where the juxtaposition of default proofs (...)
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  33.  34
    Glyn W. Humphreys & Emer M. E. Forde (2001). Hierarchies, Similarity, and Interactivity in Object Recognition: “Category-Specific” Neuropsychological Deficits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):453-476.
    Category-specific impairments of object recognition and naming are among the most intriguing disorders in neuropsychology, affecting the retrieval of knowledge about either living or nonliving things. They can give us insight into the nature of our representations of objects: Have we evolved different neural systems for recognizing different categories of object? What kinds of knowledge are important for recognizing particular objects? How does visual similarity within a category influence object recognition and representation? What is the nature of (...)
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  34.  88
    D. Sturdee (1997). The Semantic Shuffle: Shifting Emphasis in Dretske's Account of Representational Content. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 47 (1):89-104.
    In Knowledge and the Flow of Information, Fred Dretske explains representational content by appealing to natural indication: a mental representation has its content in virtue of being a reliable natural indicator of a particular type of state of the world. His account fails for several reasons, not the least of which is that it cannot account for misrepresentation. Recognizing this, Dretske adds a twist in his more recent work on representational content (sketched in 'Misrepresentation' and elaborated in Explaining (...)
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  35.  4
    Hans Rott (2006). The Value of Truth and the Value of Information : On Isaac Levi's Epistemology. In Erik J. Olsson (ed.), Knowledge and Inquiry: Essays on the Pragmatism of Isaac Levi. Cambridge University Press 179.
    The paper aims at a perspicuous representation of Isaac Levi's pragmatist epistemology, spanning from the 1967 classic "Gambling with Truth" to his 2004 book on "Mild Contraction". Based on a formal framework for Levi's notion of inquiry, I analyse his decision-theoretic approach with truth and information as basic cognitive values, and with Shackle measures as emerging structures. Both cognitive values figure prominently in Levi's model of inductive belief expansion, but only the value of information is employed in his model (...)
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  36.  38
    Peter Gärdenfors (1990). Induction, Conceptual Spaces and AI. Philosophy of Science 57 (1):78-95.
    A computational theory of induction must be able to identify the projectible predicates, that is to distinguish between which predicates can be used in inductive inferences and which cannot. The problems of projectibility are introduced by reviewing some of the stumbling blocks for the theory of induction that was developed by the logical empiricists. My diagnosis of these problems is that the traditional theory of induction, which started from a given (observational) language in relation to which all (...)
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  37. William J. Rapaport (2005). In Defense of Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: How to Do Things with Words in Context. In Anind Dey, Boicho Kokinov, David Leake & Roy Turner (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context. Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 3554 396--409.
    Contextual vocabulary acquisition (CVA) is the deliberate acquisition of a meaning for a word in a text by reasoning from context, where “context” includes: (1) the reader’s “internalization” of the surrounding text, i.e., the reader’s “mental model” of the word’s “textual context” (hereafter, “co-text” [3]) integrated with (2) the reader’s prior knowledge (PK), but it excludes (3) external sources such as dictionaries or people. CVA is what you do when you come across an unfamiliar word in your reading, realize (...)
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  38.  12
    Peter Gardenfors (1990). Induction, Conceptual Spaces and AI. Philosophy of Science 57 (1):78 - 95.
    A computational theory of induction must be able to identify the projectible predicates, that is to distinguish between which predicates can be used in inductive inferences and which cannot. The problems of projectibility are introduced by reviewing some of the stumbling blocks for the theory of induction that was developed by the logical empiricists. My diagnosis of these problems is that the traditional theory of induction, which started from a given (observational) language in relation to which all (...)
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  39.  7
    Františka + Tim Gilman (2011). Rainer Ganahl's S/L. Continent 1 (1):15-20.
    The greatest intensity of “live” life is captured from as close as possible in order to be borne as far as possible away. Jacques Derrida. Echographies of Television . Rainer Ganahl has made a study of studying. As part of his extensive autobiographical art practice, he documents and presents many of the ambitious educational activities he undertakes. For example, he has been videotaping hundreds of hours of solitary study that show him struggling to learn Chinese, Arabic and a host of (...)
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  40.  14
    Michalis Vafopoulos (2012). Being, Space, and Time on the Web. Metaphilosophy 43 (4):405-425.
    The Web initially emerged as an “antidote” to accumulated scientific knowledge, since it enables global representation and communication at a minimum cost. Its gigantic scale and interdependence allow us our ability to find relevant information and develop trustworthy contexts. It is time for science to compensate by providing an epistemological “antidote” to Web issues. Philosophy should be in the front line by forming the salient questions and analysis. We need a theory about Web being that will bridge (...)
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  41.  14
    Joel Snyder (1985). Las Meninas and the Mirror of the Prince. Critical Inquiry 11 (4):539-572.
    It is ironic that, with few exceptions, the now vast body of critical literature about Diego Velázquez’s Las Meninas fails to link knowledge to understanding—fails to relate the encyclopedic knowledge we have acquired of its numerous details to a convincing understanding of the painting as a whole. Las Meninas is imposing and monumental; yet a large portion of the literature devoted to it considers only its elements: aspects of its nominal subjects, their biographies, and their roles in the (...)
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  42.  13
    Sergei Artemov & Roman Kuznets (2014). Logical Omniscience as Infeasibility. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 165 (1):6-25.
    Logical theories for representing knowledge are often plagued by the so-called Logical Omniscience Problem. The problem stems from the clash between the desire to model rational agents, which should be capable of simple logical inferences, and the fact that any logical inference, however complex, almost inevitably consists of inference steps that are simple enough. This contradiction points to the fruitlessness of trying to solve the Logical Omniscience Problem qualitatively if the rationality of agents is to be maintained. We provide (...)
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  43.  21
    Mark DeBellis (1999). The Paradox of Music Analysis. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1999:209-217.
    Music analysis raises interesting problems for the theory of mental representation and meaning, and poses new challenges for epistemology. When an analysis purports to show the structure an analyst or reader hears a piece as having, what relation must thereby hold between hearing and analysis, and how does the analyst or reader know that it does? A paradox of analysis arises: if an analysis correctly captures the information content of a hearing, then it is bound to be uninformative. (...)
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  44.  21
    Mary R. Newsome & P. N. Johnson-Laird (2006). How Falsity Dispels Fallacies. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (2):214 – 234.
    From certain sorts of premise, individuals reliably infer invalid conclusions. Two Experiments investigated a possible cause for these illusory inference: Reasoners fail to think about what is false. In Experiment 1, 24 undergraduates drew illusory and control inferences from premises based on exclusive disjunctions (“or else”). In one block, participants were instructed to falsify the premises of each illusory and control inference before making the inference. In the other block, participants did not receive these instructions. There were more correct answers (...)
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  45.  16
    Thierry Ripoll (1998). Why This Makes Me Think of That. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (1):15 – 43.
    This study was aimed at explaining how and under what conditions surface similarity leads to the retrieval of an analogous base problem in LTM. Some elements of a theory of the organisation of knowledge in memory are proposed. Two levels of representation are distinguished. The first level represents directly accessible, local surface properties. The second level represents more abstract information pertaining to the category with which each analogous problem can be associated. Some results will be described showing (...)
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  46.  2
    David Rowe (2002). Hermann Weyl's Raum‐Zeit‐Materie and a General Introduction to His Scientific Work. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 93:326-327.
    In the range of his intellectual interests and the profundity of his mathematical thought Hermann Weyl towered above his contemporaries, many of whom viewed him with awe. This volume, the most ambitious study to date of Weyl's singular contributions to mathematics, physics, and philosophy, looks at the man and his work from a variety of perspectives, though its gaze remains fairly steadily fixed on Weyl the geometer and space‐time theorist. Structurally, the book falls into two parts, described in the general (...)
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  47. Stephen Schiffer (2003). Things We Mean. Oxford University Press Uk.
    If there exist such things as the things we mean, then those things are also the things we believe, and the things in terms of which we must understand all semantic notions. If such entities as the things we mean and believe exist, an account of their nature must be the most foundational concern in the theory of linguistic and mental representation.Schiffer argues that there are such things as the things we mean and believe. They are what he (...)
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  48.  15
    Philip T. Dunwoody, Adam S. Goodie & Robert P. Mahan (2005). The Use of Base Rate Information as a Function of Experienced Consistency. Theory and Decision 59 (4):307-344.
    Three experiments examine the effect of base rate consistency under direct experience. Base rate consistency was manipulated by blocking trials and setting base rate choice reinforcement to be either consistent or inconsistent across trial blocks. Experiment 1 shows that, contrary to the usual finding, participants use base rate information more than individuating information when it is consistent, but less when it is inconsistent. In Experiment 2, this effect was replicated, and transferred in verbal questions posed subsequently. Despite experience with consistent (...)
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  49.  29
    Michael Grüninger & Christopher Menzel (2003). The Process Specification Language: Theory and Applications. AI Magazine 24 (3):63-74.
    The Process Specification Language (PSL) has been designed to facilitate correct and complete exchange of process information among manufacturing systems, such as scheduling, process modeling, process planning, production planning, simulation, project management, work flow, and business process reengineering. We given an overview of the theories with the PSL ontology, discuss some of the design principles for the ontology, and finish with examples of process specifications that are based on the ontology.
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  50.  5
    Niels Peek (1997). Representing Law in Partial Information Structures. Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (4):263-290.
    This paper presents a new language for isomorphic representations of legalknowledge in feature structures. The language includes predefinedstructures based on situation theory for common-sense categories, andpredefined structures based on Van Kralingens frame-based conceptualmodelling language for legal rules. It is shown that the flexibility of thefeature-structure formalism can exploited to allow for structure-preservingrepresentations of non-primitive concepts, and to enable various types ofinteraction and cross- reference between language elements. A fragment of theDutch Opium Act is used to illustrate how modelling and (...)
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