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Profile: Robert Bishop (Wheaton College, Illinois)
  1. Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop, Stability Conditions in Contextual Emergence.
    The concept of contextual emergence is proposed as a non-reductive, yet welldefined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It is illustrated for the transition from statistical mechanics to thermodynamical properties such as temperature. Stability conditions are crucial for a rigorous implementation of contingent contexts that are required to understand temperature as an emergent property. It is proposed that such stability conditions are meaningful for contextual emergence beyond physics as well.
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  2. Robert Bishop (2013). Review of" After Physicalism". [REVIEW] Essays in Philosophy 14 (2):8.
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  3. Robert C. Bishop (2012). Excluding the Causal Exclusion Argument Against Non-Redirective Physicalism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (5-6):57-74.
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  4. J. Scott Jordan, Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop (2012). Varieties of Causation in Consciousness Studies. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (5-6):5-6.
     
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  5. Robert Bishop (2010). The Via Negativa: Not the Way to Physicalism. Mind and Matter 8 (2):203-214.
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  6. Robert C. Bishop (2010). Whence Chemistry? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 41 (2):171-177.
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  7. Robert Bishop (2009). Book Review: Recasting Reality with Wolfgang Pauli. [REVIEW] Mind and Matter 7 (2):249-251.
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  8. Robert Bishop (2009). Contemporary Views on Compatibilism and Incompatibilism: Dennett and Kane. Mind and Matter 7 (1):91-110.
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  9. Robert C. Bishop (2009). What is This Naturalism Stuff All About? Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 29 (2):108-113.
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  10. Robert Bishop, Chaos. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  11. Robert C. Bishop (2008). What Could Be Worse Than the Butterfly Effect? Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (4):pp. 519-547.
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  12. Robert Bishop (2007). The Philosophy of the Social Sciences: An Introduction. Continuum.
  13. Robert C. Bishop (2006). The Hidden Premise in the Causal Argument for Physicalism. Analysis 66 (289):44-52.
    The causal argument for physicalism is anayzed and it's key premise--the causal closure of physics--is found wanting. Therefore, a hidden premise must be added to the argument to gain its conclusion, but the hidden premise is indistinguishable from the conclusion of the causal argument. Therefore, it begs the question on physicalism.
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  14. Robert C. Bishop & Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1753-1777.
    The role of contingent contexts in formulating relations between properties of systems at different descriptive levels is addressed. Based on the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions for interlevel relations, a comprehensive classification of such relations is proposed, providing a transparent conceptual framework for discussing particular versions of reduction, emergence, and supervenience. One of these versions, contextual emergence, is demonstrated using two physical examples: molecular structure and chirality, and thermal equilibrium and temperature. The concept of stability is emphasized as a (...)
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  15. Robert Bishop (2005). Patching Physics and Chemistry Together. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):710-722.
    The "usual story" regarding molecular chemistry is that it is roughly an application of quantum mechanics. That is to say, quantum mechanics supplies everything necessary and sufficient, both ontologically and epistemologically to reduce molecular chemistry to quantum mechanics. This is a reductive story, to be sure, but a key explanatory element of molecular chemistry, namely molecular structure, is absent from the quantum realm. On the other hand, typical characterizations of emergence, such as the unpredictability or inexplicability of molecular structure based (...)
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  16. Robert C. Bishop (2005). Anvil or Onion? Determinism as a Layered Concept. Erkenntnis 63 (1):55 - 71.
    Kellert (In the Wake of Chars, University of Chicago press, Chicago, 1993) has argued that Laplacean determinism in classical physics is actually a layered concept, where various properties or layers composing this form of determinism can be peeled away. Here, I argue that a layered conception of determinism is inappropriate and that we should think in terms of different deterministic models applicable to different kinds of systems. The upshot of this analysis is that the notion of state is more closely (...)
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  17. Robert C. Bishop, Determinism and Indeterminism.
    Determinism is a rich and varied concept. At an abstract level of analysis, Jordan Howard Sobel (1998) identifies at least ninety varieties of what determinism could be like. When it comes to thinking about what deterministic laws and theories in physical sciences might be like, the situation is much clearer. There is a criterion by which to judge whether a law–expressed as some form of equation–is deterministic. A theory would then be deterministic just in case all its laws taken as (...)
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  18. Robert C. Bishop (2005). Downward Causation in Fluid Convection. Synthese 160 (2):229 - 248.
    Recent developments in nonlinear dynamics have found wide application in many areas of science from physics to neuroscience. Nonlinear phenomena such as feedback loops, inter-level relations, wholes constraining and modifying the behavior of their parts, and memory effects are interesting candidates for emergence and downward causation. Rayleigh–Bénard convection is an example of a nonlinear system that, I suggest, yields important insights for metaphysics and philosophy of science. In this paper I propose convection as a model for downward causation in classical (...)
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  19. Robert C. Bishop (2005). Patching Physics and Chemistry Together. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):710-722.
    The "usual story" regarding molecular chemistry is that it is roughly an application of quantum mechanics. That is to say, quantum mechanics supplies everything necessary and sufficient, both ontologically and epistemologically, to reduce molecular chemistry to quantum mechanics. This is a reductive story, to be sure, but a key explanatory element of molecular chemistry, namely molecular structure, is absent from the quantum realm. On the other hand, typical characterizations of emergence, such as the unpredictability or inexplicability of molecular structure based (...)
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  20. Marcel Weber, Warren Schmaus, Heather A. Jamniczky, Gry Oftedal, Robert C. Bishop, Axel Gelfert, Mathias Frisch, Daniel Parker, Mario Castagnino & Olimpia Lombardi (2005). 1. Preface Preface (Pp. I-Ii). Philosophy of Science 72 (5).
     
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  21. Robert C. Bishop (2004). Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics Brussels–Austin Style. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 35 (1):1-30.
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  22. Frank C. Richardson & Robert C. Bishop (2004). Practices, Power, and Cultural Ideals. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 24 (2):179-195.
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  23. Robert Bishop, Brussels-Austin Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics in the Early Years: Similarity Transformations Between Deterministic and Probabilistic Descriptions.
    The fundamental problem on which Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels-Austin Group have focused can be stated briefly as follows. Our observations indicate that there is an arrow of time in our experience of the world (e.g., decay of unstable radioactive atoms like Uranium, or the mixing of cream in coffee). Most of the fundamental equations of physics are time reversible, however, presenting an apparent conflict between our theoretical descriptions and experimental observations. Many have thought that the observed arrow of time (...)
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  24. Robert Bishop, Brussels-Austin Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics in the Later Years: Large Poincaré Systems and Rigged Hilbert Space.
    This second part of a two-part essay discusses recent developments in the Brussels-Austin Group after the mid 1980s. The fundamental concerns are the same as in their similarity transformation approach (see Part I), but the contemporary approach utilizes rigged Hilbert space (whereas the older approach used Hilbert space). While the emphasis on nonequilibrium statistical mechanics remains the same, the use of similarity transformations shifts to the background. In its place arose an interest in the physical features of large Poincaré systems, (...)
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  25. Robert C. Bishop (2003). On Separating Predictability and Determinism. Erkenntnis 58 (2):169--88.
    There has been a long-standing debate about the relationshipof predictability and determinism. Some have maintained that determinism impliespredictability while others have maintained that predictability implies determinism. Manyhave maintained that there are no implication relations between determinism andpredictability. This summary is, of course, somewhat oversimplified and quick at least in thesense that there are various notions of determinism and predictability at work in thephilosophical literature. In this essay I will focus on what I take to be the Laplacean visionfor determinism and (...)
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  26. Robert C. Bishop (2003). Free Will in Absentia: Dennett on Free Will and Determinism. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 23 (2):168-183.
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  27. Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop (eds.) (2002). Between Chance and Choice: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Determinism. Thorverton UK: Imprint Academic.
    These and other questions emphasize the fact that chance and choice are two leading actors on stage whenever issues of determinism are under discussion. ...
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  28. Robert C. Bishop (2002). Chaos, Indeterminism, and Free Will. In Robert H. Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. Oxford University Press.
     
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  29. Robert C. Bishop, Quantum Time Arrows, Semigroups and Time-Reversal in Scattering.
    Two approaches toward the arrow of time for scattering processes have been proposed in rigged Hilbert space quantum mechanics. One, due to Arno Bohm, involves preparations and registrations in laboratory operations and results in two semigroups oriented in the forward direction of time. The other, employed by the Brussels-Austin group, is more general, involving excitations and de-excitations of systems, and apparently results in two semigroups oriented in opposite directions of time. It turns out that these two time arrows can be (...)
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  30. Robert C. Bishop, The Arrow of Time in Rigged Hilbert Space Quantum Mechanics.
    Arno Bohm and Ilya Prigogine's Brussels-Austin Group have been working on the quantum mechanical arrow of time and irreversibility in rigged Hilbert space quantum mechanics. A crucial notion in Bohm's approach is the so-called preparation/registration arrow. An analysis of this arrow and its role in Bohm's theory of scattering is given. Similarly, the Brussels-Austin Group uses an excitation/de-excitation arrow for ordering events, which is also analyzed. The relationship between the two approaches is discussed focusing on their semi-group operators and time (...)
     
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  31. Frank Richardson & Robert Bishop (2002). Rethinking Determinism in Social Science. In Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop (eds.), Between Chance and Choice: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Determinism. Thorverton Uk: Imprint Academic. 425--446.
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  32. Robert C. Bishop & Frederick M. Kronz (1999). Is Chaos Indeterministic?. In. In Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara (ed.), Language, Quantum, Music. 129--141.
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