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  1. Sahotra Sarkar, Selection of Conservation Area Networks.
    estimated surrogates for biodiversity. Using data setsfrom Quebec and Queensland, zve applied four methods to assess the extent to zvhich environmental surrogates can represent biodiversity components: (1) surrogacy graphs; (2) marginal representation plots; (3) Hamming distance function; and (4) Syj rala statistical test for..
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  2. Sahotra Sarkar & Paul E. Griffiths, Evolutionary Psychology: History and Current Status.
    The evolutionary study of the mind in the twentieth century has been marked by three self-conscious movements: classical ethology, sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology (capitalized to indicate that it functions here as a proper name). Classical ethology was established in the years immediately before the Second World War, primarily by Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen (Burckhardt, 1983). Interrupted by the war, the movement blossomed in the early 1950s, when ethologists established major research institutes in most developed countries and developed a successful (...)
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  3. Sahotra Sarkar & James Justus, The Principle of Complementarity in the Design of Reserve Networks to Conserve Biodiversity: A Preliminary History.
    Explicit, quantitative procedures for identifying biodiversity priority areas are replacing the often ad hoc procedures used in the past to design networks of reserves to conserve biodiversity. This change facilitates more informed choices by policy makers, and thereby makes possible greater satisfaction of conservation goals with increased efficiency. A key feature of these procedures is the use of the principle of complementarity, which ensures that areas chosen for inclusion in a reserve network complement those already selected. This paper sketches the (...)
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  4. Sahotra Sarkar, Inconceivable Support Relations: Reply to Stanford –.
    Philosophers are drawn to the Atomic Theory like a dog to an old shoe, but my results about realism and anti-realism in Tracking Truth, and the distinctive position I have carved out on their basis, are independent of the fate of my comments about that historical case. I will defend those comments against Stanford’s objections below, but first I will explain the argument of my chapter, because its results undermine not only historically important antirealist positions, but also the approach via (...)
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  5. Sahotra Sarkar (forthcoming). Does “Information” Provide a Compelling Framework for a Theory of Natural Selection? Grounds for Caution. Philosophical Explorations.
    Frank has recently argued for an information-theoretic interpretation of natural selection. This interpretation is based on the identification of a measure related to the Malthusian parameter (for population change) with the Jeffreys divergence between the present allelic distribution of the population and that distribution in the next generation. It is pointed out in this analysis that this identification only holds if the mean fitness of the population is a constant, that is, there is no selection. This problem is used to (...)
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  6. Sahotra Sarkar (forthcoming). What is Life? Revisited. BioScience.
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  7. Sahotra Sarkar (2014). Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45:89-91.
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  8. Sahotra Sarkar (2014). Environmental Philosophy: Response to Critics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45:105-109.
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  9. Sahotra Sarkar (2014). Formal Darwinism. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):249-257.
    Two questions are raised for Grafen’s formal darwinism project of aligning evolutionary dynamics under natural selection with the optimization of phenotypes for individuals of a population. The first question concerns mean fitness maximization during frequency-dependent selection; in such selection regimes, not only is mean fitness typically not maximized but it is implausible that any parameter closely related to fitness is being maximized. The second question concerns whether natural selection on inclusive fitness differences can be regarded as individual selection or whether (...)
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  10. Sahotra Sarkar (2014). The Inevitability of Normative Analysis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):436.
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  11. Sahotra Sarkar (2013). Carnap and the Compulsions of Interpretation: Reining in the Liberalization of Empiricism. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):353-372.
    Carnap’s work was instrumental to the liberalization of empiricism in the 1930s that transformed the logical positivism of the Vienna Circle to what came to be known as logical empiricism. A central feature of this liberalization was the deployment of the Principle of Tolerance, originally introduced in logic, but now invoked in an epistemological context in “Testability and Meaning” (Carnap 1936a, 1937b). Immediately afterwards, starting with Foundations of Logic and Mathematics, Carnap (1939) embraced semantics and turned to interpretation to guide (...)
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  12. Sahotra Sarkar (2013). Multiple Criteria and Trade-Offs in Environmental Ethics. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):533-537.
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  13. Sahotra Sarkar (2012). Flights of Fancy. Metascience 21 (2):425-426.
    Flights of fancy Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-2 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9572-y Authors Sahotra Sarkar, Section of Integrative Biology, Department of Philosophy, University of Texas at Austin, Waggener Hall 316, Austin, TX 78712-1180, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  14. Sahotra Sarkar (2011). Drift and the Causes of Evolution. In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. 445.
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  15. Sahotra Sarkar (2011). Habitat Reconstruction: Moving Beyond Historical Fidelity. In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. 11--327.
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  16. Sahotra Sarkar (2011). Sober on Intelligent Design. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 83 (3):683-691.
    This response to Sober's (2008) Evidence and Evolution draws out and criticizes some consequences of his analysis because of its reliance on a likelihood framework for adjucating the dispute between (Intelligent Design) creationism and evolution. In particular, Sober's analysis does not allow it to be formally claimed that evolutionary theory better explains living phenomena than Intelligent Design and makes irrelevant the contribution of the theory of evolution by natural selection to assessments of the status of the argument from design. Finally, (...)
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  17. Sahotra Sarkar (2011). The Science Question in Intelligent Design. Synthese 178 (2):291 - 305.
    Intelligent Design creationism is often criticized for failing to be science because it falls afoul of some demarcation criterion between science and non-science. This paper argues that this objection to Intelligent Design is misplaced because it assumes that a consistent non-theological characterization of Intelligent Design is possible. In contrast, it argues that, if Intelligent Design is taken to be non-theological doctrine, it is not intelligible. Consequently, a demarcation criterion cannot be used to judge its status. This position has the added (...)
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  18. Sahotra Sarkar (2008). A Note on Frequency Dependence and the Levels/Units of Selection. Biology and Philosophy 23 (2):217-228.
    On the basis of distinctions between those properties of entities that can be defined without reference to other entities and those that (in different ways) cannot, this note argues that non-trivial forms of frequency-dependent selection of entities should be interpreted as selection occurring at a level higher than that of those entities. It points out that, except in degenerately simple cases, evolutionary game-theoretic models of selection are not models of individual selection. Similarly, models of genotypic selection such as heterosis cannot (...)
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  19. Sahotra Sarkar, Ecology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  20. Sahotra Sarkar (2008). Review of Steve Fuller, Science V. Religion? Intelligent Design and the Problem of Evolution. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (8).
  21. Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.) (2008). A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell Pub..
    Comprised of essays by top scholars in the field, this volume offers concise overviews of philosophical issues raised by biology. Brings together a team of eminent scholars to explore the philosophical issues raised by biology Addresses traditional and emerging topics, spanning molecular biology and genetics, evolution, developmental biology, immunology, ecology, mind and behaviour, neuroscience, and experimentation Begins with a thorough introduction to the field Goes beyond previous treatments that focused only on evolution to give equal attention to other areas, such (...)
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  22. Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.) (2008). Blackwell's Companion to Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell's/Routledge.
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  23. Sahotra Sarkar (2007). From Ecological Diversity to Biodiversity. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  24. J. Pfeifer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.) (2006). The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.
    One of the central projects in the philosophy of science is to account for this ...
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  25. Sahotra Sarkar (2006). Ecological Diversity and Biodiversity as Concepts for Conservation Planning: Comments on Ricotta. Acta Biotheoretica 54 (2).
    Ricotta argues against the existence of a unique measure of biodiversity by pointing out that no known measure of α-diversity satisfies all the adequacy conditions that have traditionally been set for it. While that technical claim is correct, it is not relevant in the context of defining biodiversity which is most usefully measured by β-diversity. The concept of complementarity provides a closely related family of measures of biodiversity which can be used for systematic conservation planning. Moreover, these measures cannot be (...)
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  26. Sahotra Sarkar & Pfeifer Jessica (2006). The Philosophy of Science: An Introduction. In J. Pfeifer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.
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  27. Sahotra Sarkar & Jessica Pfeifer (eds.) (2006). The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.
    The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that examines the profound philosophical questions that arise from scientific research and theories. A sub-discipline of philosophy that emerged in the twentieth century, the philosophy of science is largely a product of the British and Austrian schools of thought and traditions. The first in-depth reference in the field that combines scientific knowledge with philosophical inquiry, The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia is a two-volume set that brings together an international team of (...)
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  28. Sahotra Sarkar (2005). Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores the epistemological and ethical issues at the foundations of environmental philosophy, emphasizing the conservation of biodiversity. Sahota Sarkar criticizes previous attempts to attribute intrinsic value to nature and defends an anthropocentric position on biodiversity conservation based on an untraditional concept of transformative value. Unlike other studies in the field of environmental philosophy, this book is as much concerned with epistemological issues as with environmental ethics. It covers a broad range of topics, including problems of explanation and prediction (...)
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  29. Sahotra Sarkar (2005). Maynard Smith, Optimization, and Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):951-966.
    Maynard Smith’s defenses of adaptationism and of the value of optimization theory in evolutionary biology are both criticized. His defense does not adequately respond to the criticism of adaptationism by Gould and Lewontin. It is also argued here that natural selection cannot be interpreted as an optimization process if the objective function to be optimized is either (i) interpretable as a fitness, or (ii) correlated with the mean population fitness. This result holds even if fitnesses are frequency-independent; the problem is (...)
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  30. Sahotra Sarkar, Conservation Biology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Conservation biology emerged as an organized academic discipline in the United States in the 1980s though much of its theoretical framework was originally developed in Australia. Significant differences of approach in the two traditions were resolved in the late 1990s through the formulation of a consensus framework for the design and adaptive management of conservation area networks. This entry presents an outline of that framework along with a critical analysis of conceptual issues concerning the four theoretical problems that emerge from (...)
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  31. Sahotra Sarkar (2004). Evolutionary Theory in the 1920s: The Nature of the “Synthesis”. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1215-1226.
    This paper analyzes the development of evolutionary theory in the period from 1918 to 1932. It argues that: (i) Fisher's work in 1918 constituted a not fully satisfactory reduction of biometry to Mendelism; (ii) there was a synthesis in the 1920s but that this synthesis was mainly one of classical genetics with population genetics, with Haldane's The Causes of Evolution being its founding document; (iii) the most important achievement of the models of theoretical population genetics was to show that natural (...)
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  32. Sahotra Sarkar (2004). Evolutionary Theory in the 1920s: The Nature of the "Synthesis". Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1215-1226.
    This paper analyzes the development of evolutionary theory in the period from 1918 to 1932. It argues that: (i) Fisher’s work in 1918 constitutes a not fully satisfactory reduction of biometry to Mendelism; (ii) that there was a synthesis in the 1920s but that this synthesis was mainly one of classical genetics with population genetics, with Haldane’s Causes of Evolution being its founding document; (iii) the most important achievement of the models of theoretical population genetics was to show that natural (...)
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  33. Sahotra Sarkar (2004). Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Papers on Molecular Biology. A Bradford Book.
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  34. Justin Garson, Linton Wang & Sahotra Sarkar (2003). How Development May Direct Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 18 (2):353-370.
    A framework is presented in which the role ofdevelopmental rules in phenotypic evolution canbe studied for some simple situations. Usingtwo different implicit models of development,characterized by different developmental mapsfrom genotypes to phenotypes, it is shown bysimulation that developmental rules and driftcan result in directional phenotypic evolutionwithout selection. For both models thesimulations show that the critical parameterthat drives the final phenotypic distributionis the cardinality of the set of genotypes thatmap to each phenotype. Details of thedevelopmental map do not matter. If phenotypesare (...)
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  35. Gregg Jaeger & Sahotra Sarkar (2003). Coherence, Entanglement, and Reductionist Explanation in Quantum Physics," . In A. Ashtekar et al (ed.), Revisiting the foundations of relativistic physics. 523--542.
    The scope and nature of reductionist explanation in quantum physics is analyzed, with special attention being paid to the situation in quantum physics.
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  36. Sahotra Sarkar (2003). Husserl's Role in Carnap's der Raum. In Thomas Bonk (ed.), Language, Truth and Knowledge. Kluwer. 179--190.
  37. Sahotra Sarkar & Jason Scott Robert (2003). Introduction. Biology and Philosophy 18 (2):209-217.
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  38. Julia Voss & Sahotra Sarkar (2003). Depictions as Surrogates for Places: From Wallace's Biogeography to Koch's Dioramas. Philosophy and Geography 6 (1):59 – 81.
    Habitat dioramas depicting ecological relations between organisms and their natural environments have become the preferred mode of museum display in most natural history museums in North America and Europe. Dioramas emerged in the late nineteenth century as an alternative mode of museum installation from taxonomically arranged cases. We suggest that this change was closely connected to the emergence of a biogeographical framework rooted in evolutionary theory and positing the existence of distinct biogeographical zones. We tie the history of dioramas to (...)
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  39. Sahotra Sarkar (2002). Defining “Biodiversity”; Assessing Biodiversity. The Monist 85 (1):131-155.
    This paper analyzes the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology and assesses potential methods for its measurement.
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  40. Sahotra Sarkar (2002). The Study of Plasticity Comes of Age. BioScience 52 (8):750.
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  41. Melinda Fagan & Sahotra Sarkar (2001). Darwinism in Philosophy, Social Science and Public Policy. Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):747-749.
  42. Sahotra Sarkar & Jason Scott Robert (2001). Biology and Philosophy Special Issue for 2003 – Evolution and Development. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):573-573.
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  43. Sahotra Sarkar & JasonScott Robert (2001). Biology and Philosophy Special Issue for 2003 – Evolution and Development. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):573-573.
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  44. Sahotra Sarkar (2000). Information in Genetics and Developmental Biology: Comments on Maynard Smith. Philosophy of Science 67 (2):208-213.
  45. Philip Cafaro, Warren Platts, Richard Primack & Sahotra Sarkar (1999). Conserving Wilderness Areas. BioScience 49 (9):687.
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  46. Sahotra Sarkar (1999). From the reaktionsNorm to the Adaptive Norm: The Norm of Reaction, 1909–1960. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):235-252.
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  47. Sahotra Sarkar (1999). Wilderness Preservation and Biodiversity Conservation: Keeping Divergent Goals Distinct. BioScience 49 (5):405.
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  48. Sahotra Sarkar & John Stachel (1999). Did Malament Prove the Non-Conventionality of Simultaneity in the Special Theory of Relativity? Philosophy of Science 66 (2):208-220.
    David Malament's (1977) well-known result, which is often taken to show the uniqueness of the Poincare-Einstein convention for defining simultaneity, involves an unwarranted physical assumption: that any simultaneity relation must remain invariant under temporal reflections. Once that assumption is removed, his other criteria for defining simultaneity are also satisfied by membership in the same backward (forward) null cone of the family of such cones with vertices on an inertial path. What is then unique about the Poincare-Einstein convention is that it (...)
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  49. Denis Thieffry & Sahotra Sarkar (1999). Postgenomics? A Conference at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin. BioScience 49 (3):223-227.
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  50. Sahotra Sarkar (1997). Conservation and Island Biogeography. BioScience 47 (2):124-125.
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