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Philosophers of medicine have sought to explain and analyse the reasoning processes involved in diagnosis and the status of diagnostic criteria. Recent work has examined how advances in medical technologies – ranging from increasingly sophisticated imaging to computational techniques relying on machine learning and data-mining – can increase accuracy and enable earlier diagnosis, but also change diagnostic criteria or their interpretation, and potentially even alter medical concepts. Bioethicists and medical humanities disciplines offer social and ethical analyses of the diagnostic process including potential for (harmful or beneficial) medicalisation and labelling.

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  1. An Ethical Enquiry That Questions Whether Psychiatrists Truly Are Mental Health/Disability Experts? Reasons to Doubt!Giuseppe Naimo - forthcoming - In Patricia Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies, vol. 14. Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research. pp. Chapter 13 pp. 143-158.
    The observation that a crisis of confidence regarding Psychiatry exists is a notion shared even among psychiatrists themselves. Psychiatry has a checkered history and its alliance with the pharmaceutical industry, aka Big-Pharma, continues to reinforce a need for healthy skepticism. Why? Mainly, an over-reliance on the questionable expertise and authority afforded psychiatry as the specialists of mental health. I contend that the authority of psychiatry is misplaced and too often harmful. Since the criteria required to justify and satisfy psychiatric expertise (...)
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  2. Reconstructing Truth, Deconstructing ADHD : Badiou, Onto-Epistemological Violence and the Diagnosis of "ADHD".Mattias Nilsson Sjöberg - forthcoming - Critical Studies in Education.
    Psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses have expanded in number and scale with increased influence over matters of education and upbringing. One of the most common psychiatric diagnoses among children and adolescents is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The dominant perspective of ADHD is biomedical, where ADHD is defined as a neurogenetic dysfunction and disorder of the brain. Due to the absence of biological markers, the diagnosis is legitimized on the basis of a humanitarian principle: as an ideology. Through the diagnosis, which is construed in (...)
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  3. “The Ultimate Risk:” How Clinicians Assess the Value and Meaning of Genetic Data in Cardiology.Kellie Owens - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092095956.
    In modern medicine, health risks are often managed through the collection of health data and subsequent intervention. One of the goals of clinical genetics, for example, is to identify genetic predisposition to disease so that individuals can intervene to prevent potential harms. But recently, some clinicians have suggested that patients should undergo less testing and monitoring in an effort to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment. In this paper, I explore how clinicians navigate the tension between identifying real disease risks for their (...)
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  4. Fuzzy Logic-Based Formalisms for Gynecology Disease Diagnosis.Anjali Sardesai, Vilas Kharat, Pradip Sambarey & Ashok Deshpande - forthcoming - Journal of Intelligent Systems.
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  5. A Three-Stage Hybrid Clustering System for Diagnosing Children with Primary Headache Disorder.Svetlana Simić, Slađana Sakač, Zorana Banković, José R. Villar, José Luis Calvo-Rolle, Svetislav D. Simić & Dragan Simić - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    Headache disorders can be considered as the predominant neurological condition. In the field of neurological diseases, migraine was estimated to cost a total of €27 billion per year for the loss through reduced work productivity in the European Community. Medical data and information in turn provide knowledge based on which physicians make scientific decisions for diagnosis and treatments. It is, therefore, very useful to create diagnostic tools to help physicians make better decisions. This paper is focused on a new hybrid (...)
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  6. Should Doctors Offer Biomarker Testing to Those Afraid to Develop Alzheimer’s Dementia?Marthe Smedinga, Eline M. Bunnik, Edo Richard & Maartje H. N. Schermer - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-11.
    An increasing number of people seek medical attention for mild cognitive symptoms at older age, worried that they might develop Alzheimer’s disease. Some clinical practice guidelines suggest offering biomarker testing in such cases, using a brain scan or a lumbar puncture, to improve diagnostic certainty about Alzheimer’s disease and enable an earlier diagnosis. Critics, on the other hand, point out that there is no effective Alzheimer treatment available and argue that biomarker tests lack clinical validity. The debate on the ethical (...)
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  7. ‘Isn’T Everyone a Little OCD?’:The Epistemic Harms of Wrongful Depathologisation.Lucienne J. Spencer & Havi Hannah Carel - forthcoming - Philosophy of Medicine.
    In this paper we identify a new and distinct form of epistemic harm we term 'wrongful depathologisation': the devaluing of the epistemic status of people with mental disorder by reducing their symptoms to mere personality traits and denying them a fully recognised psychiatric identity. We argue that wrongful depathologisation involves simultaneously stigmatising and trivialising a mental disorder and that therein lies its harmfulness. This creates a twilight zone of mental disorder, where the ill person is deemed to both exaggerate their (...)
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  8. Enhancing Gender.Hazem Zohny, Brian D. Earp & Julian Savulescu - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-13.
    Transgender healthcare faces a dilemma. On the one hand, access to certain medical interventions, including hormone treatments or surgeries, where desired, may be beneficial or even vital for some gender dysphoric trans people. But on the other hand, access to medical interventions typically requires a diagnosis, which, in turn, seems to imply the existence of a pathological state—something that many transgender people reject as a false and stigmatizing characterization of their experience or identity. In this paper we argue that developments (...)
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  9. Differential Diagnosis of Akinetic Mutism and Disorder of Consciousness Using Diffusion Tensor Tractography: A Case Report.Dong Hyun Byun & Sung Ho Jang - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    This paper presents a case in whom a differential diagnosis of akinetic mutism with a disorder of consciousness was made using diffusion tensor tractography. A 69-year-old female patient was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage produced by the subarachnoid hemorrhage. She exhibited impaired consciousness with a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score of 13 until 1 month after onset. Her impaired consciousness recovered slowly to a normal state according to the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised at 7 weeks after onset. On (...)
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  10. Classification of Anomalies in Gastrointestinal Tract Using Deep Learning.Ibtesam M. Dheir & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (3):15-28.
    Automatic detection of diseases and anatomical landmarks in medical images by the use of computers is important and considered a challenging process that could help medical diagnosis and reduce the cost and time of investigational procedures and refine health care systems all over the world. Recently, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease diagnosis through endoscopic image classification is an active research area in the biomedical field. Several GI tract disease classification methods based on image processing and machine learning techniques have been proposed (...)
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  11. Retina Diseases Diagnosis Using Deep Learning.Abeer Abed ElKareem Fawzi Elsharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (2):11-37.
    There are many eye diseases but the most two common retinal diseases are Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), which the sharp, central vision and a leading cause of vision loss among people age 50 and older, there are two types of AMD are wet AMD and DRUSEN. Diabetic Macular Edema (DME), which is a complication of diabetes caused by fluid accumulation in the macula that can affect the fovea. If it is left untreated it may cause vision loss. Therefore, early detection (...)
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  12. Doubt, Delusion and Diagnosis.Huw Green - 2022 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 29 (1):21-23.
    A team of professionals considers whether a patient in her early 50s is developing Alzheimer’s. The patient is not experiencing the memory symptoms typical of that disease, with so far a few years of sporadic attentional lapses as the predominant cognitive complaint. Her most dramatic symptom is her impression that two versions of her husband live with her. One is her real husband, the other a “fake.” There is no elaborated story about who the fake is or why he is (...)
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  13. Case Report: Mechanisms in Misdiagnosis of Autism as Borderline Personality Disorder.Stine Iversen & Arvid Nikolai Kildahl - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Autistic individuals without intellectual disabilities are sometimes not diagnosed until adolescence/adulthood. Due to increased risk of co-occurring mental health problems, these individuals may initially be referred to general, mental health services and not always be identified as autistic; some may be misdiagnosed with personality disorder prior to identification of autism. To explore possible mechanisms in misdiagnosis of autism, we report on the case of a young man with severe, non-suicidal self-injury and attention deficit disorder who had been diagnosed with and (...)
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  14. Systematic Framework to Predict Early-Stage Liver Carcinoma Using Hybrid of Feature Selection Techniques and Regression Techniques.Marium Mehmood, Nasser Alshammari, Saad Awadh Alanazi & Fahad Ahmad - 2022 - Complexity 2022:1-11.
    The liver is the human body’s mandatory organ, but detecting liver disease at an early stage is very difficult due to the hiddenness of symptoms. Liver diseases may cause loss of energy or weakness when some irregularities in the working of the liver get visible. Cancer is one of the most common diseases of the liver and also the most fatal of all. Uncontrolled growth of harmful cells is developed inside the liver. If diagnosed late, it may cause death. Treatment (...)
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  15. Diagnosis and Psychotherapeutic Needs by Early Maladaptive Schemas in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.Cornelia Rada, Dan Gheonea, Cristian George Ţieranu & Denisa Elena Popa - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Inflammatory bowel disease is chronic and incurable. Imperious diarrhea, rectal bleeding, fatigue, and weight loss, the main manifestations, cause a decrease in the quality of the patient’s personal and professional life. The objectives of this study were to identify a possible relationship between early maladaptive schemas and disease activity status using logistic regression, to identify the prevalence of early maladaptive schemes in patients and to propose a psychotherapeutic intervention plan. The following were found in a sample of 46 patients aged (...)
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  16. Identification of Efficient COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Through Artificial Neural Networks Approach − Substantiated by Modeling and Simulation.Rabia Afrasiab, Asma Talib Qureshi, Fariha Imtiaz, Syed Fasih Ali Gardazi & Mustafa Kamal Pasha - 2021 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 30 (1):836-854.
    Soon after the first COVID-19 positive case was detected in Wuhan, China, the virus spread around the globe, and in no time, it was declared as a global pandemic by the WHO. Testing, which is the first step in identifying and diagnosing COVID-19, became the first need of the masses. Therefore, testing kits for COVID-19 were manufactured for efficiently detecting COVID-19. However, due to limited resources in the densely populated countries, testing capacity even after a year is still a limiting (...)
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  17. “Lights and Shadows”: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Lived Experience of Being Diagnosed With Breast Cancer During Pregnancy.Federica Facchin, Giovanna Scarfone, Giancarlo Tamanza, Silvia Ravani, Federica Francini, Fedro Alessandro Peccatori, Eugenia Di Loreto, Andrea Dell’Acqua & Emanuela Saita - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare event. The most common type of malignancy diagnosed in pregnant women is breast cancer, whose incidence is expected to raise in the next future due to delayed childbirth, as well as to the increased occurrence of the disease at young age. Pregnant women diagnosed with breast cancer are exposed to multiple sources of stress, which may lead to poorer obstetric outcomes, such as preterm birth and low birth weight. In addition, pregnancy involves physiological (...)
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  18. Philosophical Reflections on New Foundations of Mental Health: The Personality Modulation Clinic.Alireza Farnam, Masumeh Zamanlu, Bahareh Deljou & Arash Mohagheghi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 15 (36):92-103.
    To date, of essential goals in psychiatry and establishment of future medical centers is creating therapeutic environments with the aim of improving clinical outcomes, preventing the progression of personality difficulties to serious psychiatric disorders, increasing self-satisfaction in society, facilitating personal growth and actualization, as well as reducing high medical costs. In this regard, the Personality Modulation Clinic in 2016 in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences was established, with the aim of providing appropriate mental health services for clients who do not (...)
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  19. Using Multioutput Learning to Diagnose Plant Disease and Stress Severity.Gianni Fenu & Francesca Maridina Malloci - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-11.
    Early diagnosis of leaf diseases is a fundamental tool in precision agriculture, thanks to its high correlation with food safety and environmental sustainability. It is proven that plant diseases are responsible for serious economic losses every year. The aim of this work is to study an efficient network capable of assisting farmers in recognizing pear leaf symptoms and providing targeted information for rational use of pesticides. The proposed model consists of a multioutput system based on convolutional neural networks. The deep (...)
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  20. Wrongful Medicalization and Epistemic Injustice in Psychiatry: The Case of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.Anne-Marie Gagné-Julien - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (2):(S4)5-36.
    In this paper, my goal is to use an epistemic injustice framework to extend an existing normative analysis of over-medicalization to psychiatry and thus draw attention to overlooked injustices. Kaczmarek has developed a promising bioethical and pragmatic approach to over-medicalization, which consists of four guiding questions covering issues related to the harms and benefits of medicalization. In a nutshell, if we answer “yes” to all proposed questions, then it is a case of over-medicalization. Building on an epistemic injustice framework, I (...)
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  21. Classifying Alzheimer's Disease Using Audio and Text-Based Representations of Speech.R'mani Haulcy & James Glass - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Alzheimer's Disease is a form of dementia that affects the memory, cognition, and motor skills of patients. Extensive research has been done to develop accessible, cost-effective, and non-invasive techniques for the automatic detection of AD. Previous research has shown that speech can be used to distinguish between healthy patients and afflicted patients. In this paper, the ADReSS dataset, a dataset balanced by gender and age, was used to automatically classify AD from spontaneous speech. The performance of five classifiers, as well (...)
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  22. Diagnostic Justice: Testing for Covid-19.Ashley Graham Kennedy & Bryan Cwik - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (2):(SI2)5-25.
    Diagnostic testing can be used for many purposes, including testing to facilitate the clinical care of individual patients, testing as an inclusion criterion for clinical trial participation, and both passive and active surveillance testing of the general population in order to facilitate public health outcomes, such as the containment or mitigation of an infectious disease. As such, diagnostic testing presents us with ethical questions that are, in part, already addressed in the literature on clinical care as well as clinical research (...)
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  23. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Detecting Individuals at Risk.Yaling Li, Menghua She, Dongbo Tu & Yan Cai - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    As schizotypal personality disorder increasingly prevails in the general population, a rapid and comprehensive measurement instrument is imperative to screen individuals at risk for SPD. To address this issue, we aimed to develop a computerized adaptive testing for SPD using a non-clinical Chinese sample, consisting of a calibration sample and a validation sample. The item pool of SPD was constructed from several widely used SPD scales and statistical analyses based on the item response theory via a calibration sample using a (...)
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  24. The Ethical Conundrums of “Precision Psychiatry”.Gabrielle Di Sapia Natarelli - 2021 - Voices in Bioethics 7.
    Photo by Tim Mossholder on Unsplash INTRODUCTION “Precision psychiatry” is one aspect of the growing field of precision medicine. Precision psychiatry will provide individualized care tailored to certain biomarkers. The patient’s unique mental health profile is at the core of advancing machine learning models for clinical practice. Traditionally psychiatrists used a “trial-and-error” approach to standardized drugs, whereas precision psychiatry integrates objectivity with the diagnosis and treatment.[1] The long-term benefits of precision psychiatry include generating effective therapeutic plans for a person, eliminating (...)
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  25. Transfer Learning and Semisupervised Adversarial Detection and Classification of COVID-19 in CT Images.Ariyo Oluwasanmi, Muhammad Umar Aftab, Zhiguang Qin, Son Tung Ngo, Thang Van Doan, Son Ba Nguyen & Son Hoang Nguyen - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-11.
    The ongoing coronavirus 2019 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has resulted in a severe ramification on the global healthcare system, principally because of its easy transmission and the extended period of the virus survival on contaminated surfaces. With the advances in computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence, this paper presents the application of deep learning and adversarial network for the automatic identification of COVID-19 pneumonia in computed tomography scans of the lungs. The complexity and time limitation (...)
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  26. Anthropometric Indicators as a Tool for Diagnosis of Obesity and Other Health Risk Factors: A Literature Review.Paola Piqueras, Alfredo Ballester, Juan V. Durá-Gil, Sergio Martinez-Hervas, Josep Redón & José T. Real - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of an excessive amount of fat mass in the adipose tissue, subcutaneous, or inside certain organs. The risk does not lie so much in the amount of fat accumulated as in its distribution. Abdominal obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer, having an important role in the so-called metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent, detect, and appropriately treat obesity. The diagnosis is based on anthropometric indices that have (...)
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  27. An Efficient CNN Model for COVID-19 Disease Detection Based on X-Ray Image Classification.Aijaz Ahmad Reshi, Furqan Rustam, Arif Mehmood, Abdulaziz Alhossan, Ziyad Alrabiah, Ajaz Ahmad, Hessa Alsuwailem & Gyu Sang Choi - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-12.
    Artificial intelligence techniques in general and convolutional neural networks in particular have attained successful results in medical image analysis and classification. A deep CNN architecture has been proposed in this paper for the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on the chest X-ray image classification. Due to the nonavailability of sufficient-size and good-quality chest X-ray image dataset, an effective and accurate CNN classification was a challenge. To deal with these complexities such as the availability of a very-small-sized and imbalanced dataset with image-quality (...)
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  28. Using Technology to Identify Children With Autism Through Motor Abnormalities.Roberta Simeoli, Nicola Milano, Angelo Rega & Davide Marocco - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically assessed and diagnosed through observational analysis of behavior. Assessment exclusively based on behavioral observation sessions requires a lot of time for the diagnosis. In recent years, there is a growing need to make assessment processes more motivating and capable to provide objective measures of the disorder. New evidence showed that motor abnormalities may underpin the disorder and provide a computational marker to enhance assessment and diagnostic processes. Thus, a measure of motor patterns could provide (...)
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  29. Disease Diagnosis and Treatment; Could Theranostics Change Everything?Jonathan Simon - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (3):401-408.
    There has always been an intimate and complex relationship between the diagnosis of a disease and its treatment. The approach dubbed theranostics aims to combine diagnostic techniques with therapeutic ones by deploying the same molecule in two roles, exploiting the specificity of its function to render disease treatment more effective. Does this technical development have the potential to change our conception of disease diagnosis? With the treatment approach so intimately linked to the diagnostic tool, might it be possible to treat (...)
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  30. Medicalization of Sexual Desire.Jacob Stegenga - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (2):(SI5)5-34.
    Medicalisation is a social phenomenon in which conditions that were once under legal, religious, personal or other jurisdictions are brought into the domain of medical authority. Low sexual desire in females has been medicalised, pathologised as a disease, and intervened upon with a range of pharmaceuticals. There are two polarised positions on the medicalisation of low female sexual desire: I call these the mainstream view and the critical view. I assess the central arguments for both positions. Dividing the two positions (...)
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  31. Reframing the Australian Medico-Legal Model of Infertility.Anita Stuhmcke - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (2):305-317.
    Australian law affirms a binary construction of fertility/infertility. This model is based upon the medical categorization of infertility as a disease. Law supports medicine in prioritizing technology, such as in vitro fertilization, as treatment for infertility. This prioritization of a medico-legal model of infertility in turn marginalizes alternative means of family creation such as adoption, fostering, traditional surrogacy, and childlessness. This paper argues that this binary model masks the impact of medicalization upon reproductive choice and limits opportunity for infertile individuals (...)
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  32. The Quest for System-Theoretical Medicine in the COVID-19 Era.Felix Tretter, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Johannes W. Dietrich, Sara Green, James Marcum & Wolfram Weckwerth - 2021 - Frontiers in Medicine 8:640974.
    Precision medicine and molecular systems medicine (MSM) are highly utilized and successful approaches to improve understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of many diseases from bench-to-bedside. Especially in the COVID-19 pandemic, molecular techniques and biotechnological innovation have proven to be of utmost importance for rapid developments in disease diagnostics and treatment, including DNA and RNA sequencing technology, treatment with drugs and natural products and vaccine development. The COVID-19 crisis, however, has also demonstrated the need for systemic thinking and transdisciplinarity and the limits (...)
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  33. Ethical Implications of Alzheimer’s Disease Prediction in Asymptomatic Individuals Through Artificial Intelligence.Frank Ursin, Cristian Timmermann & Florian Steger - 2021 - Diagnostics 11 (3):440.
    Biomarker-based predictive tests for subjectively asymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are utilized in research today. Novel applications of artificial intelligence (AI) promise to predict the onset of AD several years in advance without determining biomarker thresholds. Until now, little attention has been paid to the new ethical challenges that AI brings to the early diagnosis in asymptomatic individuals, beyond contributing to research purposes, when we still lack adequate treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ethical arguments put forward (...)
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  34. Assisted Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Deep Learning and Multimodal Feature Fusion.Yu Wang, Xi Liu & Chongchong Yu - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-10.
    With the development of artificial intelligence technologies, it is possible to use computer to read digital medical images. Because Alzheimer’s disease has the characteristics of high incidence and high disability, it has attracted the attention of many scholars, and its diagnosis and treatment have gradually become a hot topic. In this paper, a multimodal diagnosis method for AD based on three-dimensional shufflenet and principal component analysis network is proposed. First, the data on structural magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance (...)
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  35. A Universal Definition of Mental Disorder: Neither Necessary nor Desirable.G. Scott Waterman - 2021 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 28 (4):377-379.
    Psychiatry's relation to the rest of medicine is ambivalent. Its legitimacy as a specialty is often conceived as being closely linked to its fidelity to the fundamental paradigms of medicine, especially the centrality of diagnosis and the association of diagnosis with treatment indications. However, as Gagné-Julien notes, a major impetus behind the quest for a solution to the demarcation problem in psychiatry is "growing concerns regarding over-medicalization". Although it could appear that these two considerations point in opposite directions, both arguably (...)
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  36. Natural Kinds of Mental Disorder.Sander Werkhoven - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):10135-10165.
    Are mental disorders natural kinds or socially constructed categories? What is at stake if either of these views prove to be true? This paper offers a qualified defence for the view that there may be natural kinds of mental disorder, but also that the implications of this claim are generally overestimated. Especially concerns about over-inclusiveness of diagnostic categories and medicalisation of abnormal behaviour are not addressed by the debate. To arrive at these conclusions the paper opens with a discussion of (...)
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  37. Research on the Disease Intelligent Diagnosis Model Based on Linguistic Truth-Valued Concept Lattice.Li Yang, Yuhui Wang & Haixia Li - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-11.
    Uncertainty natural language processing has always been a research focus in the artificial intelligence field. In this paper, we continue to study the linguistic truth-valued concept lattice and apply it to the disease intelligent diagnosis by building an intelligent model to directly handle natural language. The theoretical bases of this model are the classical concept lattice and the lattice implication algebra with natural language. The model includes the case library formed by patients, attributes matching, and the matching degree calculation about (...)
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  38. Going Beyond the Catch-22 of Autism Diagnosis and Research. The Moral Implications of (Not) Asking “What Is Autism?”.Jo Bervoets & Kristien Hens - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Psychiatric diagnoses such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are primarily attributed on the basis of behavioral criteria. The aim of most of the biomedical research on ASD is to uncover the underlying mechanisms that lead to or even cause pathological behavior. However, in the philosophical and sociological literature, it has been suggested that autism is also to some extent a ‘social construct’ that cannot merely be reduced to its biological explanation. We show that a one-sided adherence to either a biological (...)
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  39. GNEA: A Graph Neural Network with ELM Aggregator for Brain Network Classification.Xin Bi, Zhixun Liu, Yao He, Xiangguo Zhao, Yongjiao Sun & Hao Liu - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-11.
    Brain networks provide essential insights into the diagnosis of functional brain disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Many machine learning methods have been applied to learn from brain images or networks in Euclidean space. However, it is still challenging to learn complex network structures and the connectivity of brain regions in non-Euclidean space. To address this problem, in this paper, we exploit the study of brain network classification from the perspective of graph learning. We propose an aggregator based on extreme learning (...)
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  40. Narratives of Undiagnosability: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Life-Writing and the Indeterminacy of Illness Memoirs.Gaston Franssen - 2020 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (4):403-418.
  41. Disturbance of Ego-Boundary Enaction in Schizophrenia.Richard G. T. Gipps - 2020 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (1):91-106.
    Today the concept of 'schizophrenia' is often presented in psychiatric texts as a construct, a construct bringing together a diverse and, allegedly, independently assailable range of signs and symptoms. According to such a diagnostic scheme two patients may both be allowed to count as suffering from schizophrenia despite sharing hardly a single symptom. The validity of the concept has accordingly been contested by psychologists for its apparent lack of unity. In the absence of clear independent evidence of a unitary physiological (...)
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  42. The Status of Documents: Medical Files and Literary Genres-The Case of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.Joost Haan & Frans-Willem Korsten - 2020 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (4):419-421.
    Gaston Franssen’s essay touches on important medical and literary topics: the experience of patients with unexplained somatic complaints, the importance of giving their symptoms a name or diagnosis, the verbal representation of what bothers them, or the uncertainty all parties have to live with when an underlying cause of the symptoms is missing. A diagnosis or name such as chronic fatigue syndrome can be a relief for its sufferers, as is expressed by one of the patients in the article: “I (...)
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  43. Questionable Agreement: The Experience of Depression and DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder Criteria.Abraham M. Nussbaum - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (6):623-643.
    Immediately before the release of DSM-5, a group of psychiatric thought leaders published the results of field tests of DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. They characterized the interrater reliability for diagnosing major depressive disorder by two trained mental health practitioners as of “questionable agreement.” These field tests confirmed an open secret among psychiatrists that our current diagnostic criteria for diagnosing major depressive disorder are unreliable and neglect essential experiences of persons in depressive episodes. Alternative diagnostic criteria exist, but psychiatrists rarely encounter them, (...)
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  44. COVID-X: Novel Health-Fog Framework Based on Neutrosophic Classifier for Confrontation Covid-19.A. A. Salama, Ibrahim Yasser, Abeer Twakol, A. A. Abd El-Khalek & Ahmed Samrah - 2020 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 35:1-21.
    The newly identified Coronavirus pneumonia, subsequently termed COVID-19, is highly transmittable and pathogenic with no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available for treatment. Technological developments like edge computing, fog computing, Internet of Things (IoT), and Big Data have gained importance due to their robustness and ability to provide diverse response characteristics based on target application. In this paper, we present a novel Health-Fog framework universal system to automatically assist the early diagnosis, treatment, and preventive of people with COVID-19 in (...)
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  45. An Expert System for Depression Diagnosis.Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Mohammed Elkahlout, Hosni Qasim El-Mashharawi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (4):20-27.
    Background: Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home. Depression affects an estimated one in 15 adults (6.7%) in any given (...)
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  46. Meno’s Paradox and Medicine.Nicholas Binney - 2019 - Synthese 196 (10):4253-4278.
    The measurement of diagnostic accuracy is an important aspect of the evaluation of diagnostic tests. Sometimes, medical researchers try to discover the set of observations that are most accurate of all by directly inspecting diseased and not-diseased patients. This method is perhaps intuitively appealing, as it seems a straightforward empirical way of discovering how to identify diseased patients, which amounts to trying to correlate the results of diagnostic tests with disease status. I present three examples of researchers who try to (...)
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  47. Disability, Depression, Diagnosis, and Harm: Reflections on Two Personal Scenarios.G. Thomas Couser - 2019 - Journal of Medical Humanities 40 (2):239-251.
    In this article I draw on two scenarios from my personal life—the diagnosis of my newborn grandnephew with CHARGE syndrome and the diagnosis of my father with depression—to reflect on whether and when diagnosis may be harmful to patients. Despite the great differences between the two scenarios, I argue that in both cases the tendency of diagnosis to generalize, categorize, and stigmatize can lead to insidious and counterproductive effects. The perspective of disability studies can help physicians to anticipate, minimize or (...)
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  48. The Ethical and Empirical Status of Dimensional Diagnosis: Implications for Public Mental Health?Kelso Cratsley - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):183-199.
    The field of mental health continues to struggle with the question of how best to structure its diagnostic systems. This issue is of considerable ethical importance, but the implications for public health approaches to mental health have yet to be explored in any detail. In this article I offer a preliminary treatment, drawing out several core issues while sounding a note of caution. A central strand of the debates over diagnosis has been the contrast between categorical and dimensional models, with (...)
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  49. “Towards a Phenomenology of Self-Patterns in Psychopathological Diagnosis and Therapy”.Anya Daly & Shaun Gallagher - 2019 - Journal of Psychopathology 52 (1):open access.
    Categorization-based diagnosis, which endeavors to be consistent with the third-person, objective measures of science, is not always adequate with respect to problems concerning diagnostic accuracy, demarcation problems when there are comorbidities, well-documented problems of symptom amplification, and complications of stigmatization and looping effects. While psychiatric categories have proved useful and convenient for clinicians in identifying a recognizable constellation of symptoms typical for a particular disorder for the purposes of communication and eligibility for treatment regimes, the reification of these categories has (...)
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  50. Knowledge Based System for Diabetes Diagnosis Using SL5 Object.Ibtesam M. Dheir, Alaa Soliman Abu Mettleq, Abeer A. Elsharif, Mohammed N. Abu Al-Qumboz & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (4):1-10.
    Diabetes is a major public health issue that affects the nations of our time to a large extent and is described as a non-communicable epidemic. Diabetes mellitus is a common disease where there is too much sugar (glucose) floating around in your blood. This occurs because either the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin or the cells in body have become resistant to insulin. The concentration in this paper is on diagnosis diabetes by designing a proposed expert system. The main goal (...)
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