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Philosophers of medicine have sought to explain and analyse the reasoning processes involved in diagnosis and the status of diagnostic criteria. Recent work has examined how advances in medical technologies – ranging from increasingly sophisticated imaging to computational techniques relying on machine learning and data-mining – can increase accuracy and enable earlier diagnosis, but also change diagnostic criteria or their interpretation, and potentially even alter medical concepts. Bioethicists and medical humanities disciplines offer social and ethical analyses of the diagnostic process including potential for (harmful or beneficial) medicalisation and labelling.

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  1. An Ethical Enquiry That Questions Whether Psychiatrists Truly Are Mental Health/Disability Experts? Reasons to Doubt!Giuseppe Naimo - forthcoming - In Patricia Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies, vol. 14. Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research. pp. Chapter 13 pp. 143-158.
    The observation that a crisis of confidence regarding Psychiatry exists is a notion shared even among psychiatrists themselves. Psychiatry has a checkered history and its alliance with the pharmaceutical industry, aka Big-Pharma, continues to reinforce a need for healthy skepticism. Why? Mainly, an over-reliance on the questionable expertise and authority afforded psychiatry as the specialists of mental health. I contend that the authority of psychiatry is misplaced and too often harmful. Since the criteria required to justify and satisfy psychiatric expertise (...)
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  2. Reconstructing Truth, Deconstructing ADHD : Badiou, Onto-Epistemological Violence and the Diagnosis of "ADHD".Mattias Nilsson Sjöberg - forthcoming - Critical Studies in Education.
    Psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses have expanded in number and scale with increased influence over matters of education and upbringing. One of the most common psychiatric diagnoses among children and adolescents is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The dominant perspective of ADHD is biomedical, where ADHD is defined as a neurogenetic dysfunction and disorder of the brain. Due to the absence of biological markers, the diagnosis is legitimized on the basis of a humanitarian principle: as an ideology. Through the diagnosis, which is construed in (...)
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  3. “The Ultimate Risk:” How Clinicians Assess the Value and Meaning of Genetic Data in Cardiology.Kellie Owens - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092095956.
    In modern medicine, health risks are often managed through the collection of health data and subsequent intervention. One of the goals of clinical genetics, for example, is to identify genetic predisposition to disease so that individuals can intervene to prevent potential harms. But recently, some clinicians have suggested that patients should undergo less testing and monitoring in an effort to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment. In this paper, I explore how clinicians navigate the tension between identifying real disease risks for their (...)
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  4. Fuzzy Logic-Based Formalisms for Gynecology Disease Diagnosis.Anjali Sardesai, Vilas Kharat, Pradip Sambarey & Ashok Deshpande - forthcoming - Journal of Intelligent Systems.
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  5. Disease Diagnosis and Treatment; Could Theranostics Change Everything?Jonathan Simon - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
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  6. ‘Isn’T Everyone a Little OCD?’:The Epistemic Harms of Wrongful Depathologisation.Lucienne J. Spencer & Havi Hannah Carel - forthcoming - Philosophy of Medicine.
    In this paper we identify a new and distinct form of epistemic harm we term 'wrongful depathologisation': the devaluing of the epistemic status of people with mental disorder by reducing their symptoms to mere personality traits and denying them a fully recognised psychiatric identity. We argue that wrongful depathologisation involves simultaneously stigmatising and trivialising a mental disorder and that therein lies its harmfulness. This creates a twilight zone of mental disorder, where the ill person is deemed to both exaggerate their (...)
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  7. Reframing the Australian Medico-Legal Model of Infertility.Anita Stuhmcke - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-13.
    Australian law affirms a binary construction of fertility/infertility. This model is based upon the medical categorization of infertility as a disease. Law supports medicine in prioritizing technology, such as in vitro fertilization, as treatment for infertility. This prioritization of a medico-legal model of infertility in turn marginalizes alternative means of family creation such as adoption, fostering, traditional surrogacy, and childlessness. This paper argues that this binary model masks the impact of medicalization upon reproductive choice and limits opportunity for infertile individuals (...)
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  8. “Lights and Shadows”: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Lived Experience of Being Diagnosed With Breast Cancer During Pregnancy.Federica Facchin, Giovanna Scarfone, Giancarlo Tamanza, Silvia Ravani, Federica Francini, Fedro Alessandro Peccatori, Eugenia Di Loreto, Andrea Dell’Acqua & Emanuela Saita - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare event. The most common type of malignancy diagnosed in pregnant women is breast cancer, whose incidence is expected to raise in the next future due to delayed childbirth, as well as to the increased occurrence of the disease at young age. Pregnant women diagnosed with breast cancer are exposed to multiple sources of stress, which may lead to poorer obstetric outcomes, such as preterm birth and low birth weight. In addition, pregnancy involves physiological (...)
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  9. Using Multioutput Learning to Diagnose Plant Disease and Stress Severity.Gianni Fenu & Francesca Maridina Malloci - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-11.
    Early diagnosis of leaf diseases is a fundamental tool in precision agriculture, thanks to its high correlation with food safety and environmental sustainability. It is proven that plant diseases are responsible for serious economic losses every year. The aim of this work is to study an efficient network capable of assisting farmers in recognizing pear leaf symptoms and providing targeted information for rational use of pesticides. The proposed model consists of a multioutput system based on convolutional neural networks. The deep (...)
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  10. Classifying Alzheimer's Disease Using Audio and Text-Based Representations of Speech.R'mani Haulcy & James Glass - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Alzheimer's Disease is a form of dementia that affects the memory, cognition, and motor skills of patients. Extensive research has been done to develop accessible, cost-effective, and non-invasive techniques for the automatic detection of AD. Previous research has shown that speech can be used to distinguish between healthy patients and afflicted patients. In this paper, the ADReSS dataset, a dataset balanced by gender and age, was used to automatically classify AD from spontaneous speech. The performance of five classifiers, as well (...)
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  11. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Detecting Individuals at Risk.Yaling Li, Menghua She, Dongbo Tu & Yan Cai - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    As schizotypal personality disorder increasingly prevails in the general population, a rapid and comprehensive measurement instrument is imperative to screen individuals at risk for SPD. To address this issue, we aimed to develop a computerized adaptive testing for SPD using a non-clinical Chinese sample, consisting of a calibration sample and a validation sample. The item pool of SPD was constructed from several widely used SPD scales and statistical analyses based on the item response theory via a calibration sample using a (...)
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  12. Transfer Learning and Semisupervised Adversarial Detection and Classification of COVID-19 in CT Images.Ariyo Oluwasanmi, Muhammad Umar Aftab, Zhiguang Qin, Son Tung Ngo, Thang Van Doan, Son Ba Nguyen & Son Hoang Nguyen - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-11.
    The ongoing coronavirus 2019 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has resulted in a severe ramification on the global healthcare system, principally because of its easy transmission and the extended period of the virus survival on contaminated surfaces. With the advances in computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence, this paper presents the application of deep learning and adversarial network for the automatic identification of COVID-19 pneumonia in computed tomography scans of the lungs. The complexity and time limitation (...)
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  13. An Expert System for Knee Problems Diagnosis.Lamis F. Samhan, Amjad H. Alfarra & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 5 (4):59-66.
    Abstract: In fact, people get knee problems due to something such as sports, or fall. They usually have difficulty moving to the doctor. In this paper an expert system was designed to help users to correctly diagnose knee problems (Fractured in knee, torn ligament, Bursitis, Chondromalacia patellae, Torn cartilage, Rheumatoid arthritis and Rheumatic fever, Osteoarthritis, Baker's cyst, Osgood-Schlatter disease) with some information about the disease and self-care. CLIPS expert system language was used to design and implement this expert system.
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  14. Ethical Implications of Alzheimer’s Disease Prediction in Asymptomatic Individuals Through Artificial Intelligence.Frank Ursin, Cristian Timmermann & Florian Steger - 2021 - Diagnostics 11 (3):440.
    Biomarker-based predictive tests for subjectively asymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are utilized in research today. Novel applications of artificial intelligence (AI) promise to predict the onset of AD several years in advance without determining biomarker thresholds. Until now, little attention has been paid to the new ethical challenges that AI brings to the early diagnosis in asymptomatic individuals, beyond contributing to research purposes, when we still lack adequate treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ethical arguments put forward (...)
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  15. Assisted Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Deep Learning and Multimodal Feature Fusion.Yu Wang, Xi Liu & Chongchong Yu - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-10.
    With the development of artificial intelligence technologies, it is possible to use computer to read digital medical images. Because Alzheimer’s disease has the characteristics of high incidence and high disability, it has attracted the attention of many scholars, and its diagnosis and treatment have gradually become a hot topic. In this paper, a multimodal diagnosis method for AD based on three-dimensional shufflenet and principal component analysis network is proposed. First, the data on structural magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance (...)
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  16. Going Beyond the Catch-22 of Autism Diagnosis and Research. The Moral Implications of (Not) Asking “What Is Autism?”.Jo Bervoets & Kristien Hens - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Psychiatric diagnoses such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are primarily attributed on the basis of behavioral criteria. The aim of most of the biomedical research on ASD is to uncover the underlying mechanisms that lead to or even cause pathological behavior. However, in the philosophical and sociological literature, it has been suggested that autism is also to some extent a ‘social construct’ that cannot merely be reduced to its biological explanation. We show that a one-sided adherence to either a biological (...)
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  17. GNEA: A Graph Neural Network with ELM Aggregator for Brain Network Classification.Xin Bi, Zhixun Liu, Yao He, Xiangguo Zhao, Yongjiao Sun & Hao Liu - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-11.
    Brain networks provide essential insights into the diagnosis of functional brain disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Many machine learning methods have been applied to learn from brain images or networks in Euclidean space. However, it is still challenging to learn complex network structures and the connectivity of brain regions in non-Euclidean space. To address this problem, in this paper, we exploit the study of brain network classification from the perspective of graph learning. We propose an aggregator based on extreme learning (...)
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  18. Narratives of Undiagnosability: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Life-Writing and the Indeterminacy of Illness Memoirs.Gaston Franssen - 2020 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (4):403-418.
  19. Disturbance of Ego-Boundary Enaction in Schizophrenia.Richard G. T. Gipps - 2020 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (1):91-106.
    Today the concept of 'schizophrenia' is often presented in psychiatric texts as a construct, a construct bringing together a diverse and, allegedly, independently assailable range of signs and symptoms. According to such a diagnostic scheme two patients may both be allowed to count as suffering from schizophrenia despite sharing hardly a single symptom. The validity of the concept has accordingly been contested by psychologists for its apparent lack of unity. In the absence of clear independent evidence of a unitary physiological (...)
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  20. The Status of Documents: Medical Files and Literary Genres-The Case of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.Joost Haan & Frans-Willem Korsten - 2020 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (4):419-421.
    Gaston Franssen’s essay touches on important medical and literary topics: the experience of patients with unexplained somatic complaints, the importance of giving their symptoms a name or diagnosis, the verbal representation of what bothers them, or the uncertainty all parties have to live with when an underlying cause of the symptoms is missing. A diagnosis or name such as chronic fatigue syndrome can be a relief for its sufferers, as is expressed by one of the patients in the article: “I (...)
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  21. Questionable Agreement: The Experience of Depression and DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder Criteria.Abraham M. Nussbaum - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (6):623-643.
    Immediately before the release of DSM-5, a group of psychiatric thought leaders published the results of field tests of DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. They characterized the interrater reliability for diagnosing major depressive disorder by two trained mental health practitioners as of “questionable agreement.” These field tests confirmed an open secret among psychiatrists that our current diagnostic criteria for diagnosing major depressive disorder are unreliable and neglect essential experiences of persons in depressive episodes. Alternative diagnostic criteria exist, but psychiatrists rarely encounter them, (...)
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  22. COVID-X: Novel Health-Fog Framework Based on Neutrosophic Classifier for Confrontation Covid-19.A. A. Salama, Ibrahim Yasser, Abeer Twakol, A. A. Abd El-Khalek & Ahmed Samrah - 2020 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 35:1-21.
    The newly identified Coronavirus pneumonia, subsequently termed COVID-19, is highly transmittable and pathogenic with no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available for treatment. Technological developments like edge computing, fog computing, Internet of Things (IoT), and Big Data have gained importance due to their robustness and ability to provide diverse response characteristics based on target application. In this paper, we present a novel Health-Fog framework universal system to automatically assist the early diagnosis, treatment, and preventive of people with COVID-19 in (...)
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  23. Developing an Expert System for Papaya Plant Disease Diagnosis.Mohammed M. Abu-Saqer & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (4):14-21.
    The papaya is a plant that grows in tropical climates and also known as pawpaws or papaws, it has many health benefits like reducing risk of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, aiding in digestion, improving blood glucose control in people with diabetes, lowering blood pressure, and improving wound healing. With these big health benefits and with taken into consideration that it’s available at most times of the year. The farmers have to take care of this plant. Because of that we developed (...)
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  24. Knowledge Based System for Uveitis Disease Diagnosis.Mohammed M. Abu-Saqer & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (5):18-25.
    : Our eyesight is one of your most important senses: 80% of what we perceive comes through our sense of sight. By protecting your eyes, you will reduce the odds of blindness and vision loss, one of things that may cause vision loss is Uveitis. Uveitis is a form of eye inflammation. It affects the middle layer of tissue in the eye wall (uvea). Uveitis (u-vee-I-tis) warning signs often come on suddenly and get worse quickly. They include eye redness, pain (...)
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  25. Anemia Expert System Diagnosis Using Sl5 Object.Aldaour F. Ahmed & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (5):9-17.
    Background: Anemia is a condition that occurs due to a lower concentration of hemoglobin than the normal level (non-pregnant adult females less than 11 g / dL and males younger than 13 g / dL). Because of the low level of hemoglobin, the body's organs suffer from lack of enough oxygen, so patients complain of signs and symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, lack of concentration, lethargy and others. Objectives: The main goal of this expert system is to get the appropriate (...)
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  26. A Proposed Expert System for Diagnosing Skin Cancer Using SL5 Object.Mohammed O. Al-Shawwa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 4 (3):1-9.
    Skin is considered the largest organ of the body, with a total area of about 20 square feet. The skin protects us from microbes and the elements, helps regulate body temperature, and permits the sensations of touch, heat, and cold. For a patient to recover from any illness or weakness that affects the skin, he/she requires an accurate diagnosis of his/her the situation. In this paper will present an expert system that quickly diagnosis patient’s condition and propose a suitable solution (...)
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  27. An Expert System for Depression Diagnosis.Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Mohammed Elkahlout, Hosni Qasim El-Mashharawi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (4):20-27.
    Background: Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home. Depression affects an estimated one in 15 adults (6.7%) in any given (...)
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  28. An Expert System for Coconut Diseases Diagnosis.Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Abeer A. Elsharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (4):8-13.
    The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos, can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull" after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. Objectives: The main goal of this expert system is to (...)
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  29. Image-Based Tomato Leaves Diseases Detection Using Deep Learning.Belal A. M. Ashqar & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 2 (12):10-16.
    : Crop diseases are a key danger for food security, but their speedy identification still difficult in many portions of the world because of the lack of the essential infrastructure. The mixture of increasing worldwide smartphone dispersion and current advances in computer vision made conceivable by deep learning has cemented the way for smartphone-assisted disease identification. Using a public dataset of 9000 images of infected and healthy Tomato leaves collected under controlled conditions, we trained a deep convolutional neural network to (...)
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  30. Meno’s Paradox and Medicine.Nicholas Binney - 2019 - Synthese 196 (10):4253-4278.
    The measurement of diagnostic accuracy is an important aspect of the evaluation of diagnostic tests. Sometimes, medical researchers try to discover the set of observations that are most accurate of all by directly inspecting diseased and not-diseased patients. This method is perhaps intuitively appealing, as it seems a straightforward empirical way of discovering how to identify diseased patients, which amounts to trying to correlate the results of diagnostic tests with disease status. I present three examples of researchers who try to (...)
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  31. Disability, Depression, Diagnosis, and Harm: Reflections on Two Personal Scenarios.G. Thomas Couser - 2019 - Journal of Medical Humanities 40 (2):239-251.
    In this article I draw on two scenarios from my personal life—the diagnosis of my newborn grandnephew with CHARGE syndrome and the diagnosis of my father with depression—to reflect on whether and when diagnosis may be harmful to patients. Despite the great differences between the two scenarios, I argue that in both cases the tendency of diagnosis to generalize, categorize, and stigmatize can lead to insidious and counterproductive effects. The perspective of disability studies can help physicians to anticipate, minimize or (...)
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  32. The Ethical and Empirical Status of Dimensional Diagnosis: Implications for Public Mental Health?Kelso Cratsley - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):183-199.
    The field of mental health continues to struggle with the question of how best to structure its diagnostic systems. This issue is of considerable ethical importance, but the implications for public health approaches to mental health have yet to be explored in any detail. In this article I offer a preliminary treatment, drawing out several core issues while sounding a note of caution. A central strand of the debates over diagnosis has been the contrast between categorical and dimensional models, with (...)
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  33. “Towards a Phenomenology of Self-Patterns in Psychopathological Diagnosis and Therapy”.Anya Daly & Shaun Gallagher - 2019 - Journal of Psychopathology 52 (1):open access.
    Categorization-based diagnosis, which endeavors to be consistent with the third-person, objective measures of science, is not always adequate with respect to problems concerning diagnostic accuracy, demarcation problems when there are comorbidities, well-documented problems of symptom amplification, and complications of stigmatization and looping effects. While psychiatric categories have proved useful and convenient for clinicians in identifying a recognizable constellation of symptoms typical for a particular disorder for the purposes of communication and eligibility for treatment regimes, the reification of these categories has (...)
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  34. Knowledge Based System for Diabetes Diagnosis Using SL5 Object.Ibtesam M. Dheir, Alaa Soliman Abu Mettleq, Abeer A. Elsharif, Mohammed N. Abu Al-Qumboz & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (4):1-10.
    Diabetes is a major public health issue that affects the nations of our time to a large extent and is described as a non-communicable epidemic. Diabetes mellitus is a common disease where there is too much sugar (glucose) floating around in your blood. This occurs because either the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin or the cells in body have become resistant to insulin. The concentration in this paper is on diagnosis diabetes by designing a proposed expert system. The main goal (...)
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  35. Did Descartes Die of Poisoning?Theodor Ebert - 2019 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (2):142-185.
    The paper discusses the circumstances of the fatal illness and the death of René Descartes in 1650 at the French embassy in Stockholm. It considers the hitherto available evidence, in particular the main medical documents: two letters, the first written in Dutch by Descartes’ servant, Henri Schluter, the second written in Latin by the Dutch doctor Johann van Wullen. English translations of these two documents are given respectively in Appendix 1 and Appendix 3 of this paper. Other documents, letters by (...)
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  36. An Expert System for Sesame Diseases Diagnosis Using CLIPS.Hosni Q. El-Mashharawi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (4):22-29.
    Background: Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum also called benne. Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods or "buns". World production in 2016 was 6.1 million tons, with Tanzania, Myanmar, India, and Sudan as the largest producers. Sesame seed is one of the oldest oil seed crops known, domesticated well over 3000 (...)
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  37. An Expert System for Arthritis Diseases Diagnosis Using SL5 Object.Hosni Qasim El-Mashharawi, Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Mohammed Elkahlout & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (4):28-35.
    Background: Arthritis is very common but is not well understood. Actually, “arthritis” is not a single disease; it is an informal way of referring to joint pain or joint disease. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis and related conditions. People of all ages, sexes and races can and do have arthritis, and it is the leading cause of disability in America. More than 50 million adults and 300,000 children have some type of arthritis. It is most common (...)
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  38. From the Profound to the Mundane: Questionnaires as Emerging Technologies in Autism Genetics.Gregory Hollin - 2019 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 44 (4):634-659.
    It is widely argued that the final decades of the twentieth century saw a fundamental change, marked by terms such as biomedicalization and geneticization, within the biomedical sciences. What unites these concepts is the assertion that a vast array of emerging technologies—in genomics, bioengineering, information technology, and so forth—are transforming understandings of disease, diagnosis, therapeutics, and working practices. While clearly important, these analyses have been accused of perpetuating theoretical trends that attribute primacy to the new over the old, discontinuity over (...)
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  39. An Expert System for Citrus Diseases Diagnosis.Mohammed Ibraheem El Kahlout & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (4):1-7.
    Background: Citrus, genus of plants belonging to the rue family (Rutaceae), and yielding pulpy fruits covered with fairly thick skins. Economically important plants in this group include the lemon (C. × limon), lime (C. × aurantiifolia), sweet orange (C. × sinensis), sour orange (C. × aurantium), tangerine (C. reticulata), grapefruit (C. x paradisi), citron (C. medica), and shaddock (C. maxima)[1]. Objectives: The main goal of this expert system is to get the appropriate diagnosis of disease and the correct treatment by (...)
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  40. Silicosis Expert System Diagnosis and Treatment.Mohammed Ibraheem El Kahlout, Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Hosni Qasim El-Mashharawi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (5):1-8.
    Background Silicosis (particularly the acute form) is characterized by shortness of breath, cough, fever, and cyanosis (bluish skin). It may often be misdiagnosed as pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs), pneumonia, or tuberculosis. Silicosis resulted in 46,000 deaths globally in 2013 down from 55,000 deaths in 1990. Objectives The main goal of this expert system is to get the appropriate diagnosis of disease and the correct treatment by presenting suggestions on Silicosis disease to the user by asking about symptoms. Methods (...)
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  41. Apple Trees Knowledge Based System.Ahmed J. Khalil, Alaa M. Barhoom, Musleh M. Musleh & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (9):1-7.
    Plant production provides human and animal life with different requirements. The concern of workers in agriculture in general and those interested in plant diseases, in particular, has been focused on protection from all that is expected to have problems of production. As environmental conditions play a critical role in the treatment of diseases, the plant is prepared and rendered more susceptible to production, which is exposed and may result in the loss of the entire crop. Objectives: The main goal of (...)
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  42. Warranted Diagnosis.David Limbaugh, David Kasmier, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), Buffalo, NY. Buffalo: pp. 1-10.
    A diagnostic process is an investigative process that takes a clinical picture as input and outputs a diagnosis. We propose a method for distinguishing diagnoses that are warranted from those that are not, based on the cognitive processes of which they are the outputs. Processes designed and vetted to reliably produce correct diagnoses will output what we shall call ‘warranted diagnoses’. The latter are diagnoses that should be trusted even if they later turn out to have been wrong. Our work (...)
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  43. Expert System for the Diagnosis of Wheat Diseases.Aysha I. Mansour & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (4):19-26.
    Background: Wheat is a wild grass belongs to Poaceae (Gramineae), an enormously multipurpose grain. The proteins of the wheat, gliadins and glutenins together referred to as storage prolamines are responsible for viscoelasticity of the dough. Wheat proteins belonging to both the soluble and insoluble fractions can act as allergens and cause allergic symptoms in susceptible individuals. Celiac disease is an auto immune disease characterized by immune mediated enteropathy of proximal small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten containing cereals (wheat, (...)
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  44. Knowledge Based System for the Diagnosis of Dengue Disease.Aysha I. Mansour & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (4):12-19.
    Background: Dengue Disease is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus, symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Dengue serology is applied in different settings, such as for surveillance, in health care facilities in endemic areas and in travel clinics in non-endemic areas. The applicability and quality of serological tests in dengue endemic regions has to be judged against a (...)
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  45. Doing Abstraction: Autism, Diagnosis, and Social Theory.Douglas W. Maynard & Jason Turowetz - 2019 - Sociological Theory 37 (1):89-116.
    Recent decades have witnessed a dramatic upsurge in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. As researchers have investigated the responsible sociohistorical conditions, they have neglected how clinicians determine the diagnosis in local encounters in the first place. Articulating a position “between Foucault and Goffman,” we ask how the interaction order of the clinic articulates with larger-scale historical forces affecting the definition and distribution of ASD. First, we show how the diagnostic process has a narrative structure. Second, case data from three (...)
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  46. Expert System for the Diagnosis of Seventh Nerve Inflammation (Bell’s Palsy) Disease.Alaa Soliman Abu Mettleq, Ibtesam M. Dheir, Abeer A. Elsharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (4):27-35.
    Background: The occurrence of any disturbance in the seventh facial nerve in the nerves of the brain called inflammation of the seventh nerve or paralysis in the face of half (Bell's paralysis), where paralysis affects one side of the face, and occurs when the seventh nerve, which controls the muscles of the face loses the patient control of the facial muscles on The side of inflammation is the seventh nerve because it controls the muscles on both sides of the face (...)
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  47. How Does Orthorexia Nervosa Assessment Tools Can Differ – Comparison of Two Questionnaires: BOT and ORTO-15.Robert Milewski, Barbara Pietraszewska, Joanna Smarkusz-Zarzecka, Suheyb Anud, Tapakron Plyton, Anita Mielech & Adrianna Zańko - 2019 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 60 (1):33-48.
    The paper presents a comparison of the two most commonly used diagnostic tests for orthorexia – ORTO-15 Questionnaire and BOT – that use data-mining methods. Orthorexia nervosa is perceived as a new, unclassified eating disorder, which is characterized with pathological fixation on the consumption of healthy foods. In order to assess the coherence of the aforementioned tests, a method from the data-mining group, i.e. correspondence analysis, was used in addition to traditional statistical methods. On the basis of the obtained results, (...)
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  48. Pride Before a Fall: Shame, Diagnostic Crossover, and Eating Disorders.Rose Mortimer - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (3):365-374.
    This paper discusses the findings of qualitative research that examined the accounts of five “mostly recovered” ex-patients who had experienced transition between two or more eating disorder diagnoses. This study found that, in the minds of participants, the different diagnostic labels were associated with various good or bad character traits. This contributed to the belief in a diagnostic hierarchy, whereby individuals diagnosed with anorexia nervosa were viewed as morally better than those diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Consequently, (...)
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  49. Predicting Liver Patients Using Artificial Neural Network.Musleh M. Musleh, Eman Alajrami, Ahmed J. Khalil, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser, Alaa M. Barhoom & S. S. Abu Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (10):1-11.
    Liver diagnosis at an early stage is essential for enhanced handling. Precise classification is required for automatic recognition of disease from data samples (utilizing data mining for classification of liver patients from healthy ones). In this study, an artificial neural network model was designed and developed using JustNN Tool for predicting weather a person is a liver patient or not based on a dataset for liver patients. The main factors for input variables are: Age, Gender, Total Bilirubin, Direct Bilirubin, Alkphos (...)
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  50. Lung Cancer Detection Using Artificial Neural Network.Ibrahim M. Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (3):17-23.
    In this paper, we developed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for detect the absence or presence of lung cancer in human body. Symptoms were used to diagnose the lung cancer, these symptoms such as Yellow fingers, Anxiety, Chronic Disease, Fatigue, Allergy, Wheezing, Coughing, Shortness of Breath, Swallowing Difficulty and Chest pain. They were used and other information about the person as input variables for our ANN. Our ANN established, trained, and validated using data set, which its title is “survey lung (...)
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