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  1. Nipping Diseases in the Bud? Ethical and Social Considerations of the Concept of ‘Disease Interception’.Jonas Narchi & Eva C. Winkler - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics.
    ‘Disease interception’ describes the treatment of a disease in its clinically inapparent phase and is increasingly used in medical literature. However, no precise definition, much less an ethical evaluation, has been developed yet. This article starts with a definition of ‘disease interception’ by distinguishing it from other preventions. It then analyses the ethical and social implications of the concept in light of the four principles of medical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress. The term ‘disease interception’ refers to a form of (...)
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  2. Prevention of Disease and the Absent Body: A Phenomenological Approach to Periodontitis.Dylan Rakhra & Māra Grīnfelde - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    A large part of contemporary phenomenology of medicine has been devoted to accounts of health and illness, arguing that they contribute to the improvement of healthcare. Less focus has been paid to the issue of prevention of disease and the associated difficulty of adhering to health-promoting behaviours, which is arguably of equal importance. This article offers a phenomenological account of this disease prevention, focusing on how we – as embodied beings – engage with health-promoting behaviours. It specifically considers how we (...)
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  3. Mental Health Without Wellbeing.Sam Wren Lewis & Anna Alexandrova - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    What is it to be mentally healthy? In the ongoing movement to promote mental health, to reduce stigma and to establish parity between mental and physical health, there is a clear enthusiasm about this concept and a recognition of its value in human life. However, it is often unclear what mental health means in all these efforts and whether there is a single concept underlying them. Sometimes the initiatives for the sake of mental health are aimed just at reducing mental (...)
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  4. Medical Ontology.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Due to the intricate nature of its subject matter, medicine is always threatened by speculations and disagreements about which among its entities exist, e.g., any specific biological structures, substructures or substances, pathogenic agents, pathophysiological processes, diseases, psychosomatic relationships, therapeutic effects, and other possible and impossible things. To avoid confusion, and to determine what entities an item of medical knowledge presupposes to exist if it is to be true, we need medical ontology. The term “medical ontology” we understand to mean the (...)
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  5. COVID-19 as the Underlying Cause of Death: Disentangling Facts and Values.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-4.
    In the ongoing pandemic, death statistics influence people’s feelings and government policy. But when does COVID-19 qualify as the cause of death? As philosophers of medicine interested in conceptual clarification, we address the question by analyzing the World Health Organization’s rules for the certification of death. We show that for COVID-19, WHO rules take into account both facts and values.
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  6. The Concept of ‘Illness Without Disease’ Impedes Understanding of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Response to Sharpe and Greco.Steven Lubet & David Tuller - 2021 - Medical Humanities 47 (1):e1-e1.
    In a recent article in Medical Humanities, Sharpe and Greco characterise myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome as an ‘illness without disease’, citing the absence of identified diagnostic markers. They attribute patients’ rejection of psychological and behavioural interventions, such as cognitive–behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy, to a ‘paradox’ resulting from a supposed failure to acknowledge that ‘there is no good objective evidence of bodily disease’. In response, we explain that understandings about the causes of and treatments for medical complaints have shifted (...)
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  7. Enactivism, Causality, and Therapy.Shaun Gallagher - 2020 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (1):27-28.
    In 1937, John Dewey delivered a lecture to the College of Physicians in Saint Louis. His clear message was that in the practice of medicine it does not suffice for physicians to treat just the body, or to look to just the body for the mechanism of disease. Emphasizing the relational nature of organism-environment, he argued that the physician must treat the whole patient and must therefore consider the environment of the patient. It makes no sense, he suggested, to provide (...)
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  8. Hair, Hormones, and Haunting: Race as a Ghost Variable in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.Brandon Kramer & Elizabeth Carlin - 2020 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 45 (5):779-803.
    In this paper, we examine how polycystic ovary syndrome is racialized in biomedical research. Drawing from Star’s seminal concept of triangulation, we analyze how the diagnostic criteria for PCOS combine two different biomarkers: body hair and testosterone. Hair and hormones are both haunted by their use in eugenic research, and as clinical measures, they can carry forward powerful narratives of biological difference. PCOS researchers circulate strong claims about racial difference in hirsutism as if they were established knowledge, sometimes calling for (...)
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  9. Why Have Non-Communicable Diseases Been Left Behind?Florencia Luna & Valerie A. Luyckx - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12 (1):5-25.
    Non-communicable diseases are no longer largely limited to high-income countries and the elderly. The burden of non-communicable diseases is rising across all country income categories, in part because these diseases have been relatively overlooked on the global health agenda. Historically, communicable diseases have been prioritized in many countries as they were perceived to constitute the greatest disease burden, especially among vulnerable and poor populations, and strategies for prevention and treatment, which had been successful in high-income settings, were considered feasible and (...)
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  10. A Concerning Display of Medical Indifference: Reply to ‘Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and an Illness-Focused Approach to Care: Controversy, Morality and Paradox’.Diane O'Leary - 2020 - Medical Humanities 46 (4):e4-e4.
    In ‘Chronic fatigue syndrome and an illness-focused approach to care: controversy, morality and paradox’, authors Michael Sharpe and Monica Greco begin by characterising myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome as illness-without-disease. On that basis they ask why patients reject treatments for illness-without-disease, and they answer with a philosophical idea. Whitehead’s ‘bifurcation of nature’, they suggest, still dominates public and professional thinking, and that conceptual confusion leads patients to reject the treatment they need. A great deal has occurred, however, since Whitehead characterised his (...)
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  11. We Need to Talk About Epizelus: ‘PTSD’ and the Ancient World.Owen Rees - 2020 - Medical Humanities 46 (1):46-54.
    In the pursuit to offer validity and lineage to the modern diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder, non-historical scholars often remove ancient episodes from their social context and retrospectively diagnose them based on our modern diagnostic criteria. This approach reinforces our pre-existing ideas, and form a confirmation bias that does not help to grow our understanding of these injuries. As this article argues, the use of ancient precedents would offer greater benefit to the psychological and medical profession when used to ask (...)
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  12. Philosophy of Immunology.Bartlomiej Swiatczak & Alfred I. Tauber - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2020.
    Philosophy of immunology is a subfield of philosophy of biology dealing with ontological and epistemological issues related to the studies of the immune system. While speculative investigations and abstract analyses have always been part of immune theorizing, until recently philosophers have largely ignored immunology. Yet the implications for understanding the philosophical basis of organismal functions framed by immunity offer new perspectives on fundamental questions of biology and medicine. Developed in the context of history of medicine, theoretical biology, and medical anthropology, (...)
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  13. Finding Deborah: Centering Patients and Placing Emotion in the History of Disease.Courtney E. Thompson - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):826-829.
  14. Immunity in Light of Spinoza and Canguilhem.Hidetaka Yakura - 2020 - Philosophies 5 (38):38-0.
    All living organisms are under stress imposed by their surrounding environments. They must adapt to their stressors to live and survive. At the forefront of this adaptation is a defense system called immunity. Immunity, as the most ancient cognitive apparatus with memory function, is present in all living organisms. In previous reports, minimal cognitive function was defined as a “biologized” concept—namely, perception of elements in a milieu, integration of perceived information, reaction according to integrated information, and memory of that experience. (...)
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  15. Frailty and Fragility: Framing a Diagnostic Category.Ruth Groenhaut - 2019 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 12 (2):1-17.
    Frailty has recently become a diagnostic category for older adults in the United States. Although one may have spoken colloquially of an individual as frail in years past, it was not considered a medical condition with a specific and quantifiable definition. Currently, the generally cited medical definition of frailty is “a biologic syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors, resulting from cumulative decline across multiple physiologic systems, and causing vulnerability to adverse outcomes”. The core elements of frailty are: “weakness, (...)
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  16. Misdiagnosing Medicalization: Penal Psychopathy and Psychiatric Practice.David Showalter - 2019 - Theory and Society 48 (1):67-94.
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  17. Poison and Disease in Anglo-Saxon Medicine and Metaphor.Claire Whitenack - 2019 - Dissertation, Cornell University
    Poison and Disease in Anglo-Saxon Medicine and Metaphor bridges a gap between scholarship on medieval medicine and literary analysis of Anglo-Saxon literature by examining the relationship between beliefs about disease causation in medical recipe-books and the use of extended metaphors of illness in Old English poetry and other non-medical works. Chapter 1 takes a novel approach to identifying beliefs about the causes of disease by analyzing preventive prescriptions in the Old English Herbarium and Medicina de Quadrupedibus, two recipe-books that have (...)
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  18. Sickness as a human trait. Towards a consideration of disease as existential phenomena.Diana Aurenque Stephan & François Jaran Duquette - 2018 - Alpha (Osorno) 47:161-176.
    Resumen En el presente trabajo se investigan los alcances y las consecuencias que se desprenden de utilizar a Heidegger en el campo de la filosofía de la medicina. Con este fin, la investigación se divide en los siguientes puntos: 1) se explicitará en qué puede consistir una “antropologización” del pensamiento heideggeriano; 2) se ofrecerá una descripción general respecto de las teorías de la salud y enfermedad más significativas y actuales en el campo de la teoría de la medicina; 3) nos (...)
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  19. Personality Disorders and Thick Concepts.Konrad Banicki - 2018 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 25 (3):209-221.
    'Cruel' simply ignores the supposed fact/value dichotomy and cheerfully allows itself to be used sometimes for a normative purpose and sometimes as a descriptive term.Personality disorders have always attracted considerable attention within the philosophy of psychiatry. It was not until two papers written by Louis Charland, however, that they simulated a wider and lively debate. The importance and, at least partly, the strength of Charland's analyses lie in the fact that they are relatively particular and focused in their...
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  20. The Product Guides the Process: Discovering Disease Mechanisms.Lindley Darden, Lipika R. Pal, Kunal Kundu & John Moult - 2018 - In David Danks & Emiliano Ippoliti (eds.), Building Theories: Heuristics and Hypotheses in Sciences. Springer International Publishing.
    The nature of the product to be discovered guides the reasoning to discover it. Biologists and medical researchers often search for mechanisms. The "new mechanistic philosophy of science" provides resources about the nature of biological mechanisms that aid the discovery of mechanisms. Here, we apply these resources to the discovery of mechanisms in medicine. A new diagrammatic representation of a disease mechanism chain indicates both what is known and, most significantly, what is not known at a given time, thereby guiding (...)
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  21. Melancholy as Disease: Learning About Depression as Disease From Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy.Jennifer Radden - 2018 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 25 (4):225-234.
    Psychiatry has a habit of ignoring its past, which is understandable but, in some instances, a mistake. It is my contention that some of the lacunae about mood disorder in today's psychiatric understanding and treatment may be illuminated by the medical lore captured in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy (1621). The implications of the present analysis for network based accounts of depression seem to encourage a reconsideration of therapeutic and remedial principles based on those found in Burton's work.
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  22. Tanz als Krankheit, Tanz als Therapie. Die Formierung eines religiös-medizinischen Konzepts.Gregor Rohmann - 2018 - Das Mittelalter 23 (2):281-307.
    ‘Dancing mania’ has often been understood as an expression of purportedly ‘typical medieval’ mass hysteria. Yet evidence suggests that a better interpretation would be to see it as a disease, the idea of which was shaped by patterns tracing back to antique cosmology. During the later Middle Ages, this concept became reality as a form of suffering primarily determined by spiritual forces which typically struck only individuals or small groups in narrowly defined regions. This article closely examines a key shift (...)
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  23. Defining Metabolic Syndrome: Which Kind of Causality, If Any, is Required?Margherita Benzi - 2017 - Disputatio 9 (47):553-580.
    The definition of metabolic syndrome has been, and still is, extremely controversial. My purpose is not to give a solution to the associated debate but to argue that the controversy is at least partially due to the different ‘causal content’ of the various definitions: their theoretical validity and practical utility can be evaluated by reconstructing or making explicit the underlying causal structure. I will therefore propose to distinguish the alternative definitions according to the kinds of causal content they carry: definitions (...)
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  24. The Action of the Imagination: Daniel Hack Tuke and Late Victorian Psycho-Therapeutics.Sarah Chaney - 2017 - History of the Human Sciences 30 (2):17-33.
    Histories of dynamic psychotherapy in the late 19th century have focused on practitioners in continental Europe, and interest in psychological therapies within British asylum psychiatry has been largely overlooked. Yet Daniel Hack Tuke is acknowledged as one of the earliest authors to use the term ‘psycho-therapeutics’, including a chapter on the topic in his 1872 volume, Illustrations of the Influence of the Mind upon the Body in Health and Disease. But what did Tuke mean by this concept, and what impact (...)
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  25. The Form of Causation in Health, Disease and Intervention: Biopsychosocial Dispositionalism, Conserved Quantity Transfers and Dualist Mechanistic Chains.David W. Evans, Nicholas Lucas & Roger Kerry - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy: A European Journal 20 (3):353-363.
    Causation is important when considering how an organism maintains health, why disease arises in a healthy person, and how one may intervene to change the course of a disease. This paper explores the form of causative relationships in health, disease and intervention, with particular regard to the pathological and biopsychosocial models. Consistent with the philosophical view of dispositionalism, we believe that objects are the fundamental relata of causation. By accepting the broad scope of the biopsychosocial model, we argue that psychological (...)
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  26. Abandoning the Realism Debate: Lessons From the Zymotic Theory of Disease.Dana Tulodziecki - 2017 - In Michela Massimi, Jan-Willem Romeijn & G. Schurz (eds.), EPSA 15 Selected Papers, European Studies in Philosophy of Science, Vol. 5. Springer. pp. 61--69.
    In this paper, I examine the transition from zymotic views of disease to germ views in Britain in the mid-1800s. I argue that neither realist nor anti-realist accounts of theory-change can account for this case, because both rely on a well-defined notion of theory, which, as the paper will show, is inapplicable in this instance. After outlining the zymotic theory of disease, I show that, even though it hardly had anything in common with the germ theory, it was highly successful. (...)
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  27. Historical relations between Internal Medicine and Pathological Anatomy.Junior Vega Jiménez, Yailin Cabrera Hernández, Dalia García Cuervo, Leydiana Trimiño Galindo & Daylin González González - 2017 - Humanidades Médicas 17 (1):237-248.
    La relación de discrepancia y coincidencia de las causas de muerte entre el diagnóstico clínico y anatomopatológico constituye de forma indirecta un indicador de calidad de la atención médica. Son múltiples los ejemplos de enfermedades descubiertas o esclarecidas gracias a la autopsia, que tiene en la correlación clinicopatológica un basamento fundamental. Se estableció como objetivo de investigación describir los principales vínculos históricos entre las especialidades de medicina interna y anatomía patológica, que tienen como enlace esencial la correlación clínico patológica, atendiendo (...)
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  28. Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.Gordon D. A. Brown, Corey L. Fincher & Lukasz Walasek - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):98-117.
    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use (...)
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  29. Contamination Appraisals, Pollution Beliefs, and the Role of Cultural Inheritance in Shaping Disease Avoidance Behavior.Yitzhaq Feder - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1561-1585.
    Despite the upsurge of research on disgust, the implications of this research for the investigation of cultural pollution beliefs has yet to be adequately explored. In particular, the sensitivity of both disgust and pollution to a common set of elicitors suggests a common psychological basis, though several obstacles have prevented an integrative account, including methodological differences between the relevant disciplines. Employing a conciliatory framework that embraces both naturalistic and humanistic levels of explanation, this article examines the dynamic reciprocal process by (...)
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  30. Personalizing Medicine: Disease Prevention in Silico and in Socio.Sara Green & Henrik Vogt - 2016 - Humana Mente 9 (30).
    Proponents of the emerging field of P4 medicine argue that computational integration and analysis of patient-specific “big data” will revolutionize our health care systems, in particular primary care-based disease prevention. While many ambitions remain visionary, steps to personalize medicine are already taken via personalized genomics, mobile health technologies and pilot projects. An important aim of P4 medicine is to enable disease prevention among healthy persons through detection of risk factors. In this paper, we examine the current status of P4 medicine (...)
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  31. A Rational System for Diagnosing Banana Disorders.Zamily Jawad & Qassas Randa - 2016 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 8 (2):1-8.
    Background: Plant production provides human and animal life with different requirements. The concern of workers in agriculture in general and those interested in plant diseases, in particular, has been focused on protection from all that is expected to have problems of production. As environmental conditions play a critical role in the treatment of diseases, the plant is prepared and rendered more susceptible to production, which is exposed and may result in the loss of the entire crop. Objectives: The main goal (...)
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  32. A Rational System for Diagnosing Banana Disorders.Zamily Jawad & Qassas Randa - 2016 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 8 (2):1-8.
    Abstract: Background: Plant production provides human and animal life with different requirements. The concern of workers in agriculture in general and those interested in plant diseases, in particular, has been focused on protection from all that is expected to have problems of production. As environmental conditions play a critical role in the treatment of diseases, the plant is prepared and rendered more susceptible to production, which is exposed and may result in the loss of the entire crop. Objectives: The main (...)
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  33. The Symptom as Ally, Not Enemy.Alessandro Pizzoccaro - 2016 - World Futures 72 (3-4):133-137.
    The practice of the Western medicine often identifies the symptom with the disease itself, but a current of thought and medical practice considers it as the important message of an organic imbalance. In fact, in standard therapies symptoms are usually suppressed, thus interrupting a normal physiological process and risking severe reactions due to the organic imbalance. Dr. Hahnemann, the father of homeopathy, founded his diagnostic and therapeutic model on the interpretation of the symptoms and maintained that symptoms are an expression (...)
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  34. Philosophic and Clinical Discourse of the Twentieth Century.V. M. Skyrtach, R. S. Martynov & A. O. Karpenko - 2016 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 10:17-23.
    The purpose is to identify common and distinctive features of concepts and methodology of the problem of subject within different discourses, implicitly or explicitly relevant to the definition of "clinical" mode of human existence. The research methodology combines techniques of discourse analysis and basic principles of historical and philosophical studies. Originality of the research lies in definition of the clinical philosophical discourse as a special communicative process, where utterances not only focus on disease syndromes, and reveal phenomenology of inner experience (...)
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  35. A Concise History of Asperger Syndrome: The Short Reign of a Troublesome Diagnosis.J. B. Barahona-Corrêa & Carlos N. Filipe - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  36. Mental Disorder or Creative Gift? The Cognitive Scientific Approach to Synesthesia.Józef Bremer - 2015 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 20 (1):73-98.
    In cases where one sense-modality is stimulated by another, we speak of synesthesia, i.e., of a subjective experience of multiple distinct sensations as being quite literally conjoined. The term “synesthesia” is derived indirectly from the Greek words “syn,” meaning “together,” and “aisthesis,” meaning “sensation.” This article focuses on the question of whether synesthesia is in fact a mental disorder or a creative gift. Both the commonsense views that have emerged in recent times, and neurological research, demonstrate that our knowledge of (...)
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  37. Understanding Medical Symptoms: A Conceptual Review and Analysis.Kirsti Malterud, Ann Dorrit Guassora, Anette Hauskov Graungaard & Susanne Reventlow - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (6):411-424.
    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom understanding proceeds from an initial subliminal awareness by way of attribution of meaning and subsequent management, with and without professional involvement. We introduce theoretical perspectives from phenomenology, semiotics, social interactionism, and discourse analysis. Drew (...)
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  38. Causality and the Ontology of Disease.Robert J. Rovetto & Riichiro Mizoguchi - 2015 - Applied Ontology 10 (2):79-105.
    The goal of this paper is two-fold: first, to emphasize causality in disease ontology and knowledge representation, presenting a general and cursory discussion of causality and causal chains; and second, to clarify and develop the River Flow Model of Diseases (RFM). The RFM is an ontological account of disease, representing the causal structure of pathology. It applies general knowledge of causality using the concept of causal chains. The river analogy of disease is explained, formal descriptions are offered, and the RFM (...)
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  39. Genes and Non-Mendelian Diseases: Dealing with Complexity.Bertrand Jordan - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (1):118-131.
    Almost every human disease has both a genetic and an environmental component. Even a classical inherited condition such as hemophilia can be influenced by external factors—in fact, most of the pathogenic effects of the mutation can be avoided by judicious injections of clotting factor, leading to a nearly normal life expectancy. For infectious diseases, often considered as essentially environmental, there are well-documented inherited differences in susceptibility, one of the most striking being the resistance to HIV infection of homozygous carriers of (...)
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  40. Art in the Time of Disease.Srajana Kaikini - 2014 - Journal for Cancer Research and Therapeutics 10 (1):229 -231.
    An invited editorial on the depiction of disease in art history which would then become the symbol of this redemptive philosophy.
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  41. Disease, Risk, and Contagion: French Colonial and Postcolonial Constructions of “African” Bodies.Carolyn Sargent & Stéphanie Larchanché - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):455-466.
    In this article, we explore how sub-Saharan African immigrant populations in France have been constructed as risk groups by media sources, in political rhetoric, and among medical professionals, drawing on constructs dating to the colonial period. We also examine how political and economic issues have been mirrored and advanced in media visibility and ask why particular populations and the diseases associated with them in the popular imagination have received more attention at certain historical moments. In the contemporary period we analyze (...)
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  42. Classifying Unknowns: The Idiopathic Problem.Thomas Beaney - 2013 - Medical Humanities 39 (2):126-130.
    The term, idiopathic, emerged as a key concept in the classification of disease in the 18th century and has become ingrained in our terminology in defining diseases and their aetiologies throughout all fields of medicine. Despite, or perhaps because of this, little has been written about the meaning or meanings of the word itself. Although most medical professionals will be able to offer a definition of idiopathic, different definitions of the word are in use and are often confused or used (...)
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  43. A Public Health Ethics Approach to Non-Communicable Diseases.Stacy M. Carter & Lucie Rychetnik - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (1):17-18.
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  44. Patient and Family Trajectories of Mitochondrial Disease: Diversity, Uncertainty and Genetic Risk.Rebecca Dimond - 2013 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 9 (1).
    Mitochondrial disease can be a devastating, degenerative illness, with limited treatment and no cure. Novel reproductive techniques involving mitochondria donation present an opportunity for women with mitochondrial disease to prevent the transmission of disease to her offspring. Current IVF techniques, such as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, reduce but do not eliminate the risk for the child. However, knowledge of the contexts within which this disease is experienced and reproductive decisions are made is limited. This article draws on qualitative interviews with adult (...)
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  45. The Neurological Disease Ontology.Mark Jensen, Alexander P. Cox, Naveed Chaudhry, Marcus Ng, Donat Sule, William Duncan, Patrick Ray, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Barry Smith, Alan Ruttenberg, Kinga Szigeti & Alexander D. Diehl - 2013 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 4 (42):42.
    We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) (...)
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  46. Chagas Disease: History of a Continent's Scourge.Kelly Joyce - 2013 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):459-461.
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  47. Contagious Cancer: Lessons From the Devil and the Dog.Katherine Belov - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (4):285-292.
  48. Ontologies for the Study of Neurological Disease.Alexander P. Cox, Mark Jensen, William Duncan, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Kinga Szigeti, Alan Ruttenberg, Barry Smith & Alexander D. Diehl - 2012 - In Towards an Ontology of Mental Functioning (ICBO Workshop), Third International Conference on Biomedical Ontology. Graz:
    We have begun work on two separate but related ontologies for the study of neurological diseases. The first, the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND), is intended to provide a set of controlled, logically connected classes to describe the range of neurological diseases and their associated signs and symptoms, assessments, diagnoses, and interventions that are encountered in the course of clinical practice. ND is built as an extension of the Ontology for General Medical Sciences — a high-level candidate OBO Foundry ontology that (...)
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  49. Mechanism, Experiment, Disease: Marcello Malpighi and Seventeenth-Century Anatomy. [REVIEW]Maria Donatto - 2012 - Isis 103:592-593.
  50. Ethical and Social Aspects on Rare Diseases.Dusanka Krajnovic - 2012 - Filozofija I Društvo 23 (4):32-48.
    Rare diseases are a heterogenic group of disorders with a little in common except of their rarity affecting by less than 5 : 10.000 people. In the world is registered about 6000-8000 rare diseases with 6-8% suffering population only in the European Union. In spite of rarity, they represent an important medical and social problem due to their incidence. For many rare diseases have no treatment, but if it exists and if started on time as being available to patients, there (...)
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