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  1. Contributors.Philip W. Anderson - unknown
    Is string theory a futile exercise as physics, as I believe it to be? It is an interesting mathematical specialty and has produced and will produce mathematics useful in other contexts, but it seems no more vital as mathematics than other areas of very abstract or specialized math, and doesn't on that basis justify the incredible amount of effort expended on it.
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  2. Majesty and Misery in String Theory. Compared to its Critics It is Defending its Scientific-Metaphysical Legitimacy.Guillermo Armengol - 2008 - Pensamiento 64 (242):1115-1120.
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  3. A New Metaphysics: Finding a Niche for String Theory.David Atkinson - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 84 (1):95-102.
    Theo Kuipers describes four kinds of research programs and the question is raised here as to whether string theory could be accommodated by one of them, or whether it should be classified in a new, fifth kind of research program.
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  4. Does String Theory Posit Extended Simples?David John Baker - unknown
    It is sometimes claimed that string theory posits a fundamental ontology including extended mereological simples, either in the form of minimum-sized regions of space or of the strings themselves. But there is very little in the actual theory to support this claim, and much that suggests it is false. Extant string theories treat space as a continuum, and strings do not behave like simples.
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  5. Debating the Final Theory.A. O. Barut - 1994 - Foundations of Physics 24 (11):1571-1576.
    Recent assertions that the present particle physics is on the path of a “final theory” which cannot be reduced to more fundamental ones is critically examined and confronted with a counter-thesis.
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  6. String Theory & the Scientific Method.Fedde Benedictus - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (6):589-593.
    The PreambleIn the early seventies the newly discovered gauge symmetries had made it possible to give a unified description of three of the four basic forces in nature.Dawid [1]. However, it remained a mystery how the force of gravity was to be incorporated in the resulting standard model. In 1974 it was proposed by Joel Scherk and John Schwarz that string theory—which until then was regarded as a theory only of hadrons—was a theory that could unite the whole of microphysics. (...)
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  7. Dean Rickles. A Brief History of String Theory: From Dual Models to M-Theory. Xix + 251 Pp., Figs., Tables, Index. Berlin: Springer, 2014. €42.39. [REVIEW]Alexander Blum - 2015 - Isis 106 (4):990-991.
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  8. The Quantum Vacuum: A Scientific and Philosophical Concept, From Electrodynamics to String Theory and the Geometry of the Microscopic World.L. Boi - 2011 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Acclaimed mathematical physicist and natural philosopher Luciano Boi expounds the quantum vacuum, exploring the meaning of nothingness and its relationship with ...
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  9. String theory: In search of (meta)physical objects.Mario Valentino Bramè - 2006 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 2:209-221.
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  10. Imagining the Tenth Dimension: A New Way of Thinking About Time, Space, and String Theory.Rob Bryanton - 2006 - Talking Dog Studios.
    INTRODUCTION Our universe is an amazing and humbling place. The planet we live on is filled with wondrous things, yet it is only an unimaginably tiny part ...
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  11. String Theory, Non-Empirical Theory Assessment, and the Context of Pursuit.Frank Cabrera - 2018 - Synthese:1-29.
    In this paper, I offer an analysis of the radical disagreement over the adequacy of string theory. The prominence of string theory despite its notorious lack of empirical support is sometimes explained as a troubling case of science gone awry, driven largely by sociological mechanisms such as groupthink (e.g. Smolin 2006). Others, such as Dawid (2013), explain the controversy by positing a methodological revolution of sorts, according to which string theorists have quietly turned to nonempirical methods of theory assessment given (...)
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  12. What is a Random String?Cristian Calude - 1995 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 3:101-113.
    Suppose that persons A and B give us a sequence of 32 bits each, saying that they were obtained from independent coin flips. If A gives the stringu = 01001110100111101001101001110101and B gives the stringv = 00000000000000000000000000000000,then we would tend to believe A and would not believe B: the string u seems to be random, but the string v does not. Further on, if we change the value of a bit in a “random” string, then the result is still a “random” (...)
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  13. The Role of Heuristic Appraisal in Conflicting Assessments of String Theory.Kristian Camilleri & Sophie Ritson - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 51:44-56.
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  14. The Birth of String Theory: Introduction and Synopsis.Andrea Cappelli, Elena Castellani, Filippo Colomo & Paolo Di Vecchia - unknown
    This is a draft of the introduction to the collective volume "The birth of string theory", including the book's index and preface. The book explores the history of the theory’s early stages of development, as told by its main protagonists. It journeys from the first version of the theory in the late 1960s, as an attempt to describe the physics of strong interactions outside the framework of quantum field theory, to its reinterpretation around the mid-1970s as a quantum theory of (...)
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  15. Early String Theory as a Challenging Case Study for Philosophers.Elena Castellani - unknown
    This is the final draft of Chapter 4 of the Volume 'The Birth of String Theory' edited by A. Cappelli, E. Castellani, F. Colomo, and P. Di Vecchia, Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.
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  16. Dualities and Intertheoretic Relations.Elena Castellani - unknown
    This is the first of two papers concerned with the philosophical significance of dualities as applied in recent fundamental physics. The general idea is that, for its peculiarity, this ‘new’ ingredient in theory construction can open unexpected perspectives in the current philosophical reflection on contemporary physics. In particular, today’s physical dualities represent an unusual type of intertheory relation, the meaning of which deserves to be investigated. The aim is to show how discussing this point brings into play, at the same (...)
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  17. The String Uncertainty Relations Follow From the New Relativity Principle.Carlos Castro - 2000 - Foundations of Physics 30 (8):1301-1316.
    Stringy corrections to the ordinary Heisenberg uncertainty relations have been known for some time. However, a proper understanding of the underlying new physical principle modifying the ordinary Heisenberg uncertainty relations has not yet emerged. The author has recently proposed a new scale relativity theory as a physical foundation of string and M theories. In this work the stringy uncertainty relations, and corrections thereof, are rigorously derived from this new relativity principle without any ad-hoc assumptions. The precise connection between the Regge (...)
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  18. Epilogue. Moderation, “The Silken String Running Through The Pearl-Chain Of All Virtues”.Aurelian Craiutu - 2012 - In A Virtue for Courageous Minds: Moderation in French Political Thought, 1748-1830. Princeton University Press. pp. 238-250.
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  19. Strings and Things.John Cramer - unknown
    Alternate View Column AV-19 Keywords: cosmic strings, gravitational lensing, angle deficit, superconductor, space drive Published in the April-1987 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine; This column was written and submitted 9/19/86 and is copyrighted © 1986, John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  20. Millimeter Gravity and the Superstring Wall.John G. Cramer - unknown
    Why is gravity so weak? Why are the color forces between quarks so strong? In the standard model of particle physics, why are there so many different energies at which distinct fundamental forces are supposed to "unify", and what determines these widely separated energies? The answers to these questions may be provided by extra dimensions curled into loops a millimeter around. In other words, our universe may be only a millimeter across, in directions we are not yet able to perceive. (...)
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  21. Inter-Theory Relations in Quantum Gravity: Correspondence, Reduction, and Emergence.Karen Crowther - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
    Relationships between current theories, and relationships between current theories and the sought theory of quantum gravity (QG), play an essential role in motivating the need for QG, aiding the search for QG, and defining what would count as QG. Correspondence is the broad class of inter-theory relationships intended to demonstrate the necessary compatibility of two theories whose domains of validity overlap, in the overlap regions. The variety of roles that correspondence plays in the search for QG are illustrated, using examples (...)
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  22. Delimiting the Unconceived.Richard Dawid - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):492-506.
    It has been argued in Dawid that physicists at times generate substantial trust in an empirically unconfirmed theory based on observations that lie beyond the theory’s intended domain. A crucial role in the reconstruction of this argument of “non-empirical confirmation” is played by limitations to scientific underdetermination. The present paper discusses the question as to how generic the role of limitations to scientific underdetermination really is. It is argued that assessing such limitations is essential for generating trust in any theory’s (...)
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  23. Non-Empirical But Scientific (Response to "Physics on Edge" by George Ellis).Richard Dawid - 2017 - Inference 3 (3).
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  24. String Theory and the Scientific Method.Richard Dawid - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    String theory has played a highly influential role in theoretical physics for nearly three decades and has substantially altered our view of the elementary building principles of the Universe. However, the theory remains empirically unconfirmed, and is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. So why do string theorists have such a strong belief in their theory? This book explores this question, offering a novel insight into the nature of theory assessment itself. Dawid approaches the topic from a unique (...)
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  25. Theory Assessment and Final Theory Claim in String Theory.Richard Dawid - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (1):81-100.
    String theory has by now maintained a highly influential position in high energy physics for more than a quarter of a century. The present article analyses the reasons for the considerable trust exponents of string theory have in their theory even though it has neither found empirical confirmation nor a complete formulation up to this point. It is argued that this trust can be understood in terms of an emerging new conception of theory assessment that relies strongly on the identification (...)
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  26. On the Conflicting Assessments of the Current Status of String Theory.Richard Dawid - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):984-996.
    The current status of string theory is assessed quite differently by most of the theory’s exponents than by the majority of physicists in other fields. While the former tend to have a high degree of trust in string theory’s viability, the latter largely share a substantially more skeptical point of view. This article argues that the controversy can be best understood in terms of a paradigmatic rift between the two sides over their understandings of theory assessment. An attempt is made (...)
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  27. Scientific Realism in the Age of String Theory.Richard Dawid - 2007 - Physics and Philosophy.
    String theory currently is the only viable candidate for a unified description of all known natural forces. This article tries to demonstrate that the fundamental structural and methodological differences that set string theory apart from other physical theories have important philosophical consequences. Focussing on implications for the realism debate in philosophy of science, it is argued that both poles of that debate face new problems in the context of string theory. On the one hand, the claim of underdetermination of scientific (...)
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  28. Underdetermination and Theory Succession From the Perspective of String Theory.Richard Dawid - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (3):298-322.
  29. Realism in the Age of String Theory.Richard Dawid - unknown
    String theory currently is the only viable candidate for a unified description of all known natural forces. This article tries to demonstrate that the fundamental structural and methodological differences that set string theory apart from other physical theories have important philosophical consequences. Focussing on implications for the realism debate in philosophy of science, it is argued that both poles of that debate become untenable in the context of string theory. On one side the claim of underdetermination of scientific theories, which (...)
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  30. Forty Years of String Theory Reflecting on the Foundations.Sebastian de Haro, Dennis Dieks, Gerard ’T. Hooft & Erik Verlinde - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (1):1-7.
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  31. A. Cappelli, E. Castellani, F. Colomo and P. Di Vecchia : The Birth of String Theory.Sebastian de Haro, Jans Henke & Darrell Tang - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (6):657-660.
    The Birth of String Theory by Cappelli et al. tells the story of the beginnings of string theory and of the evolutionary process it has undergone from its origins in S-matrix theory to its current status as a candidate unification theory. The book is intended for an audience of students and researchers in physics, as well as historians and philosophers of science with some background in quantum field theory.In the 50s and early 60s, theoretical particle physics focused on formulating a (...)
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  32. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality.Sebastian de Haro, Daniel Mayerson & Jeremy Butterfield - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (11):1381-1425.
    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena’s AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to (...)
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  33. The Massive Bosonic String in the Center-of-Mass Gauge.Philippe Droz-Vincent - 1994 - Foundations of Physics 24 (4):525-541.
    The open Nambu string is revisited in the spirit of an early approach by Rohrlich. Strictly timelike motions only are considered. The proper-time of the center-of-mass is taken as preferred parameter. We propose a canonical formalism in terms of a countable infinity of variables, among them the modes. But the barycentric coordinates have noncommuting components, which makes possible a consistent quantization (in any dimension, four in particular) within the framework of a transverse space of states. If a maximal number of (...)
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  34. Erratum To: String and M-Theory: Answering the Critics. [REVIEW]M. J. Duff - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (2):284-284.
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  35. String and M-Theory: Answering the Critics. [REVIEW]M. J. Duff - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (1):182-200.
    Using as a springboard a three-way debate between theoretical physicist Lee Smolin, philosopher of science Nancy Cartwright and myself, I address in layman’s terms the issues of why we need a unified theory of the fundamental interactions and why, in my opinion, string and M-theory currently offer the best hope. The focus will be on responding more generally to the various criticisms. I also describe the diverse application of string/M-theory techniques to other branches of physics and mathematics which render the (...)
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  36. Klein Paradox for the Bosonic Equation in the Presence of Minimal Length.M. Falek, M. Merad & M. Moumni - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (5):507-524.
    We present an exact solution of the one-dimensional modified Klein Gordon and Duffin Kemmer Petiau equations with a step potential in the presence of minimal length in the uncertainty relation, where the expressions of the new transmission and reflection coefficients are determined for all cases. As an application, the Klein paradox in the presence of minimal length is discussed for all equations.
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  37. Evolutionary String Theory.Zen Faulkes & Anita Davelos Baines - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (4):369-370.
    Evolution in Four Dimensions claims that epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic inheritance systems should be considered equal partners to genetics in evolutionary biology. The evidence for, and applicable scope of, these additional inheritance systems is limited, particularly with regard to areas involving learning. It is unclear how including these extra dimensions in mainstream evolutionary thinking translates into testable hypotheses for a productive research program.
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  38. String Theory Under Scrutiny.Roman Frigg & N. Cartwright - unknown
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  39. Puppet on a String?: The Lessons of Structuralism.Mike Fuller - 1995 - Cogito 9 (2):137-141.
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  40. Consciousness Without Constraint: Open String Theory - One Loose End.Judy B. Gardiner - 2016 - Cosmos and History 12 (2):83-98.
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  41. Ab Initiomulti-String Frenkel–Kontorova Model for a B =a/2[111] Screw Dislocation in Bcc Iron.Mark R. Gilbert & Sergei L. Dudarev - 2010 - Philosophical Magazine 90 (7-8):1035-1061.
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  42. The Superstring Theory and Lee Smolin's Troubles with Physics.Wojciech P. Grygiel - 2010 - Filozofia Nauki 18 (3):141.
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  43. The Gauge-String Duality and Heavy Ion Collisions.Steven S. Gubser - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (1):140-155.
    I review at a non-technical level the use of the gauge-string duality to study aspects of heavy ion collisions, with special emphasis on the trailing string calculation of heavy quark energy loss. I include some brief speculations on how variants of the trailing string construction could provide a toy model of black hole formation and evaporation. This essay is an invited contribution to “Forty Years of String Theory” and is aimed at philosophers and historians of science as well as physicists.
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  44. Squaring the Circle: Gleb Wataghin and the Prehistory of Quantum Gravity.Amit Hagar - 2014 - Studies in the History and the Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (2):217-227.
    The early history of the attempts to unify quantum theory with the general theory of relativity is depicted through the work of the under--appreciated Italo-Brazilian physicist Gleb Wataghin, who is responsible for many of the ideas that the quantum gravity community is entertaining today.
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  45. String Theory – Nomological Unification and the Epicycles of the Quantum Field Theory Paradigm.Reiner Hedrich - unknown
    String Theory is the result of the conjunction of three conceptually independent elements: the metaphysical idea of a nomological unity of the forces, the model-theoretical paradigm of Quantum Field Theory, and the conflict resulting from classical gravity in a quantum world - the motivational starting point of the search for a theory of Quantum Gravity. String Theory is sometimes assumed to solve this conflict: by means of an application of the model-theoretical apparatus of Quantum Field Theory, interpreting gravity as the (...)
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  46. String Theory - From Physics to Metaphysics.Reiner Hedrich - unknown
    Currently, string theory represents the only advanced approach to a unification of all interactions, including gravity. In spite of the more than thirty years of its existence, the sequence of metamorphosis it ran through, and the ever more increasing number of involved physicists, until now, it did not make any empirically testable predictions. Because there are no empirical data incompatible with the quantum field theoretical standard model of elementary particle physics and with general relativity, the only motivations for string theory (...)
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  47. The Internal and External Problems of String Theory: A Philosophical View. [REVIEW]Reiner Hedrich - 2006 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (2):261 - 278.
    String theory is at the moment the only advanced approach to a unification of all interactions, including gravity. But, in spite of the more than 30 years of its existence, it does not make any empirically testable predictions, and it is completely unknown which physically interpretable principles could form the basis of string theory. At the moment, “string theory” is no theory at all, but rather a labyrinthic structure of mathematical procedures and intuitions. The only motivations for string theory consist (...)
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  48. Superstring Theory and Empirical Testability.Reiner Hedrich - unknown
    The quest for an all-encompassing theory, finally intended to give a solution to the problem of the unification of all natural forces, is seen today as one of the most important objectives of theoretical high-energy physics. This so-called 'Theory of Everything' is, actually, identified by some theoretical physicists with superstring theory. But superstring theory is in a crucial way incomplete. And, above all, it has fundamental problems with empirical testability – problems that make questionable its status as a physical theory (...)
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  49. Field Theory of Strings in Nonconformal Gauges.Marc Henneaux - 1987 - Foundations of Physics 17 (6):637-652.
    The field theory of free strings is analyzed in gauges in which the two-dimensional metric along the string worldsheet remains as a dynamical variable. Hamiltonian-based BRST methods are used. The cohomology of the complete BRST charge is computed. Equivalence with the usual approach is explicitly established.
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  50. The Non-Local to Local Space-Time Map.Paul Karl Hoiland - unknown
    While for point particles a local theory seems to be sufficient, when it comes to extended objects like Strings and Branes you by rights are not dealing with a specifically fully localized particle to begin with. This also is not the case for non-inertial particles interacting with a wave field (like, e.g., an accelerated atom interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field). The fact that a wave has an extension seems to make a non-local treatment necessary. By the same fact a (...)
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