Results for 'Athanassius Raftopoulos'

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  1. Nonconceptual Demonstrative Reference.Athanassius Raftopoulos & Vincent Muller - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (2):251-285.
    The paper argues that the reference of perceptual demonstratives is fixed in a causal nondescriptive way through the nonconceptual content of perception. That content consists first in spatiotemporal information establishing the existence of a separate persistent object retrieved from a visual scene by the perceptual object segmentation processes that open an object-file for that object. Nonconceptual content also consists in other transducable information, that is, information that is retrieved directly in a bottom-up way from the scene (motion, shape, etc). The (...)
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  2. The Cognitive Penetrability of Perception: New Philosophical Perspectives.John Zeimbekis & Athanassios Raftopoulos (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    According to the cognitive penetrability hypothesis, our beliefs, desires, and possibly our emotions literally affect how we see the world. This book elucidates the nature of the cognitive penetrability and impenetrability hypotheses, assesses their plausibility, and explores their philosophical consequences. It connects the topic's multiple strands (the psychological findings, computationalist background, epistemological consequences of cognitive architecture, and recent philosophical developments) at a time when the outcome of many philosophical debates depends on knowing whether and how cognitive states can influence perception. (...)
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  3.  77
    Cognition and Perception: How Do Psychology and Neural Science Inform Philosophy?Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2009 - MIT Press.
    An argument that there are perceptual mechanisms that retrieve information in cognitively and conceptually unmediated ways and that this sheds light on various ...
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  4.  10
    The Cognitive Impenetrability of the Content of Early Vision is a Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Purely Nonconceptual Content.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (5):601-620.
  5. The Phenomenal Content of Experience.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Vincent C. Müller - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (2):187-219.
    We discuss at some length evidence from the cognitive science suggesting that the representations of objects based on spatiotemporal information and featural information retrieved bottomup from a visual scene precede representations of objects that include conceptual information. We argue that a distinction can be drawn between representations with conceptual and nonconceptual content. The distinction is based on perceptual mechanisms that retrieve information in conceptually unmediated ways. The representational contents of the states induced by these mechanisms that are available to a (...)
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  6.  27
    Is Perception Informationally Encapsulated? The Issue of the Theory‐Ladenness of Perception.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2001 - Cognitive Science 25 (3):423-451.
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  7.  54
    The Cognitive Impenetrability of the Content of Early Vision is a Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Purely Nonconceptual Content.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology (5):1-20.
    I elaborate on Pylyshyn's definition of the cognitive impenetrability (CI) of early vision, and draw on the role of concepts in perceptual processing, which links the problem of the CI or cognitive penetrability (CP) of early vision with the problem of the nonconceptual content (NCC) of perception. I explain, first, the sense in which the content of early vision is CI and I argue that if some content is CI, it is conceptually encapsulated, that is, it is NCC. Then, I (...)
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  8. The Properties and the Nature of Light: The Study of Newton’s Work and the Teaching of Optics.Athanasios Raftopoulos, Niki Kalyfommatou & Constantinos P. Constantinou - 2005 - Science & Education 14 (7-8):649-673.
  9. Ambiguous Figures and Representationalism.Athanasios Raftopoulos - 2011 - Synthese 181 (3):489-514.
    Macpherson (Nous 40(1):82–117, 2006) argues that the square/regular diamond figure threatens representationalism, construed as the theory which holds that the phenomenal character is explained by the nonconceptual content of experience. Her argument is the claim that representationalism is committed to the thesis that differences in the experience of ambiguous figures, the gestalt switch, should be explained by differences in the NCC of perception of these figures. However, with respect to the square/regular diamond and some other ambiguous figure representationalism fails to (...)
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  10.  54
    The Cognitive Impenetrability of Perception and Theory-Ladenness.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (1):87-103.
    In this paper, I claim that since there is a cognitively impenetrable stage of visual perception, namely early vision, and cognitive penetrability and theory-ladenness are coextensive, the CI of early vision entails that early vision content is theory neutral. This theory-neutral part undermines relativism. In this paper, I consider two objections against the thesis. The one adduces evidence from cases of rapid perceptual learning to undermine my thesis that early vision is CI. The other emphasizes that the early perceptual system, (...)
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  11.  35
    Cognitive Penetrability: An Overview.Athanassios Raftopoulos & John Zeimbekis - 2015 - In John Zeimbekis & Athanassios Raftopoulos (eds.), The Cognitive Penetrability of Perception: New Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 1-56.
  12. Reentrant Neural Pathways and the Theory-Ladenness of Perception.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (3):S187-S199.
    In this paper I argue for the cognitive impenetrability of perception by undermining the argument from reentrant pathways. To do that I will adduce psychological and neuropsychological evidence showing that (a) early vision processing is not affected by our knowledge about specific objects and events, and (b) that the role of the descending pathways is to enable the early-vision processing modules to participate in higher-level visual or cognitive functions. My thesis is that a part of observation, which I will call (...)
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  13. Newton's Experimental Proofs as Eliminative Reasoning.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 1999 - Erkenntnis 50 (1):91-121.
    In this paper I discuss Newton's first optical paper. My aim is to examine the type of argument which Newton uses in order to convince his readers of the truth of his theory of colors. My claim is that this argument is an induction by elimination, and that the Newtonian method of justification is a kind of “generative justification”, a term due to T. Nickles. To achieve my aim I analyze in some detail the arguments in Newton's first optical paper, (...)
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  14.  4
    The Phenomenal Content of Experience.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Vincent C. M.Üller - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (2):187-219.
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  15.  78
    Defending Realism on the Proper Ground.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):47-77.
    'Epistemological constructivism' holds that vision is mediated by background preconceptions and is theory-laden. Hence, two persons with differing theoretical commitments see the world differently and they could agree on what they see only if they both espoused the same conceptual framework. This, in its turn, undermines the possibility of theory testing and choice on a common theory-neutral empirical basis. In this paper, I claim that the cognitive sciences suggest that a part of vision may be only indirectly penetrated by cognition (...)
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  16. Reference, Perception, and Attention.Athanasios Raftopoulos - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 144 (3):339 - 360.
    I examine John Campbell’s claim that the determination of the reference of a perceptual demonstrative requires conscious visual object-based selective attention. I argue that although Campbell’s claim to the effect that, first, a complex binding parameter is needed to establish the referent of a perceptual demonstrative, and, second, that this referent is determined independently of, and before, the application of sortals is correct, this binding parameter does not require object-based attention for its construction. If object-based attention were indeed required then (...)
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  17. Was Cartesian Science Ever Meant to Be a Priori? A Comment on Hatfield.Athanasse Raftopoulos - 1995 - Philosophy of Science 62 (1):150-160.
    In a recent article G. Hatfield claims that Descartes for a certain time thought a purely a priori science to be possible. Hatfield's evidence consists of his reading of the Cartesian method in the Regulae and of a letter to Mersenne, written in May 1632. I argue that Hatfield misinterprets the Cartesian method and Descartes' claim in the letter to Mersenne. I first show that the latter does not argue for an a priori science. Then, I show that the method (...)
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  18.  45
    Cognitive Penetration Lite and Nonconceptual Content.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (5):1097-1122.
    The Macpherson :24–62, 2012) argued that the perceptual experience of colors is cognitively penetrable. Macpherson also thinks that perception has nonconceptual content because this would provide a good explanation for several phenomena concerning perceptual experience. To have both, Macpherson must defend the thesis that the CP of perception is compatible with perception having NCC. Since the classical notion of CP of perception does not allow perception to have NCC, Macpherson proposes CP-lite. CP-lite makes room for an experience to have content (...)
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  19.  58
    Cognitive Penetrabiity of Perception: Attention, Strategies and Bottom-Up Constraints.Athanassios Raftopoulos (ed.) - 2005 - New York: Nova Science.
    The chapters in this book address directly the issue of the cognitive penetrability of perception.
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  20.  36
    Perception, Realism, and the Problem of Reference.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Peter Machamer (eds.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    One of the perennial themes in philosophy is the problem of our access to the world around us; do our perceptual systems bring us into contact with the world as it is or does perception depend upon our individual conceptual frameworks? This volume of new essays examines reference as it relates to perception, action and realism, and the questions which arise if there is no neutral perspective or independent way to know the world. The essays discuss the nature of referring, (...)
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  21.  80
    Can Nonconceptual Content Be Stored in Visual Memory?Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2010 - Philosophical Psychology 23 (5):639-668.
    Dartnall claims that visual short-term memory stores nonconceptual content , in the form of compressed images. In this paper I argue against the claim that NCC can be stored in VSTM. I offer four reasons why NCC cannot be stored in visual memory and why only conceptual information can: NCC lasts for a very short time and does not reach either visual short-term memory or visual long-term memory; the content of visual states is stored in memory only if and when (...)
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  22. Cracks on the Mosaic Unity of Science: Carl F. Craver: Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Science. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007, Xx + 308 Pp, Pbk £16.99.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2010 - Metascience 19 (2):293-296.
  23. Deictic Codes, Demonstratives, and Reference: A Step Toward Solving the Grounding Problem.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Vincent C. Müller - 2002 - In Wayne D. Gray & Christian D. Schunn (eds.), Cogsci 2002, 24th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 762-767.
    In this paper we address the issue of grounding for experiential concepts. Given that perceptual demonstratives are a basic form of such concepts, we examine ways of fixing the referents of such demonstratives. To avoid ‘encodingism’, that is, relating representations to representations, we postulate that the process of reference fixing must be bottom-up and nonconceptual, so that it can break the circle of conceptual content and touch the world. For that purpose, an appropriate causal relation between representations and the world (...)
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  24.  2
    Pre-Cueing, the Epistemic Role of Early Vision, and the Cognitive Impenetrability of Early Vision.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  25. Perceptual Systems and Realism.Athanasios Raftopoulos - 2008 - Synthese 164 (1):61 - 91.
    Constructivism undermines realism by arguing that experience is mediated by concepts, and that there is no direct way to examine those aspects of objects that belong to them independently of our conceptualizations; perception is theory-laden. To defend realism one has to show first that perception relates us directly with the world without any intermediary conceptual framework. The result of this direct link is the nonconceptual content of experience. Second, one has to show that part of the nonconceptual content extracted from (...)
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  26.  13
    Studies on Cognitively Driven Attention Suggest That Late Vision is Cognitively Penetrated, Whereas Early Vision is Not.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  27.  46
    Cartesian Analysis and Synthesis.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (2):265-308.
    This paper aims to provide an explication of the meaning of ‘analysis’ and ‘synthesis’ in Descartes’ writings. In the first part I claim that Descartes’ method is entirely captured by the term ‘analysis’, and that it is a method of theory elaboration that fuses the modern methods of discovery and confirmation in one enterprise. I discuss Descartes’ methodological writings, assess their continuity and coherence, and I address the major shortcoming of previous interpretations of Cartesian methodology. I also discuss the Cartesian (...)
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  28.  31
    What Unilateral Visual Neglect Teaches Us About Perceptual Phenomenology.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (2):339-358.
    Studies on the syndrome called ‘unilateral visual or spatial neglect’ have been used by philosophers in discussions concerning perceptual phenomenology. Nanay , based on spatial neglects studies, argued that the property of being suitable for action is part of the perceptual phenomenology of neglect patients. In this paper, I argue that the studies on visual neglect conducted thus far do not support Nanay’s thesis that when patients succeed in detecting the neglected object, it’s action properties are part of their perceptual (...)
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  29.  36
    Nonconceptual Content: A Reply to Toribio's “Nonconceptualism and the Cognitive Impenetrability of Early Vision”.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (5):643-651.
  30. Cognitive Effects on Perception: New Philosophical Perspectives.A. Raftopoulos & J. Ziembekis (eds.) - forthcoming
  31. Reframing the Problem of Cognitive Penetrability.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2015 - In Woosuk Park, Ping Li & Lorenzo Magnani (eds.), Philosophy and Cognitive Science Ii. Springer Verlag.
  32. Zimbabwe Now: The Political Economy of Crisis and Coercion.Ian Phimister & Brian Raftopoulos - 2004 - Historical Materialism 12 (4):355-382.
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  33.  3
    Object Individuation by Iconic Content: How is Numerosity Represented in Iconic Representation?Athanasios Raftopoulos - 2020 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 11 (1):42-70.
    : Fodor argues that perceptual representations are a subset of iconic representations, which are distinguished from symbolic/discursive representations. Iconic representations are nonconceptual and they do not support the abilities afforded by concepts. Iconic representations, for example, cannot support object individuation. If someone thinks that perception or some of its parts has imagistic NCC, they face the following dilemma. Either they will have to accept that this NCC does not allow for object individuation, but it represents instead conglomerations of properties and (...)
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  34.  31
    Two Types of Object Representations in the Brain, One Nondescriptive Process of Reference Fixing.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):47-48.
    I comment on two problems in Glover's account. First, semantic representations are not always available to awareness. Second, some functional properties, the affordances of objects, should be encoded in the dorsal system. Then I argue that the existence of Glover's two types of representations is supported by studies on “object-centered” attention. Furthermore, it foreshadows a nondescriptive causal reference fixing process.
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  35.  92
    Descartes' Proof of the Essence of Matter and the Cartesian Scientific System.Athanasse Raftopoulos - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Research 21:209-229.
    It has been a traditional claim that Descartes sought to construct a deductive scientific system in which everything could be deduced from a priori truths. I shall call this thesis strong a priorism. In view of the overwhelming amount of evidence that Descartes thought experience to be a necessary part of his method, the traditional interpretation has undergone several transformations. One interpretation resulting from this transformation holds that Descartes sought to prove the first principles of natural philosophy in an a (...)
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  36. Cognitive Penetrability of Perception: An Interdisciplinary Approach.Athanassios Raftopoulos (ed.) - 2005 - Nova Science.
  37.  49
    Ambiguous Figures and Nonconceptual Content.Athanasios Raftopoulos - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 42:179-187.
    Macpherson (2006) argues that the square/regular diamond figure threatens representationalism, which holds that the phenomenal character of experience is either identical, or supervenes on, the nonconceptual content of experience (NCC). Her argument is that representationalism is committed to the thesis that differences in the phenomenal experience of ambiguous figures, the gestalt switch, should be explained by differences in the NCC of perception of these figures. However, with respect to the square/regular diamond figure such differences in NCC do not explain the (...)
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  38.  31
    Getting the World Right: Cognitive Maps and Pictures of Universals: Paul M. Churchland: Plato’s Camera: How the Physical Brain Captures a Landscape of Abstract Universals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012, X+289pp, $35 HB. [REVIEW]Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2013 - Metascience 22 (1):115-123.
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  39.  17
    The New Science of Mind.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 65 (3):677-679.
  40.  6
    Editorial: Pre-Cueing Effects on Perception and Cognitive Penetrability.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Gary Lupyan - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  41.  5
    Lessons From the History of the Concept of the Ray for Teaching Geometrical Optics.C. Andreou & A. Raftopoulos - 2011 - Science & Education 20 (10):1007-1037.
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  42.  4
    Introduction: The 5th Hellenic Conference on the History, Philosophy and Science Teaching “The Great Scientific Theories in the Teaching of Natural Sciences”.Konstantinos Korfiatis, Athanasios Raftopoulos & Demetris Portides - 2011 - Science & Education 20 (10):937-941.
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  43.  5
    Descartes’ Proof of the Essence of Matter and the Cartesian Scientific System.Athanasse Raftopoulos - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Research 21:209-229.
    It has been a traditional claim that Descartes sought to construct a deductive scientific system in which everything could be deduced from a priori truths. I shall call this thesis strong a priorism. In view of the overwhelming amount of evidence that Descartes thought experience to be a necessary part of his method, the traditional interpretation has undergone several transformations. One interpretation resulting from this transformation holds that Descartes sought to prove the first principles of natural philosophy in an a (...)
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  44. Abductive Inference in Late Vision.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2015 - In Woosuk Park, Ping Li & Lorenzo Magnani (eds.), Philosophy and Cognitive Science Ii. Springer Verlag.
     
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  45. Abduction, Inference to the Best Explanation, and Scientific Practise: The Case of Newton’s Optics.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2006 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Claudia Casadio (eds.), Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Logical, Epistemological, and Cognitive Issues. Springer Verlag.
    Hintikka argues that abduction is ignorance-preserving in the sense that the hypothesis that abduction delivers and which attempts to explain a set of phenomena is not, epistemologically speaking, on a firmer ground than the phenomena it purports to explain; knowledge is not enhanced until the hypothesis undergoes a further inductive process that will test it against empirical evidence. Hintikka, therefore, introduces a wedge between the abductive process properly speaking and the inductive process of hypothesis testing. Similarly, Minnameier argues that abduction (...)
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  46. Cartesian Deductivism and Newtonian Inductivism: A Comparative Study.Athanasse Raftopoulos - 1994 - Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University
    It has been a traditional claim that Newtonian inductivism sharply contradicts Cartesian deductivism, and that Newton's rejection of the method of hypothesis is intended as a criticism of the Cartesian scientific methodology. There have been some sharp attacks against the received view that Descartes aimed at the construction of a purely a priori science, but despite this two beliefs still dominate even recent interpretations of Descartes' work. The first is the belief that a significant part of Descartes' natural philosophy was (...)
     
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  47. Cognitive Influences on Perception: Implications for Philosophy of Mind, Epistemology, and Philosophy of Action.A. Raftopoulos & J. Zeimbekis (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
  48.  3
    Cognitive Penetrability and the Epistemic Role of Perception.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
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  49. The Structure of Scientific Research in F. Bacon’s New Atlantis.Athanasios Raftopoulos - 1995 - Neusis 3:55-73.
     
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  50.  86
    The Content of Perception: Athanassios Raftopoulos: Cognition and Perception: How Do Psychology and Neuroscience Inform Philosophy? London: MIT Press, 2009, 448 Pp, $45.00 HB.Derek H. Brown - 2011 - Metascience 20 (1):165-168.
    This is a review of Athanassios Raftopoulos "Cognition and perception: How do psychology and neuroscience inform philosophy?" (MIT Press, 2009). Raftopoulos defends the modularity of vision, i.e. early vision not penetrable by other processes. He maintains that early vision forms and outputs a kind of nonconceptual content to subsequent stages of vision and cognition. The work is heavily informed by visual neuroscience and embedded in familiar debates about scientific realism. It is also an important contribution to the now-popular (...)
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