Results for 'policy arguments'

999 found
Order:
  1.  13
    The Evolution of Policy Arguments in Teachers' Negotiations.LindaL Putnam, SteveR Wilson & DudleyB Turner - 1990 - Argumentation 4 (2):129-152.
    Argument is a critical component in policy deliberations. In this study, negotiation is viewed as a type of policy deliberation, one characterized by attack and defense of proposals, interdependence between disputants, and mixed motives of cooperation and competition. Argument in negotiation, then, functions as a reason-giving activity to enact policy. Employing a category system based on rhetorical stasis, the researchers examine whether bargainers specialize in their use of argument types and whether this specialization remains consistent throughout a (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  19
    Palliation and Medically Assisted Dying: A Case Study in the Use of Slippery Slope Arguments in Public Policy.Michael Cholbi - forthcoming - In David Boonin (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy.
    Opponents of medically assisted dying have long appealed to ‘slippery slope’ arguments. One such slippery slope concerns palliative care: That the introduction of medically assisted dying will lead to a diminution in the quality or availability or palliative care for patients near the end of their lives. Empirical evidence from jurisdictions where assisted dying has been practiced for decades, such as Oregon and the Netherlands, indicate that such worries are largely unfounded. The failure of the palliation slope argument is (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  27
    Policy Arguments in a Public Church: Catholic Social Ethics and Bioethics.J. Bryan Hehir - 1992 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (3):347-364.
    This paper is an analysis of the relationship of social ethics and bioethics in Roman Catholic theology. The argument of the paper is that the character of both Catholic moral theology and ecclesiology shape the broadly defined interest of the church in bioethics. The paper examines the common elements of social ethics and bioethics in Catholic teaching, describes how ecclesiology shapes Catholic public policy and uses the examples of abortion and health care to illustrate the relationship of Catholic social (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  4.  3
    Scientific Arguments in Policy-Making.Corina Andone & José Alfonso Lomeli Hernández - 2019 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 8 (2):195-213.
    This paper focuses on the use of scientific insights for justifying decisions in policy-making. Because in policy-making the politician argues for a future course of action by pointing at its positive consequences, the burden of proof should concern not only the scientific arguments, but also the pragmatic arguments. We show how the political justificatory process takes place that combines the two argument types, and we propose criteria for assessing the quality of the justifications. Based on our (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  17
    Religion, Sexual Orientation, and School Policy: How the Christian Right Frames Its Arguments.Ian K. Macgillivray - 2008 - Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association 43 (1):29-44.
    (2008). Religion, Sexual Orientation, and School Policy: How the Christian Right Frames Its Arguments. Educational Studies: Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 29-44.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  6.  10
    Losing the Message: Some Policy Implications of Anthropocentric Indirect Arguments for Environmental Protection.Chad J. McGuire - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (3):261-263.
  7. Provisional Politics: Kantian Arguments in Policy Context (Review).E. Regina Helfrich - 2010 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (2):pp. 249-250.
    In this short but intriguing book, Elisabeth Ellis tackles the problem that our political language is misleadingly full of clashes between conclusive political principles, when in fact our political actions necessarily take place in a world too complex and changing for such fixed answers. Drawing upon the work of Immanuel Kant, Ellis proposes to clarify our political talk and reasoning by replacing the language of conclusive principles with that of provisional reasoning. It is the aim of the book to describe (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  10
    An Argument Against Arguments for Enhancement: The Treatment-Enhancement Distinction is Difficult to Make, and Defenders of Enhancement Often Base Their Case on That. Critics of Enhancement, However, Often Have Prototypical Cases of Enhancement-Oriented Interventions in Mind, and the Ethics of These Can Be Evaluated on a Case by Case Basis. Things Like Intelligence Enhancement May Have Adverse Effects on Equality and Utility. If the Equality and Utility Effects of Such Enhancements Were Sufficiently Severe, Then Restrictions Would Be Called For. We Need to Think More About How to Make Tradeoffs Between Liberty, Equality, and Utility—and We Need to Know More About the Extent to Which Each of These is at Stake—Before Reaching Conclusions About the Ethics of, and Appropriate Social Policy Regarding, Human Enhancement. [REVIEW]Michael Selgelid - 2007 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 1 (1).
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  9.  11
    Provisional Politics: Kantian Arguments in Policy Context.Elisabeth Ellis - 2008 - Yale University Press.
    True,Kant takes the conclusions of his ethical work for granted in his political theorizing; he treats corollaries of the categorical imperative as conclusive principles of political right.However,in his political theory his concern is not simply to lay ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  10.  6
    Should Hospital Policy Require Consent for Practicing Invasive Procedures on Cadavers? The Arguments, Conclusions, and Lessons From One Ethics Committee's Deliberations.Henry S. Perkins & Anna M. Gordon - 1994 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 5 (3):204.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  11.  13
    The Ethical Course Is To Recommend Infant Male Circumcision — Arguments Disparaging American Academy of Pediatrics Affirmative Policy Do Not Withstand Scrutiny.Brian J. Morris, John N. Krieger, Jeffrey D. Klausner & Beth E. Rivin - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (4):647-663.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  40
    Opting-Out: The Relationship Between Moral Arguments and Public Policy in Organ Procurement.D. Micah Hester - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (2):159.
  13.  6
    Decision Theoretic Arguments as Heuristics in Environmental Policy Decisions.Gerd Hanekamp - 2003 - Poiesis and Praxis: International Journal of Technology Assessment and Ethics of Science 1 (3):219-230.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  8
    Decision Theoretic Arguments as Heuristics in Environmental Policy Decisions.Gerd Hanekamp - 2003 - Poiesis and Praxis 1 (3):219-230.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. Slipping on Slippery Slope Arguments.Roberto Fumagalli - forthcoming - Bioethics.
    Slippery slope arguments (SSAs) are used in a wide range of philosophical debates, but are often dismissed as empirically ill-founded and logically fallacious. In particular, leading authors put forward a meta-SSA which points to instances of empirically ill-founded and logically fallacious SSAs and to the alleged existence of a slippery slope leading to such SSAs to demonstrate that people should avoid using SSAs altogether. In this paper, I examine these prominent calls against using SSAs and argue that such calls (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  30
    The Value of Weather Event Science for Pending UN Climate Policy Decisions.Justin Donhauser - 2017 - Ethics, Policy and Environment (3):263-278.
    This essay furthers debate about the burgeoning science of Probabilistic Event Attribution (PEA) and its relevance to imminent climate policy decisions. It critically examines Allen Thompson and Friederike Otto’s recent arguments concerning the implications of PEA studies for how the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) policy framework should be revised during the 2016 ‘review and decision.’ I show that their contention that PEA studies cannot usefully inform decision-making about adaptation policies and strategies is misguided (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  17.  13
    Two Moral Arguments for a Global Social Cost of Carbon.Kian Mintz-Woo - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (1):60-63.
    [Comment] Donald Trump’s executive order on energy limits the costs and benefits of carbon to domestic sources. The argument for this executive order is that carbon policies should not be singled out from other policies as globally inclusive. Two independent arguments are offered for adopting a global social cost of carbon. The first is based on reinforcing norms in the face of commons tragedies. The second is based on the limitations of consequentialist analyses. We can distinguish consequences for which (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  17
    Respecting Autonomy Over Time: Policy and Empirical Evidence on Re‐Consent in Longitudinal Biomedical Research.Susan E. Wallace, Elli G. Gourna, Graeme Laurie, Osama Shoush & Jessica Wright - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (3):210-217.
    Re-consent in research, the asking for a new consent if there is a change in protocol or to confirm the expectations of participants in case of change, is an under-explored issue. There is little clarity as to what changes should trigger re-consent and what impact a re-consent exercise has on participants and the research project. This article examines applicable policy statements and literature for the prevailing arguments for and against re-consent in relation to longitudinal cohort studies, tissue banks (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  19. The Non-Epistemology of Intelligent Design: Its Implications for Public Policy.Barbara Forrest - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):331 - 379.
    Intelligent design creationism (ID) is a religious belief requiring a supernatural creator's interventions in the natural order. ID thus brings with it, as does supernatural theism by its nature, intractable epistemological difficulties. Despite these difficulties and despite ID's defeat in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District (2005), ID creationists' continuing efforts to promote the teaching of ID in public school science classrooms threaten both science education and the separation of church and state guaranteed by the U. S. Constitution. I examine (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  20.  67
    Different Motivations, Similar Proposals: Objectivity in Scientific Community and Democratic Science Policy.Jaana Eigi - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4657-4669.
    The aim of the paper is to discuss some possible connections between philosophical proposals about the social organisation of science and developments towards a greater democratisation of science policy. I suggest that there are important similarities between one approach to objectivity in philosophy of science—Helen Longino’s account of objectivity as freedom from individual biases achieved through interaction of a variety of perspectives—and some ideas about the epistemic benefits of wider representation of various groups’ perspectives in science policy, as (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  21.  64
    Islamic Verdicts in Health Policy Discourse: Porcine‐Based Vaccines as a Case Study.Aasim I. Padela - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):655-670.
    In this article, I apply a policy-oriented applied Islamic bioethics lens to two verdicts on the permissibility of using vaccines with porcine components. I begin by reviewing the decrees and then proceed to describe how they were used by health policy stakeholders. Subsequently, My analysis will highlight aspects of the verdict's ethico-legal arguments in order to illustrate salient legal concepts that must be accounted for when using Islamic verdicts as the basis for health policy. I will (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  22.  41
    The Complexities of Globalization: The UK as a Case Study of Tensions Within the Food System and the Challenge to Food Policy[REVIEW]Tim Lang - 1999 - Agriculture and Human Values 16 (2):169-185.
    This article proposes a number of arguments about the contemporary food system. Using the UK as a case study, it argues that the food system is marked by tensions and conflicts. The paper explores different strands of public policy as applied to the food system over the last two centuries. It differentiates between various uses of the term globalization and proposes that the real features and dynamics of the new world food order are complex and neither as benign (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  23.  18
    A Logical Analysis of Slippery Slope Arguments.Georg Spielthenner - 2010 - Health Care Analysis 18 (2):148-163.
    This article offers a logical analysis of Slippery Slope Arguments. Such arguments claim that adopting a certain act or policy would take us down a slippery slope to an undesirable bottom and infer from this that we should refrain from this act or policy. Even though a logical assessment of such arguments has not received much careful attention, it is of vital importance to their overall assessment because if the premises fail to support the conclusion (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  24.  51
    Four Species of Reflexivity and History of Economics in Economic Policy Science.Eric Schliesser - 2011 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):425-445.
    This paper argues that history of economics has a fruitful, underappreciated role to play in the development of economics, especially when understood as a policy science. This goes against the grain of the last half century during which economics, which has undergone a formal revolution, has distanced itself from its `literary' past and practices precisely with the aim to be a more successful policy science. The paper motivates the thesis by identifying and distinguishing four kinds of reflexivity in (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  25.  71
    The Centralized-Use Compromise on Recreational Drug Policy.Jeffrey Glick - 2014 - Res Publica 20 (4):359-376.
    The current debate on recreational drug policy is roughly a contest between prohibition advocates and legalization advocates. This paper offers a third alternative that is a compromise between those two. The centralized-use compromise can secure the autonomy interests that are important to defenders of legalization, and it can prevent harms to others that are the focus of prohibition arguments. The centralized-use compromise also offers a possible way to reduce the black market while also reducing the rate of addiction (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26.  26
    From Environmental Ethics to Nature Conservation Policy: Natura 2000 and the Burden of Proof. [REVIEW]Humberto D. Rosa & Jorge Marques Da Silva - 2005 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2):107-130.
    Natura 2000 is a network of natural sites whose aim is to preserve species and habitats of relevance in the European Union. The policy underlying Natura 2000 has faced widespread opposition from land users and received extensive support from environmentalists. This paper addresses the ethical framework for Natura 2000 and the probable moral assumptions of its main stakeholders. Arguments for and against Natura 2000 were analyzed and classified according to “strong” or “weak” versions of the three main theories (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  8
    Scholarship, Research and the Evidential Basis of Policy Development in Education.Walter Humes & Tom Bryce - 2001 - British Journal of Educational Studies 49 (3):329 - 352.
    The starting point for this paper is the ongoing debate about the relation between research and policy in education. Recent developments in England and Scotland are reviewed in the context of political and academic arguments about the nature and function of research activity. The defensiveness of the research community in the face of professional and political attacks is examined critically. A case study of the Higher Still programme is used to illustrate the complexity of the relationships between evidence, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. A Philosophy of Theoretical Ecology for Environmental Policy.Justin Donhauser - 2015 - Dissertation, University at Buffalo
    This dissertation addresses two questions at the center of critical debate about ecology’s ability to provide scientific guidance in efforts to address mounting environmental problems. The first concerns whether and, if so, how theoretical ecological models (TEMs) can usefully inform environmental policy and resource management decision-making. The second concerns whether and, if so, in what manner the entities such models characterize (i.e., ecological populations, communities, and systems) exist. Throughout this work, I clarify how these questions are, and are not, (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. Race, Racism, and Social Policy.Albert Atkin - 2018 - In Andrei Poama & Annabelle Lever (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Ethics and Public Policy. New York, NY, USA: pp. 281-291.
    Policy-making must always pay attention to race. That is the central claim of this chapter. Regardless of whether some particular policy debate is ostensibly “racial”, policy-makers must attend to questions of race, because race is a ubiquitous, but frequently unnoticed, feature of our world. I examine the type of philosophical question about race that I think philosophers and policy-makers would do well to examine and consider how the question “What is race?” is pertinent to policy (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  70
    Chimeras, Moral Status, and Public Policy: Implications of the Abortion Debate for Public Policy on Human/Nonhuman Chimera Research.Robert Streiffer - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):238-250.
    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  31.  49
    A Pragma-Dialectical Approach of the Analysis and Evaluation of Pragmatic Argumentation in a Legal Context.Eveline T. Feteris - 2002 - Argumentation 16 (3):349-367.
    This paper answers the question how pragmatic argumentation which occurs in a legal context, can be analyzed and evaluated adequately. First, the author surveys various ideas taken from argumentation theory and legal theory on the analysis and evaluation of pragmatic argumentation. Then, on the basis of these ideas, she develops a pragma-dialectical instrument for analyzing and evaluating pragmatic argumentation in a legal context. Finally she demonstrates how this instrument can be used by giving an exemplary analysis and evaluation of pragmatic (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  32.  29
    Anthropocentric Indirect Arguments for Environmental Protection.Kevin C. Elliott - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (3):243-260.
    Environmental ethicists have devoted considerable attention to discussing whether anthropocentric or nonanthropocentric arguments provide more appropriate means for defending environmental protection. This paper argues that philosophers, scientists, and policy makers should pay more attention to a particular type of anthropocentric argument. These anthropocentric indirect arguments defend actions or policies that benefit the environment, but they justify the policies based on beneficial effects on humans that are not caused by their environmental benefits. AIAs appear to have numerous appealing (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  33.  58
    The Logic of Real Arguments.Alec Fisher - 2004 - Cambridge Univeristy Press.
    This new and expanded edition of The Logic of Real Arguments explains a distinctive method for analysing and evaluating arguments. It discusses many examples, ranging from newspaper articles to extracts from classic texts, and from easy passages to much more difficult ones. It shows students how to use the question 'What argument or evidence would justify me in believing P?', and also how to deal with suppositional arguments beginning with the phrase 'Suppose that X were the case.' (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   53 citations  
  34.  11
    Personal Responsibility Within Health Policy: Unethical and Ineffective.P. Friesen - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (1):53-58.
    This paper argues against incorporating assessments of individual responsibility into healthcare policies by expanding an existing argument and offering a rebuttal to an argument in favour of such policies. First, it is argued that what primarily underlies discussions surrounding personal responsibility and healthcare is not causal responsibility, moral responsibility or culpability, as one might expect, but biases towards particular highly stigmatised behaviours. A challenge is posed for proponents of taking personal responsibility into account within health policy to either expand (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  35.  10
    Just Policy? An Ethical Analysis of Early Intervention Policy Guidance.Rose Mortimer, Alex McKeown & Ilina Singh - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (11):43-53.
    Early intervention aims to identify children or families at risk of poor health, and take preventative measures at an early stage, when intervention is more likely to succeed. EI is concerned with the just distribution of “life chances,” so that all children are given fair opportunity to realize their potential and lead a good life; EI policy design, therefore, invokes ethical questions about the balance of responsibilities between the state, society, and individuals in addressing inequalities. We analyze a corpus (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  36.  26
    Personal Responsibility Within Health Policy: Unethical and Ineffective.Phoebe Friesen - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (1):53-58.
    This paper argues against incorporating assessments of individual responsibility into healthcare policies by expanding an existing argument and offering a rebuttal to an argument in favour of such policies. First, it is argued that what primarily underlies discussions surrounding personal responsibility and healthcare is not causal responsibility, moral responsibility or culpability, as one might expect, but biases towards particular highly stigmatised behaviours. A challenge is posed for proponents of taking personal responsibility into account within health policy to either expand (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  37. Ethics and Public Policy: A Philosophical Inquiry.Jonathan Wolff - 2011 - Routledge.
    Train crashes cause, on average, a handful of deaths each year in the UK. Technologies exist that would save the lives of some of those who die. Yet these technical innovations would cost hundreds of millions of pounds. Should we spend the money? How can we decide how to trade off life against financial cost? Such dilemmas make public policy is a battlefield of values, yet all too often we let technical experts decide the issues for us. Can philosophy (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  38. Ethics of the Scientist Qua Policy Advisor: Inductive Risk, Uncertainty, and Catastrophe in Climate Economics.David M. Frank - 2019 - Synthese:3123-3138.
    This paper discusses ethical issues surrounding Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of the economic effects of climate change, and how climate economists acting as policy advisors ought to represent the uncertain possibility of catastrophe. Some climate economists, especially Martin Weitzman, have argued for a precautionary approach where avoiding catastrophe should structure climate economists’ welfare analysis. This paper details ethical arguments that justify this approach, showing how Weitzman’s “fat tail” probabilities of climate catastrophe pose ethical problems for widely used IAMs. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  39. Limiting and Facilitating Access to Innovations in Medicine and Agriculture: A Brief Exposition of the Ethical Arguments.Cristian Timmermann - 2014 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-20.
    Taking people’s longevity as a measure of good life, humankind can proudly say that the average person is living a much longer life than ever before. The AIDS epidemic has however for the first time in decades stalled and in some cases even reverted this trend in a number of countries. Climate change is increasingly becoming a major challenge for food security and we can anticipate that hunger caused by crop damages will become much more common. -/- Since many of (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  40.  44
    Political and Economic Arguments for Corporate Social Responsibility: Analysis and a Proposition Regarding the CSR Agenda.Francis Weyzig - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (4):417-428.
    Different perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exist, each with their own agenda. Some emphasise management responsibilities towards stakeholders, others argue that companies should actively contribute to social goals, and yet others reject a social responsibility of business beyond legal compliance. In addition, CSR initiatives relate to different issues, such as labour standards and corruption. This article analyses what types of CSR initiatives are supported by political and economic arguments. The distinction between different CSR perspectives and CSR issues on (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  41. Anthropocentrism in Climate Ethics and Policy.Katie McShane - 2016 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 40 (1):189-204.
    Most ethicists agree that at least some nonhumans have interests that are of direct moral importance. Yet with very few exceptions, both climate ethics and climate policy have operated as though only human interests should be considered in formulating and evaluating climate policy. In this paper I argue that the anthropocentrism of current climate ethics and policy cannot be justified. I first describe the ethical claims upon which my analysis rests, arguing that they are no longer controversial (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  42.  34
    Terminal Illness and Access to Phase 1 Experimental Agents, Surgeries and Devices: Reviewing the Ethical Arguments.Udo Schüklenk & Christopher Lowry - 2009 - British Medical Bulletin 89 (1):7-22.
    Background: The advent of AIDS brought about a group of patients unwilling to accept crucial aspects of the methodological standards for clinical research investigating Phase 1 drugs, surgeries or devices. Their arguments against placebo controls in trials, which depended-at the time-on the terminal status of patient volunteers led to a renewed discussion of the ethics of denying patients with catastrophic illnesses access to last-chance experimental drugs, surgeries or devices. Sources of data: Existing ethics and health policy literature on (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  43. Exploring the Virtues of Zero Tolerance Arguments.Sheldon Wein - unknown
    The zero tolerance fallacy occurs when someone advocates or adopts a zero tolerance policy towards some activity or behaviour without seeing if there is evidence to support the view that such a policy is the best or most cost-effective way of preventing or reducing the unwanted behaviour. This paper explores the idea that, instead of thinking about what the zero tolerance fallacy is, argumentation theorists should try to characterize what features good arguments for zero tolerance policies must (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  44.  13
    Does It Matter That Organ Donors Are Not Dead? Ethical and Policy Implications.M. Potts - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (7):406-409.
    The “standard position” on organ donation is that the donor must be dead in order for vital organs to be removed, a position with which we agree. Recently, Robert Truog and Walter Robinson have argued that brain death is not death, and even though “brain dead” patients are not dead, it is morally acceptable to remove vital organs from those patients. We accept and defend their claim that brain death is not death, and we argue against both the US “whole (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  45.  18
    The Case Against Libertarian Arguments for Compulsory Vaccination.Justin Bernstein - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (11):792-796.
    In a recent paper in this journal, Jason Brennan correctly notes that libertarians struggle to justify a policy of compulsory vaccination. The most straightforward argument that justifies compulsory vaccination is that such a policy promotes welfare. But libertarians cannot make this argument because they claim that the state is justified only in protecting negative rights, not in promoting welfare. I consider two representative libertarian attempts to justify compulsory vaccination, and I argue that such arguments are unsuccessful. They (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  46.  32
    The Role of Christian Belief in Public Policy.Robert D. Orr - 2007 - Christian Bioethics 13 (2):199-209.
    It seems intuitive to the believer that God intended through instruction in the Law to define morality, intended to lead humankind to “the right and the good.” Further, God's love for humankind, exemplified by the incarnation, atonement and teachings of Jesus, and empowered by the Holy Spirit, should lead to a better world. Indeed, the Christian worldview is a coherent and valid way to look at bioethical issues in public policy and at the bedside. Yet, as this paper explores, (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  47.  37
    Paul Levi and the Origins of the United-Front Policy in the Communist International.Daniel Gaido - 2017 - Historical Materialism 25 (1):131-174.
    During its first four congresses, held annually under Lenin, the Communist International went through two distinct phases: while the first two congresses focused on programmatic and organisational aspects of the break with Social-Democratic parties, the third congress, meeting after the putsch known as the ‘March Action’ of 1921 in Germany, adopted the slogan ‘To the masses!’, while the fourth codified this new line in the ‘Theses on the Unity of the Proletarian Front’. The arguments put forward by the first (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  48.  12
    Black Box Arguments.Sally Jackson - 2008 - Argumentation 22 (3):437-446.
    “Black box argument” is a metaphor for modular components of argumentative discussion that are, within a particular discussion, not open to expansion. In public policy debate such as the controversy over abstinence-only sex education, scientific conclusions enter the discourse as black boxes consisting of a result returned from an external and largely impenetrable process. In one way of looking at black box arguments, there is nothing fundamentally new for the argumentation theorist: A black box argument is very like (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  49. The Logic of Real Arguments.Alec Fisher - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    This new and expanded edition of The Logic of Real Arguments explains a distinctive method for analysing and evaluating arguments. It discusses many examples, ranging from newspaper articles to extracts from classic texts, and from easy passages to much more difficult ones. It shows students how to use the question 'What argument or evidence would justify me in believing P?', and also how to deal with suppositional arguments beginning with the phrase 'Suppose that X were the case.' (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  50.  38
    Understanding the Scope of Farmer Perceptions of Risk: Considering Farmer Opinions on the Use of Genetically Modified (Gm) Crops as a Stakeholder Voice in Policy[REVIEW]Nicholas P. Guehlstorf - 2008 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21 (6):541-558.
    In the beginning, policy debates between critics and advocates of genetically modified (GM) crops focused on scientifically determined risks. Ten years later, the argument between environmentalists or consumers and regulators or industry has changed into a discussion about the implementation of more democratic policymaking about GM farming. A notable omission from the political debate about food biotechnology in the United States, however, is the opinion of farmers who cultivate the GM crops. Policymakers should value practical knowledge based on experiences (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
1 — 50 / 999