Results for 'robot ethics'

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Bibliography: Robot Ethics in Applied Ethics
  1. Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics.Patrick Lin, Keith Abney & George A. Bekey (eds.) - 2011 - MIT Press.
    Robots today serve in many roles, from entertainer to educator to executioner. As robotics technology advances, ethical concerns become more pressing: Should robots be programmed to follow a code of ethics, if this is even possible? Are there risks in forming emotional bonds with robots? How might society--and ethics--change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging (...)
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  2. Robots: Ethical by Design.Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Baran Çürüklü - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):61-71.
    Among ethicists and engineers within robotics there is an ongoing discussion as to whether ethical robots are possible or even desirable. We answer both of these questions in the positive, based on an extensive literature study of existing arguments. Our contribution consists in bringing together and reinterpreting pieces of information from a variety of sources. One of the conclusions drawn is that artifactual morality must come in degrees and depend on the level of agency, autonomy and intelligence of the machine. (...)
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  3. Integrating Robot Ethics and Machine Morality: The Study and Design of Moral Competence in Robots.Bertram F. Malle - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (4):243-256.
    Robot ethics encompasses ethical questions about how humans should design, deploy, and treat robots; machine morality encompasses questions about what moral capacities a robot should have and how these capacities could be computationally implemented. Publications on both of these topics have doubled twice in the past 10 years but have often remained separate from one another. In an attempt to better integrate the two, I offer a framework for what a morally competent robot would look like (...)
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  4. Robot Ethics 2. 0: New Challenges in Philosophy, Law, and Society.Patrick Lin, Keith Abney & Ryan Jenkins (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    As robots slip into more domains of human life-from the operating room to the bedroom-they take on our morally important tasks and decisions, as well as create new risks from psychological to physical. This book answers the urgent call to study their ethical, legal, and policy impacts.
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  5. Granny and the Robots: Ethical Issues in Robot Care for the Elderly.Amanda Sharkey & Noel Sharkey - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):27-40.
    The growing proportion of elderly people in society, together with recent advances in robotics, makes the use of robots in elder care increasingly likely. We outline developments in the areas of robot applications for assisting the elderly and their carers, for monitoring their health and safety, and for providing them with companionship. Despite the possible benefits, we raise and discuss six main ethical concerns associated with: (1) the potential reduction in the amount of human contact; (2) an increase in (...)
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  6.  4
    Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency, and Anthropomorphism.Sven Nyholm - 2020 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
    This book argues that we need to explore how human beings can best coordinate and collaborate with robots in responsible ways. It investigates ethically important differences between human agency and robot agency to work towards an ethics of responsible human-robot interaction.
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  7.  51
    Issues in Robot Ethics Seen Through the Lens of a Moral Turing Test.Anne Gerdes & Peter Øhrstrøm - 2015 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 13 (2):98-109.
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore artificial moral agency by reflecting upon the possibility of a Moral Turing Test and whether its lack of focus on interiority, i.e. its behaviouristic foundation, counts as an obstacle to establishing such a test to judge the performance of an Artificial Moral Agent. Subsequently, to investigate whether an MTT could serve as a useful framework for the understanding, designing and engineering of AMAs, we set out to address fundamental challenges within (...)
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  8.  11
    Drones in Humanitarian Contexts, Robot Ethics, and the Human–Robot Interaction.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Tina Comes - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):43-53.
    There are two dominant trends in the humanitarian care of 2019: the ‘technologizing of care’ and the centrality of the humanitarian principles. The concern, however, is that these two trends may conflict with one another. Faced with the growing use of drones in the humanitarian space there is need for ethical reflection to understand if this technology undermines humanitarian care. In the humanitarian space, few agree over the value of drone deployment; one school of thought believes drones can provide a (...)
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  9.  13
    A Paradigm Shift for Robot Ethics: From HRI to Human–Robot–System Interaction.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Shuhong Li - 2019 - Medicolegal and Bioethics:11-21.
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  10.  35
    Building Moral Robots: Ethical Pitfalls and Challenges.John-Stewart Gordon - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):141-157.
    This paper examines the ethical pitfalls and challenges that non-ethicists, such as researchers and programmers in the fields of computer science, artificial intelligence and robotics, face when building moral machines. Whether ethics is “computable” depends on how programmers understand ethics in the first place and on the adequacy of their understanding of the ethical problems and methodological challenges in these fields. Researchers and programmers face at least two types of problems due to their general lack of ethical knowledge (...)
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  11. What Should We Want From a Robot Ethic.Peter M. Asaro - 2006 - International Review of Information Ethics 6 (12):9-16.
    There are at least three things we might mean by "ethics in robotics": the ethical systems built into robots, the ethics of people who design and use robots, and the ethics of how people treat robots. This paper argues that the best approach to robot ethics is one which addresses all three of these, and to do this it ought to consider robots as socio-technical systems. By so doing, it is possible to think of a (...)
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  12. Welcoming Robots Into the Moral Circle: A Defence of Ethical Behaviourism.John Danaher - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2023-2049.
    Can robots have significant moral status? This is an emerging topic of debate among roboticists and ethicists. This paper makes three contributions to this debate. First, it presents a theory – ‘ethical behaviourism’ – which holds that robots can have significant moral status if they are roughly performatively equivalent to other entities that have significant moral status. This theory is then defended from seven objections. Second, taking this theoretical position onboard, it is argued that the performative threshold that robots need (...)
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  13.  51
    The Issue of Moral Consideration in Robot Ethics.Anne Gerdes - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):274-279.
    This paper discusses whether we should grant moral consideration to robots. Contemporary approaches in support of doing so centers around a relational appearance based approach, which takes departure in the fact that we already by now enter into ethical demanding relations with robots as if they had a mind of their own. Hence, it is assumed that moral status can be viewed as socially constructed and negotiated within relations. However, I argue that a relational turn risks turning the as if (...)
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  14. Robot Betrayal: A Guide to the Ethics of Robotic Deception.John Danaher - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):117-128.
    If a robot sends a deceptive signal to a human user, is this always and everywhere an unethical act, or might it sometimes be ethically desirable? Building upon previous work in robot ethics, this article tries to clarify and refine our understanding of the ethics of robotic deception. It does so by making three arguments. First, it argues that we need to distinguish between three main forms of robotic deception (external state deception; superficial state deception; and (...)
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  15.  36
    Robots, Ethics and Language.Ingrid Björk & Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):270-273.
    Following the classical philosophical definition of ethics and the psychological research on problem solving and decision making, the issue of ethics becomes concrete and opens up the way for the creation of IT systems that can support handling of moral problems. Also in a sense that is similar to the way humans handle their moral problems. The processes of communicating information and receiving instructions are linguistic by nature. Moreover, autonomous and heteronomous ethical thinking is expressed by way of (...)
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  16. Ethics of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.Vincent C. Müller - 2020 - In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Palo Alto, Cal.: CSLI, Stanford University. pp. 1-70.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics are digital technologies that will have significant impact on the development of humanity in the near future. They have raised fundamental questions about what we should do with these systems, what the systems themselves should do, what risks they involve, and how we can control these. - After the Introduction to the field (§1), the main themes (§2) of this article are: Ethical issues that arise with AI systems as objects, i.e., tools made and used (...)
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  17.  61
    When Morals Ain’T Enough: Robots, Ethics, and the Rules of the Law.Ugo Pagallo - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (4):625-638.
    No single moral theory can instruct us as to whether and to what extent we are confronted with legal loopholes, e.g. whether or not new legal rules should be added to the system in the criminal law field. This question on the primary rules of the law appears crucial for today’s debate on roboethics and still, goes beyond the expertise of robo-ethicists. On the other hand, attention should be drawn to the secondary rules of the law: The unpredictability of robotic (...)
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  18.  2
    Download Robot Ethics Updates: Patrick Lin, Keith Abney, and Ryan Jenkins (Eds.): Robot Ethics 2.0. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, 440pp, US$ 41.95 HB.Derek Leben - 2020 - Metascience 29 (3):515-518.
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    Robot Ethics 2.0. From Autonomous Cars to Artificial Intelligence—Edited by Patrick Lin, Keith Abney, Ryan Jenkins. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017. Pp xiii + 421. [REVIEW]Agnė Alijauskaitė - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-4.
  20. Robot Ethics.Ronald C. Arkin - 2002 - Ethics and Information Technology 4 (4):305-318.
     
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  21. Between Angels and Animals: The Question of Robot Ethics, or is Kantian Moral Agency Desirable?Anthony F. Beavers - unknown
    In this paper, I examine a variety of agents that appear in Kantian ethics in order to determine which would be necessary to make a robot a genuine moral agent. However, building such an agent would require that we structure into a robot’s behavioral repertoire the possibility for immoral behavior, for only then can the moral law, according to Kant, manifest itself as an ought, a prerequisite for being able to hold an agent morally accountable for its (...)
     
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  22.  7
    “Living Robots”: Ethical Questions About Xenobots.Simon Coghlan & Kobi Leins - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):W1-W3.
    Volume 20, Issue 5, June 2020, Page W1-W3.
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  23.  14
    Robot Ethics 2.0. [REVIEW]Ken Daley & Robert J. Howell - 2018 - The Philosophers' Magazine 82:110-112.
  24.  16
    A Study on Necessity of The Chart of Robot Ethics and its Contents. 변순용, Eong Jinkyu, 김형주 & Shin Hyun woo - 2017 - Journal of Ethics: The Korean Association of Ethics 1 (112):295-319.
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  25.  45
    Robotic Nudges: The Ethics of Engineering a More Socially Just Human Being.Jason Borenstein & Ron Arkin - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):31-46.
    Robots are becoming an increasingly pervasive feature of our personal lives. As a result, there is growing importance placed on examining what constitutes appropriate behavior when they interact with human beings. In this paper, we discuss whether companion robots should be permitted to “nudge” their human users in the direction of being “more ethical”. More specifically, we use Rawlsian principles of justice to illustrate how robots might nurture “socially just” tendencies in their human counterparts. Designing technological artifacts in such a (...)
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  26. The Ethics of Robot Servitude.Stephen Petersen - 2007 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 19 (1):43-54.
    Assume we could someday create artificial creatures with intelligence comparable to our own. Could it be ethical use them as unpaid labor? There is very little philosophical literature on this topic, but the consensus so far has been that such robot servitude would merely be a new form of slavery. Against this consensus I defend the permissibility of robot servitude, and in particular the controversial case of designing robots so that they want to serve human ends. A typical (...)
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  27.  26
    Lin, P., Abney, K., & Jenkins, R. : Robot Ethics 2.0: From Autonomous Cars to Artificial Intelligence: New York: Oxford University Press, 2017. Hardcover . 34,49€. 421pp + Ix, Xv. [REVIEW]André Waldheuser - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (3):751-753.
  28.  36
    Ethics of Healthcare Robotics.Bernd Carsten Stahl & Mark Coeckelbergh - 2016 - Robotics And Autonomous Systems 86:152-161.
    How can we best identify, understand, and deal with ethical and societal issues raised by healthcare robotics? This paper argues that next to ethical analysis, classic technology assessment, and philosophical speculation we need forms of reflection, dialogue, and experiment that come, quite literally, much closer to innovation practices and contexts of use. The authors discuss a number of ways how to achieve that. Informed by their experience with “embedded” ethics in technical projects and with various tools and methods of (...)
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  29.  99
    New Horizons on Robotics: Ethics Challenges.António Moniz - 2019 - In Maria Céu do Patrão Neves (ed.), Ethics, Science and Society: Challenges for BioPolitics. Lisboa, Portugal: pp. 57-67.
    In this chapter, the focus is on robotics development and its ethical implications, especially on some particular applications or interaction principles. In recent years, such developments have happened very quickly, based on the advances achieved in the last few decades in industrial robotics. The technological developments in manufacturing, with the implementation of Industry 4.0 strategies in most industrialized countries, and the dissemination of production strategies into services and health sectors, enabled robotics to develop in a variety of new directions. Policy (...)
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  30. Ethical Considerations Regarding the Use of Social Robots in the Fourth Age.Catrin Misselhorn, Ulrike Pompe & Mog Stapleton - 2013 - Geropsych 26 (2):121-133.
    The debate about the use of robots in the care of older adults has often been dominated by either overly optimistic visions (coming particularly from Japan), in which robots are seamlessly incorporated into society thereby enhancing quality of life for everyone; or by extremely pessimistic scenarios that paint such a future as horrifying. We reject this dichotomy and argue for a more differentiated ethical evaluation of the possibilities and risks involved with the use of social robots. In a critical discussion (...)
     
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  31.  21
    Robotic Milking Technologies and Renegotiating Situated Ethical Relationships on UK Dairy Farms.Lewis Holloway, Christopher Bear & Katy Wilkinson - 2014 - Agriculture and Human Values 31 (2):185-199.
    Robotic or automatic milking systems are novel technologies that take over the labor of dairy farming and reduce the need for human–animal interactions. Because robotic milking involves the replacement of ‘conventional’ twice-a-day milking managed by people with a system that supposedly allows cows the freedom to be milked automatically whenever they choose, some claim robotic milking has health and welfare benefits for cows, increases productivity, and has lifestyle advantages for dairy farmers. This paper examines how established ethical relations on dairy (...)
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  32.  4
    Ethics for Robots: How to Design a Moral Algorithm.Derek Leben - 2018 - Routledge.
    Ethics for Robots describes and defends a method for designing and evaluating ethics algorithms for autonomous machines, such as self-driving cars and search and rescue drones. Derek Leben argues that such algorithms should be evaluated by how effectively they accomplish the problem of cooperation among self-interested organisms, and therefore, rather than simulating the psychological systems that have evolved to solve this problem, engineers should be tackling the problem itself, taking relevant lessons from our moral psychology. Leben draws on (...)
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  33.  71
    Caregiving Robots and Ethical Reflection: The Perspective of Interdisciplinary Technology Assessment. [REVIEW]Michael Decker - 2008 - AI and Society 22 (3):315-330.
    Autonomous robots that are capable of learning are being developed to make it easier for human actors to achieve their goals. As such, robots are primarily a means to an end and replace human actions. An interdisciplinary technology assessment was carried out to determine the extent to which a replacement of this kind makes ethical sense in terms of technology, economics and legal aspects. Proceeding from an ethical perspective, derived from Kant’s formula of humanity, in this article we analyse the (...)
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  34. Ethics and Robotics.Raphael Capurro & Michael Nagenborg (eds.) - 2009 - Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.
    P. M. Asaro: What should We Want from a Robot Ethic? G. Tamburrini: Robot Ethics: A View from the Philosophy of Science B. Becker: Social Robots - Emotional Agents: Some Remarks on Naturalizing Man-machine Interaction E. Datteri, G. Tamburrini: Ethical Reflections on Health Care Robotics P. Lin, G. Bekey, K. Abney: Robots in War: Issues of Risk and Ethics J. Altmann: Preventive Arms Control for Uninhabited Military Vehicles J. Weber: Robotic warfare, Human Rights & The Rhetorics (...)
     
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  35.  59
    Robot Carers, Ethics, and Older People.Tom Sorell & Heather Draper - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (3):183-195.
    This paper offers an ethical framework for the development of robots as home companions that are intended to address the isolation and reduced physical functioning of frail older people with capacity, especially those living alone in a noninstitutional setting. Our ethical framework gives autonomy priority in a list of purposes served by assistive technology in general, and carebots in particular. It first introduces the notion of “presence” and draws a distinction between humanoid multi-function robots and non-humanoid robots to suggest that (...)
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  36. Robot Sex: Social and Ethical Implications.John Danaher & Neil McArthur - 2017 - MIT Press.
    Sexbots are coming. Given the pace of technological advances, it is inevitable that realistic robots specifically designed for people's sexual gratification will be developed in the not-too-distant future. Despite popular culture's fascination with the topic, and the emergence of the much-publicized Campaign Against Sex Robots, there has been little academic research on the social, philosophical, moral, and legal implications of robot sex. This book fills the gap, offering perspectives from philosophy, psychology, religious studies, economics, and law on the possible (...)
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  37.  16
    Sven Nyholm: Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency, and Anthropomorphism. [REVIEW]Martin Sand - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (2):487-489.
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  38. Robot Minds and Human Ethics: The Need for a Comprehensive Model of Moral Decision Making. [REVIEW]Wendell Wallach - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):243-250.
    Building artificial moral agents (AMAs) underscores the fragmentary character of presently available models of human ethical behavior. It is a distinctly different enterprise from either the attempt by moral philosophers to illuminate the “ought” of ethics or the research by cognitive scientists directed at revealing the mechanisms that influence moral psychology, and yet it draws on both. Philosophers and cognitive scientists have tended to stress the importance of particular cognitive mechanisms, e.g., reasoning, moral sentiments, heuristics, intuitions, or a moral (...)
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  39.  15
    Robots and Sexual Ethics.Brian D. Earp & Katarzyna Grunt-Mejer - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (1):1-2.
    Much of modern ethics is built around the idea that we should respect one another’s autonomy. Here, “we” are typically imagined to be adult human beings of sound mind, where the soundness of our mind is measured against what we take to be the typical mental capacities of a neurodevelopmentally “normal” person—perhaps in their mid-thirties or forties. When deciding about what constitutes ethical sex, for example, our dominant models hold that ethical sex is whatever is consented to, while a (...)
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  40.  47
    This “Ethical Trap” Is for Roboticists, Not Robots: On the Issue of Artificial Agent Ethical Decision-Making.Keith W. Miller, Marty J. Wolf & Frances Grodzinsky - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):389-401.
    In this paper we address the question of when a researcher is justified in describing his or her artificial agent as demonstrating ethical decision-making. The paper is motivated by the amount of research being done that attempts to imbue artificial agents with expertise in ethical decision-making. It seems clear that computing systems make decisions, in that they make choices between different options; and there is scholarship in philosophy that addresses the distinction between ethical decision-making and general decision-making. Essentially, the qualitative (...)
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  41.  37
    The Ethics of Robotic Caregivers.Amitai Etzioni & Oren Etzioni - 2017 - Interaction Studies 18 (2):174-190.
    As Artificial Intelligence technology seems poised for a major take-off and changing societal dynamics are creating a high demand for caregivers for elders, children and those infirmed-robotic caregivers, may well be used much more often. This article examines the ethical concerns raised by the use of AI caregivers and concludes that many of these concerns are avoided when AI caregivers operate as partners rather than substitutes. Furthermore, most of the remaining concerns are minor and are faced by human caregivers as (...)
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  42.  66
    Robots Like Me: Challenges and Ethical Issues in Aged Care.Ipke Wachsmuth - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9 (432).
    This paper addresses the issue of whether robots could substitute for human care, given the challenges in aged care induced by the demographic change. The use of robots to provide emotional care has raised ethical concerns, e.g., that people may be deceived and deprived of dignity. In this paper it is argued that these concerns might be mitigated and that it may be sufficient for robots to take part in caring when they behave *as if* they care.
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  43. Ethics in Robotics Research: CERNA Recommendations.Alexei Grinbaum & Raja Chatila - 2017 - IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine (99):1-8.
    This article summarizes the recommendations concerning robotics as issued by the Commission for the Ethics of Research in Information Sciences and Technologies (CERNA), the French advisory commission for the ethics of information and communication technology (ICT) research. Robotics has numerous applications in which its role can be overwhelming and may lead to unexpected consequences. In this rapidly evolving technological environment, CERNA does not set novel ethical standards but seeks to make ethical deliberation inseparable from scientific activity. Additionally, it (...)
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  44. The Crying Shame of Robot Nannies: An Ethical Appraisal.Noel Sharkey & Amanda Sharkey - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (2):161-190.
    Childcare robots are being manufactured and developed with the long term aim of creating surrogate carers. While total childcare is not yet being promoted, there are indications that it is 'on the cards'. We examine recent research and developments in childcare robots and speculate on progress over the coming years by extrapolating from other ongoing robotics work. Our main aim is to raise ethical questions about the part or full-time replacement of primary carers. The questions are about human rights, privacy, (...)
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  45. First Steps Towards an Ethics of Robots and Artificial Intelligence.John Tasioulas - 2019 - Journal of Practical Ethics 7 (1):61-95.
    This article offers an overview of the main first-order ethical questions raised by robots and Artificial Intelligence (RAIs) under five broad rubrics: functionality, inherent significance, rights and responsibilities, side-effects, and threats. The first letter of each rubric taken together conveniently generates the acronym FIRST. Special attention is given to the rubrics of functionality and inherent significance given the centrality of the former and the tendency to neglect the latter in virtue of its somewhat nebulous and contested character. In addition to (...)
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  46. Ethical Robots: The Future Can Heed Us. [REVIEW]Selmer Bringsjord - 2008 - AI and Society 22 (4):539-550.
    Bill Joy’s deep pessimism is now famous. Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us, his defense of that pessimism, has been read by, it seems, everyone—and many of these readers, apparently, have been converted to the dark side, or rather more accurately, to the future-is-dark side. Fortunately (for us; unfortunately for Joy), the defense, at least the part of it that pertains to AI and robotics, fails. Ours may be a dark future, but we cannot know that on the basis of (...)
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  47.  4
    Ethics of Socially Assistive Robots in Aged-Care Settings: A Socio-Historical Contextualisation.Tijs Vandemeulebroucke, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé & Chris Gastmans - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):128-136.
    Different embodiments of technology permeate all layers of public and private domains in society. In the public domain of aged care, attention is increasingly focused on the use of socially assistive robots supporting caregivers and older adults to guarantee that older adults receive care. The introduction of SARs in aged-care contexts is joint by intensive empirical and philosophical research. Although these efforts merit praise, current empirical and philosophical research are still too far separated. Strengthening the connection between these two fields (...)
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  48. Toward the Ethical Robot.James Gips - 1994 - In Kenneth M. Ford, C. Glymour & Patrick Hayes (eds.), Android Epistemology. MIT Press. pp. 243--252.
  49.  52
    Ethical Values and Social Care Robots for Older People: An International Qualitative Study.Heather Draper & Tom Sorell - 2017 - Ethics and Information Technology 19 (1):49-68.
    Values such as respect for autonomy, safety, enablement, independence, privacy and social connectedness should be reflected in the design of social robots. The same values should affect the process by which robots are introduced into the homes of older people to support independent living. These values may, however, be in tension. We explored what potential users thought about these values, and how the tensions between them could be resolved. With the help of partners in the ACCOMPANY project, 21 focus groups (...)
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  50. The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on Ai, Robots, and Ethics.David J. Gunkel - 2012 - MIT Press.
    One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. Much recent attention has been devoted to the "animal question" -- consideration of the moral status of nonhuman animals. In this book, David Gunkel takes up the "machine question": whether and to what extent intelligent and autonomous machines of our own making can be considered to have legitimate moral responsibilities and any legitimate claim to moral consideration. The machine question poses a fundamental (...)
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