Results for 'inequality'

999 found
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  1. Cognitive Enhancement and the Threat of Inequality.Walter Veit - 2018 - Journal of Cognitive Enhancement 2:1-7.
    As scientific progress approaches the point where significant human enhancements could become reality, debates arise whether such technologies should be made available. This paper evaluates the widespread concern that human enhancements will inevitably accentuate existing inequality and analyzes whether prohibition is the optimal public policy to avoid this outcome. Beyond these empirical questions, this paper considers whether the inequality objection is a sound argument against the set of enhancements most threatening to equality, i.e., cognitive enhancements. In doing so, (...)
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  2. Inequality.Larry S. Temkin - 1986 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 15 (2):99-121.
    Temkin presents a new way of thinking about equality and inequality that challenges the assumptions of philosophers, welfare economists, and others, and has significant implications on both a practical and theoretical level.
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  3.  26
    Inequality.Larry S. Temkin - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    In this book Larry Temkin examines the concepts of equality and inequality, and addresses one particular question in depth: how can we judge between different sorts of inequality? When is one inequality worse than another? Temkin shows that there are many different factors underlying and influencing our egalitarian judgments and that the notion of inequality is surprisingly complex. He looks at inequality as applied to individuals and to groups, and at the standard measures of (...) employed by economists and others, and considers whether inequality matters more in a poor society than a rich one. The arguments of non-egalitarians are also examined. Temkin's book presents a new way of thinking about equality and inequality which challenges the assumptions of philosophers, welfare economists, and others concerned with these notions on a practical as well as a theoretical level. (shrink)
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  4. The Scientific Limits of Understanding the Relationship Between Complex Social Phenomena: The Case of Democracy and Inequality.Alexander Krauss - 2016 - Journal of Economic Methodology 23 (1):97-109.
    This paper outlines the methodological and empirical limitations of analysing the potential relationship between complex social phenomena such as democracy and inequality. It shows that the means to assess how they may be related is much more limited than recognised in the existing literature that is laden with contradictory hypotheses and findings. Better understanding our scientific limitations in studying this potential relationship is important for research and policy because many leading economists and other social scientists such as Acemoglu and (...)
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  5. Wealth and Income Inequality: An Economic and Ethical Analysis.Brian P. Simpson - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4):525-538.
    I perform an economic and ethical analysis on wealth and income inequality. Economists have performed many statistical studies that reveal a number of, often contradictory, findings in connection with the distribution of wealth and income. Hence, the statistical findings leave us with no better knowledge of the effects that inequality has on economic progress. At the same time, the existing theoretical results have not provided us with a definitive answer concerning the effects of inequality on progress. By (...)
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  6.  14
    Is Inequality Among Universities Increasing? Gini Coefficients and the Elusive Rise of Elite Universities.Willem Halffman & Loet Leydesdorff - 2010 - Minerva 48 (1):55-72.
    One of the unintended consequences of the New Public Management (NPM) in universities is often feared to be a division between elite institutions focused on research and large institutions with teaching missions. However, institutional isomorphisms provide counter-incentives. For example, university rankings focus on certain output parameters such as publications, but not on others (e.g., patents). In this study, we apply Gini coefficients to university rankings in order to assess whether universities are becoming more unequal, at the level of both the (...)
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  7.  13
    The Social Cost of Carbon: Valuing Inequality, Risk, and Population for Climate Policy.Marc Fleurbaey, Maddalena Ferranna, Mark Budolfson, Francis Dennig, Kian Mintz-Woo, Robert Socolow, Dean Spears & Stéphane Zuber - 2019 - The Monist 102 (1):84-109.
    We analyze the role of ethical values in the determination of the social cost of carbon, arguing that the familiar debate about discounting is too narrow. Other ethical issues are equally important to computing the social cost of carbon, and we highlight inequality, risk, and population ethics. Although the usual approach, in the economics of cost-benefit analysis for climate policy, is confined to a utilitarian axiology, the methodology of the social cost of carbon is rather flexible and can be (...)
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  8. The Facts of Inequality.Martin O'Neill - 2010 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (3):397-409.
    This review essay looks at two important recent books on the empirical social science of inequality, Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett's The Spirit Level and John Hills et al .'s Towards a More Equal Society? , situating these books against the important work of Michael Marmot on epidemiology and health inequalities. I argue that political philosophy can gain a great deal from careful engagement with empirical research on the nature and consequences of inequality, especially in regard to empirical (...)
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  9.  87
    Free Trade, Poverty, and Inequality.Nicole Hassoun - 2011 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (1):5-44.
    Anyone familiar with The Economist knows the mantra: Free trade will ameliorate poverty by increasing growth and reducing inequality. This paper suggests that problems underlying measurement of poverty, inequality, and free trade provide reason to worry about this argument. Furthermore, the paper suggests that better evidence is necessary to establish that free trade is causing inequality and poverty to fall. Experimental studies usually provide the best evidence of causation. So, the paper concludes with a call for further (...)
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  10. The Failure to Perform a Loophole-Free Test of Bell?S Inequality Supports Local Realism.Emilio Santos - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1643-1673.
    It is argued that the long standing failure to show an uncontroversial, loophole-free, empirical violation of a Bell inequality should be interpreted as a support to local realism. After defining realism and locality, this as relativistic causality, the performed experimental tests of Bell’s inequalities are commented. It is pointed out that, without any essential modification of quantum mechanics, the theory might be compatible with local realism.
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  11.  55
    Incentives, Inequality and Self-Respect.Richard Penny - 2013 - Res Publica 19 (4):335-351.
    Rawls argues that ‘Parties in the original position would wish to avoid at almost any cost the social conditions that undermine self-respect’. But what are these social conditions that we should so urgently avoid? One evident candidate might be conditions of material inequality. Yet Rawls seems confident that his account of justice can endorse such inequalities without jeopardising citizens’ self-respect. In this article I argue that this confidence is misplaced. Unequalising incentives, I claim, jeopardise the self-respect of those least (...)
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  12.  23
    Is Health Inequality Across Individuals of Moral Concern?Yukiko Asada - 2006 - Health Care Analysis 14 (1):25-36.
    The history of the documentation of health inequality is long. The way in which health inequality has customarily been documented is by comparing differences in the average health across groups, for example, by sex or gender, income, education, occupation, or geographic region. In the controversial World Health Report 2000, researchers at the World Health Organization criticized this traditional practice and proposed to measure health inequality across individuals irrespective of individuals’ group affiliation. They defended its proposal on the (...)
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  13.  89
    Trust, Inequality and the Market.Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap, Jonathan Hw Tan & Daniel John Zizzo - 2013 - Theory and Decision 74 (3):311-333.
    This article examines, experimentally, whether inequality affects the social capital of trust in non-market and market settings. We consider three experimental treatments, one with equality, one with inequality but no knowledge of the income of other agents, and one with inequality and knowledge. Inequality, particularly when it is known, has a corrosive effect on trusting behaviours in this experiment. Agents appear to be less sensitive to known relative income differentials in markets than they are in the (...)
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  14. About a Generalization of Bell's Inequality.V. M. González-Robles - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (5):839-853.
    We make use of natural induction to propose, following John Ju Sakurai, a generalization of Bell's inequality for two spin s=n/2(n=1,2,...) particle systems in a singlet state. We have found that for any finite integer or half-integer spin Bell's inequality is violated when the terms in the inequality are calculated from a quantum mechanical point of view. In the final expression for this inequality the two members therein are expressed in terms of a single parameter θ. (...)
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  15.  62
    Maudlin on the Triangle Inequality.Marco Dees - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):124-130.
    Tim Maudlin argues that we should take facts about distance to be analyzed in terms of facts about path lengths. His reason is that if we take distances to be fundamental, we must stipulate that constraints like the triangle inequality hold, but we get these constraints for free if we take path lengths to be prior. I argue that Maudlin is mistaken. Even if we take path lengths as primitive, the triangle inequality follows only if we stipulate that (...)
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  16.  62
    Inequality Aversion and Antisocial Punishment.Christian Thöni - 2014 - Theory and Decision 76 (4):529-545.
    Antisocial punishment—punishment of pro-social cooperators—has shown to be detrimental for the efficiency of informal punishment mechanisms in public goods games. The motives behind antisocial punishment acts are not yet well understood. This article shows that inequality aversion predicts antisocial punishment in public goods games with punishment. The model by Fehr and Schmidt (Q J Econ 114(3): 817–868, 1999) allows to derive conditions under which antisocial punishment occurs. With data from three studies on public goods games with punishment I evaluate (...)
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  17.  22
    Human Culture and Science: Equality and Inequality as Foundations of Scientific Thought. [REVIEW]Bert Mosselmans & Ernest Mathijs - 2000 - Foundations of Science 5 (3):339-378.
    We argue that the concepts of `human equality' and `inequality' play an important role in the structure of science and philosophy. When the value of `human inequality' predominates, scientific categories are formed in accordance with the principle of `hierarchical differentiation' and concepts remain closely tied to the objects they are referring to. Following Mirowski we define this as the `anthropometric stage' of human thought and development. Contrary, Mirowski's `syndetic stage' refers to societies where the value of `human equality' (...)
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  18.  15
    When Do Risky Choices Justify Inequality?Keith Hyams - 2017 - Diametros 53:60-74.
    Luck egalitarianism is the view that inequalities are justified when and only when a particular condition is met. Recent years have seen considerable debate about the exact nature of the risky choices thought by luck egalitarians to justify inequality. All positions in the debate emphasise the importance of choice, but they differ in the precise details of how choice features in the inequality-justifying condition. The present paper argues for a novel view about the conditions under which risky choices (...)
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  19.  62
    The Size of Inequality and Its Badness Some Reflections Around Temkin's Inequality.Wlodek Rabinowicz - 2003 - Theoria 69 (1-2):60-84.
    This paper puts forward the following claims: (i) The size of inequality in welfare should be distinguished from its badness. (ii) The size of a pairwise inequality between two individuals can be measured by the absolute or the relative welfare distance between their welfare levels, but it does not depend on the welfare levels of other individuals. (iii) The size of inequality in a social state may be understood either as the degree of pairwise inequality or (...)
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  20.  58
    An Elementary Interpretation of the Gini Inequality Index.S. Subramanian - 2002 - Theory and Decision 52 (4):375-379.
    This note presents a very simple way of interpreting the Gini coefficient of inequality, in `equivalent' welfare terms, as the proportion of a cake of given size going to the poorer of two individuals in a two-person cake-sharing problem.
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  21.  28
    Inequality and Markets in Bodily Services.Jessica Flanigan - 2013 - Political Theory 41 (1):144-150.
    I argue that asymmetries in taste and talent can explain markets in bodily services, just as they explain other kinds of work. While inequality is a powerful explanation for participation in bodily-service markets, such markets are not unique in their reliance on inequality. Finally, I address another kind of inequality that deserves our attention -- the advantage of the providers of bodily services over those who require them. While those who suffer from infertility or face the terror (...)
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  22.  26
    Inequality and Political Consensus.Hans Peter Grüner - 2009 - Theory and Decision 67 (3):239-265.
    This paper develops a model of political consensus in order to explain the missing link between inequality and political redistribution. Political consensus is an implicit agreement not to vote for extreme policy proposals. We show that such an agreement may play an efficiency-enhancing role. Voters anticipate that voting for extremist parties increases policy uncertainty in the future. A political consensus among voters reduces policy uncertainty because self-interested politicians propose non-discriminatory policies. We study how much inequality can be sustained (...)
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  23.  13
    Unconditional Quantum Correlations Do Not Violate Bell’s Inequality.Andrei Khrennikov - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (10):1179-1189.
    In this paper I demonstrate that the quantum correlations of polarization observables used in Bell’s argument against local realism have to be interpreted as conditional quantum correlations. By taking into account additional sources of randomness in Bell’s type experiments, i.e., supplementary to source randomness, I calculate the complete quantum correlations. The main message of the quantum theory of measurement is that complete correlations can be essentially smaller than the conditional ones. Additional sources of randomness diminish correlations. One can say another (...)
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  24.  12
    Producing Solidarity, Inequality and Exclusion Through Insurance.Turo-Kimmo Lehtonen & Jyri Liukko - 2015 - Res Publica 21 (2):155-169.
    The article presents two main arguments. First, we claim that in contemporary societies, insurance enacts peculiar kinds of solidarities as well as inequality and exclusion. Especially important in this respect are life, health, disability and old age pension insurance, both in compulsory and voluntary forms. Second, the article maintains that the ideas of solidarity, inequality and exclusion are transformed by the machinery of insurance. In other words, the concrete ways in which insurance relations are practically arranged have an (...)
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  25. Adequacy, Inequality, and Cash for Grades.Derrick Darby - 2011 - Theory and Research in Eduation 9 (3):209-232.
    Some political philosophers have recently argued that providing K–12 students with an adequate education suffices for social justice in education provided that the threshold of educational adequacy is properly understood. Others have argued that adequacy is insufficient for social justice. In this article I side with the latter group. I extend this debate to racial inequality in education by considering the controversial practice of paying students cash for grades to close the racial achievement gap. I then argue that framing (...)
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  26. The Pareto Argument for Inequality Revisited.A. R. J. Fisher & Edward F. McClennen - manuscript
    One of the more obscure arguments for Rawls’ difference principle dubbed ‘the Pareto argument for inequality’ has been criticised by G. A. Cohen (1995, 2008) as being inconsistent. In this paper, we examine and clarify the Pareto argument in detail and argue (1) that justification for the Pareto principles derives from rational selfinterest and thus the Pareto principles ought to be understood as conditions of individual rationality, (2) that the Pareto argument is not inconsistent, contra Cohen, and (3) that (...)
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  27. Economic Inequality and the Welfare State.Gøsta Esping-Andersen & John Myles - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article focuses on the welfare state, which includes social protection, health, education and training, housing, and social services, but can also be conceived more broadly to include policies that affect earnings capacity and the structure of the labour market. It discusses the difficulties of capturing the impact of the welfare state on income inequality, given that one does not observe what the distribution would be in the absence of the welfare state or specific aspects of it. Theories of (...)
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  28. Does Global Inequality Matter?Charles R. Beitz - 2001 - Metaphilosophy 32 (1-2):95-112.
  29. Gender and Economic Inequality.Mary B. Gregory - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article assesses the changing economic status of women, the forces driving it, and its implications for inequality between women and men and among women. Section 2 reviews women's growing labour market participation and its changing occupational structure. Section 3 analyzes the extent and sources of the gender pay gap. Section 4 reviews two of the major drivers of recent economic change for women: the transformation of their educational status, and the impact of technology. Section 5 addresses the implications (...)
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  30.  69
    Inequality and Happiness.Bernard van Praag & Ada Ferrer-I.-Carbonell - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article deals with happiness and inequality. Section 2 gives an explanation of the neo-classical negative attitude towards happiness as an operational concept, differentiating between ordinal and cardinal happiness. Section 3 introduces the happiness economics literature and the so-called Leyden School, which can be viewed as a forerunner of present-day happiness economics. Section 4 concentrates on the effect of income inequality in a given country on the individual's feelings of happiness. Section 5 considers current attempts to characterize the (...)
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  31.  20
    Promoting Inequality? Self-Monitoring Applications and the Problem of Social Justice.Katrin Paldan, Hanno Sauer & Nils-Frederic Wagner - 2018 - AI and Society:1-11.
    When it comes to improving the health of the general population, mHealth technologies with self-monitoring and intervention components hold a lot of promise. We argue, however, that due to various factors such as access, targeting, personal resources or incentives, self-monitoring applications run the risk of increasing health inequalities, thereby creating a problem of social justice. We review empirical evidence for “intervention-generated” inequalities, present arguments that self-monitoring applications are still morally acceptable, and develop approaches to avoid the promotion of health inequalities (...)
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  32.  63
    The Measurement of Economic Inequality.Stephen Jenkins & Philippe van Kerm - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article provides an introduction to methods for the measurement of economic inequality. It reviews the inequality measures that economists have developed, and explains how one might choose between indices or check whether conclusions about inequality difference can be derived without choosing any specific index. It reviews mobility measurement and some fundamental questions about how the distributions of economic interest are defined.
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  33.  8
    Temporal Aspects of Digit and Letter Inequality Judgments.John M. Parkman - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):191.
  34.  69
    Wealth and Economic Inequality.James B. Davies - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article surveys the distribution of wealth and its relationship to economic inequality more broadly. It shows that wealth inequality is high and contributes significantly to inequality in income and consumption, although higher wealth inequality is not always an indicator of greater inequality in well-being. In particular, welfare state policies can improve the well-being of low income groups while at the same time reducing their incentive to save. This may lead to high observed wealth (...) in places where it would otherwise not be expected, such as some of the Scandinavian countries. More research is needed to better illuminate such connections between public policy and wealth inequality. (shrink)
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  35.  95
    CHSH Inequality: Quantum Probabilities as Classical Conditional Probabilities.Andrei Khrennikov - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (7):711-725.
    In this note we demonstrate that the results of observations in the EPR–Bohm–Bell experiment can be described within the classical probabilistic framework. However, the “quantum probabilities” have to be interpreted as conditional probabilities, where conditioning is with respect to fixed experimental settings. Our approach is based on the complete account of randomness involved in the experiment. The crucial point is that randomness of selections of experimental settings has to be taken into account within one consistent framework covering all events related (...)
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  36.  76
    Assessing Global Poverty and Inequality: Income, Resources, and Capabilities.Ingrid Robeyns - 2005 - Metaphilosophy 36 (1‐2):30-49.
  37.  28
    Demographic Transformation and Economic Inequality.Gary Burtless - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article assesses the impact of changing demography on inequality and poverty. Section 2 considers how household living arrangements affect personal economic well-being and its distribution across the population. Section 3 looks at recent evidence on the inequality effects of demographic trends. These trends include the rise of cross-border migration, population ageing, delays in first marriage and first births, increases in the rate of divorce, rising female employment rates, and changes in the correlation of husbands' and wives' earnings. (...)
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  38.  28
    International Migration, Ethnicity and Economic Inequality.Klaus F. Zimmermann & Martin Kahanec - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article uses a well-defined setting to suggest an optimistic view about the distributional effects of immigration. Section 2 provides a general picture of the native-immigrant differences in labour force participation, unemployment, and occupational and educational attainment, taking skill levels and years since immigration into account. Section 3 investigates the inequality impact of immigration by summarizing the potential labour market impacts and the wage and employment consequences. Section 4 deals with the potentially slow integration of immigrants into the labour (...)
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  39.  28
    Poverty and Inequality: The Global Context.Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Martin Ravallion - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article summarizes the recent evidence on global poverty and inequality, including both developed and developing countries. Section 1 discusses poverty and inequality data and presents evidence on levels and recent trends in poverty and inequality around the world. Section 2 turns to the issues involved in aggregating inequality indices across countries, in order to construct a meaningful measure of global inequality. Section 3 discusses the empirical relationship between economic growth, poverty, and inequality dynamics. (...)
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  40.  27
    Harry G. Frankfurt, On Inequality. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015.Lisa Herzog - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (3):823-825.
    This is a book review. Summary: I'm not a fan.
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  41.  37
    The Theoretical Costs of Ignoring Childhood: Rethinking Independence, Insecurity, and Inequality.Allison J. Pugh - 2014 - Theory and Society 43 (1):71-89.
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  42.  25
    Trust, Inequality and the Market.Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap, Jonathan H. W. Tan & Daniel John Zizzo - 2013 - Theory and Decision 74 (3):311-333.
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  43.  24
    The Politics of Corruption, Inequality, and the Socially Excluded.Anna Santos Salas - 2013 - Nursing Philosophy 14 (3):168-177.
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  44.  18
    In Praise of Big Numbers: The Slow Decline of Educational Inequality in Contemporary Italy.Carlo Barone, Ruud Luijkx & Antonio Schizzerotto - 2010 - Polis: Research and studies on Italian society and politics 24 (1):5-34.
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  45.  16
    On a Positive Set Theory with Inequality.Giacomo Lenzi - 2011 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 57 (5):474-480.
    We introduce a quite natural Frege-style set theory, which we call Strong-Frege-2 equation image, a sort of simplification of the theory considered in 13 and 1 . We give a model of a weaker variant of equation image, called equation image, where atoms and coatoms are allowed. To construct the model we use an enumeration “almost without repetitions” of the Π11 sets of natural numbers; such an enumeration can be obtained via a classical priority argument much in the style of (...)
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  46.  8
    Inequality and Earnings Distribution.Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article documents and provides explanations for levels of and trends in earnings inequality, with a central focus on international differences in these outcomes. It concentrates on OECD countries, which are largely advanced industrialized nations, and typically have similar levels of labour productivity but often very different labour market institutions and changes in the supply of or demand for labour of various skill levels. As a result, one can use international differences to test hypotheses about the role of supply (...)
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  47.  5
    Inequality and the Labour Market: Unions.Jelle Visser & Daniele Checchi - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article focuses on the role of unions and their influence on economic inequality. Section 2 reviews the literature regarding the union effect on wages and wage inequality. Section 3 considers the separate contributions of union power, membership composition, bargaining coordination, and wage policy. Section 4 introduces the distinction between membership and coverage, while the following two sections discuss the impact of union power on earnings inequality when coverage is either exclusive or inclusive. Section 7 discusses the (...)
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  48.  6
    Educational Inequality Dynamics: Social Origins and Educational Attainment in 16 European Countries, 1920-1975.Moris Triventi - 2010 - Polis: Research and studies on Italian society and politics 24 (2):287-318.
  49.  6
    "Temporal Aspects of Digit and Letter Inequality Judgments": Erratum.John M. Parkman - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):183-183.
  50.  3
    Inequality and the Labour Market: Employers.Julia Lane - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article focuses on the relationship of employer behaviour to labour market inequalities. Matched employer-employee data are casting an important new light on how variation in wage setting practices across firms can affect the structure of earnings and earnings mobility. It shows that very different wages are paid to equivalent labour across and within firms. It also argues that policies targeting firm selection of workers may affect inequality as much as policies of training and education.
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