This article examines the role of time as a methodological tool and pathological focus of clinical psychiatry and psychology in the first half of the 20th century. Contextualizing ‘psychopathologies of time’ developed by practitioners in Europe and North America with reference to the temporal theories implicit in Freudian psychoanalysis and Henri Bergson’s philosophy of durée, it illuminates how depression, schizophrenia, and other mental disorders such as obsessive-compulsive behaviours and aphasia were understood to be symptomatic of an altered or disturbed ‘time-sense’. (...) Drawing upon a model of temporal synthesis whereby in healthy individuals, a subjective temporal sense was perceived and understood in relation to objective time frameworks, clinicians argued that mentally ill patients were unable to synthesize Ichzeit and Weltzeit, using variations in this disturbance to define specific pathological conditions. (shrink)
How many words is a bilingual 2-year-old supposed to know or say in each of her languages? Speech and language therapists or researchers lack the tools to answer this question, because several factors have an impact on bilingual language skills: gender, amount of exposure, mode of acquisition, socio-economic status and the distance between L1 and L2. Unfortunately, these factors are usually studied separately, making it difficult to evaluate their weight on a unique measure of vocabulary. The present study measures the (...) contribution of the following factors to the vocabulary scores of bilingual toddlers: i) gender; ii) sibling ranking; iii) relative amount of exposure to each language; iv) mode of exposure; v) SES; vi) linguistic distance; vii) language spoken between parents. Close to the child’s second birthday, parents of 278 UK-based bilinguals completed successively: a 100-word version of the Oxford-CDI, the CDI in the child’s Additional Language, a family questionnaire, and the Language Exposure Questionnaire. Thirty-six British-English-AL pairs were considered, with languages contrasted on a second-language-learning scale : for example, Dutch and French are close to British-English, while Polish or Cantonese are more distant. Data from the corpus were included in two mixed-effect models, one with the English scores in comprehension as the dependent variable, and the other with production scores. The seven factors listed above were included as predictors. The amount of English exposure was the strongest predictor of comprehension scores = 9.35, p <.005, β = 0.02, t = 3.08, p <.005), followed by the language that parents speak between themselves = 14.94, p <.001, β = 1.37, t = 3.76, p <.0005), linguistic distance = 6.92, p <.01, β = -0.74, t = -2.66, p <.01) and age = 4.86, p <.05, β = 0.55, t = 2.17, p <.05). In production, gender = 13.57, p <.0005, β = -0.91, t = -03.72, p <.0005), amount of exposure to English = 13.57, p <.0005, β = -0.91, t = -03.72, p <.0005), the language that parents speak between themselves = 11.85, p <.005, β = 1.09, t = 3.41, p <.001), and the mother’s occupation = 4.51, p <.05, β = 0.63, t = 2.13, p <.05) were the significant predictors. The more English parents use to address one another, the more English words the child says and understands. This surprising result could be simply explained by the fact that parents who speak English together are also more likely to speak English to their child. The main results of this study is that linguistic distance is a powerful predictor of toddlers’ vocabulary in English, with children learning two close languages growing their vocabulary faster than those learning distant languages. (shrink)
Perhaps no work since John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice has attracted as much recent attention as Robert Nozick’s case for a minimal state—an ingeniously argued critique, not only of antinomian individualism, but also of liberal and socialist contractualism. It might be added that the book is no solace either to more conservative political theorists, who lament state incursion into private life, but whose political structures exhibit either actual or potential constriction of human life. Nozick’s book is both a searching (...) examination of the limitations of utilitarian consequentialism and the redistributivism of Rawls. His essential theme is that "a minimal state limited to the narrow functions of protection against force, theft, fraud, enforcement of contracts etc., is justified; that any more extensive state will violate persons’ rights not to be forced to do certain things, and is unjustified; and that the minimal state is inspiring as well as right." It is also Nozick’s contention that the coercive power of the state should not be used paternalistically to prohibit activities to people for their own protection, or to force some citizens to aid others. The last part of the book is a framework for Nozick’s utopia, and it is in this section that an essentially theoretical approach, amplified by little political or sociological data, exhibits its defects. One suspects that almost all states started with simplistic hopes for minimal coercive activity, and succumbed almost inevitably to the metastasis of function as socio-political life grew in size and complexity. Night watchmen become more than night watchmen when more than watching is needed. Moreover, Nozick’s utopia would seem to necessitate, at least by implication, coercive redistributivism and some kind of compensatory or levelling taxation process. This reviewer is not sure that he understands precisely what Nozick considers correct property theory in a state of nature. The author modestly asserts the tentative, incomplete, and conjectural nature of his work. But the taxed and manipulated citizen who grows in sympathy for the sentiments of Proudhon’s famous litany should welcome this highly literate and well argued case.—R.P.M. (shrink)
A new installment in the series that blew readers' minds with Biocentrism and Beyond Biocentrism, The Grand Biocentric Design offers an even deeper dive in to the nature of reality and our universe based on the latest groundbreaking research.
Despite the title, this book is really an introduction to the study of the later philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, and the significance of his way of philosophizing for problems in social and political thought. As the author points out, Wittgenstein was not a political theorist; he "did not write about society or history or revolution or alienation". The author, obviously conversant with the work and methodology of Wittgenstein, has written a work ad mentem magistri, not attempting to isolate specific doctrine (...) but to indicate how a philosopher, convinced of the centrality of language in human life, would reflect on the problems of associative life. Language is seen, not as a system of labels, but as the carrier of human culture that both asserts the individuality and communality of men, and illuminates "the nature of innovation and continuity in human affairs." The author sees the later Wittgenstein as rejecting his earlier satisfaction with the Tractatus, being careful to point out that Wittgenstein did not question ethical aesthetic and religious values, as much as to claim that they could not be talked about in a philosophically meaningful way. Roughly, the second half of the book concerns itself with social and political implications, the quarrel between Socrates and Thrasymachus on the nature of justice being seen as paradigmatic of contemporary concerns about the objectivity of social values. The book is significant not because it develops a political philosophy, for it quite obviously does not; but because it suggests possibilities and indicates a developing respect in Wittgenstein for metaphysics and objectivity, and a desire to know and understand that objectivity by means of language analysis.—R.P.M. (shrink)
This is a study in what Naess calls the "new historiography of science," i.e., the view that science is and has been discontinuous, non-accumulative, and somewhat arbitrary. Readers familiar with the controversy between Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper will undoubtedly note that Naess attempts to achieve a synthesis of their opposed positions. Against Popper, Naess argues there is no standard of rejection and refutation for theories in science that will bear the weight of both the history and present practice of (...) the various disciplines. Instead there are many such standards and herein lies the "pluralistic aspect" of the scientific enterprise. But contrary to Kuhn, irrationalism is not found to be the alternative to a Popperian framework. What is required according to Naess is a broader conception of rationality and decision making than classical philosophers and historians of science were willing to embrace. The outline of such a conception is presented here. Naess also favors encouragement of a methodological pluralistic approach since he finds that the possibilities are almost endless. Nor is the history of science exempt from this invitation. In a final chapter Naess turns his thesis to historiography itself and explores the consequences of pluralism and possibilism in this field.—R.P.M. (shrink)
The import of this long and careful study is primarily negative: the author attempts to show that the various theories which contemporary analysts have held against the a priori are not tenable; he leaves us not with still another proposal but with the conviction that this philosophical ground is still fertile.--R. P.
The 1973 archeological discovery of important documents of classical thought known as the Huang-Lao Boshu coupled with advancements in contemporary jurisprudence make possible a reassessment of the philosophies of pre-Qin and early Han China. This study attempts to elucidate the importance of the Huang-Lao school within the intellectual tradition of China through a comparison of the Boshu's philosophical position, particularly its understanding of the relation between law and morality, with the respective views of major thinkers of the period--Confucius, Han Fei, (...) Lao Zi, Zhuang Zi, and to a lesser extent, Shen Dao, Shen Buhai and the authors of the Guan Zi and He Guan Zi. So doing reveals Huang-Lao to be a unique and sophisticated social and political philosophy which, until its expulsion from court by Emperor Wu and subsequent adoption by Daoist religion, served as the ideological foundation for the post-Qin reforms of the early Han. (shrink)
In 1938 Maurice Mandelbaum published his well-known work, The Problem of Historical Knowledge, an insightful study of relativism, judgments of fact and value, causation, and the philosophy of history. Consequent to the publication of this work, the author noted increased interest in these problems, beginning with Carl Hempel’s "The Function of General Laws in History," and R. Collingwood’s posthumous work, The Idea of History, muted interest in the "fact" and "value" problems of the 30s in favor of the kinds of (...) explanation that can be sought or found in history. (shrink)
This handsome volume is an outgrowth of Giambattista Vico, An International Symposium, edited by Giorgio Tagliacozzo and Hayden White and published in 1969, in which Vichian influences were explored by distinguished scholars in diverse fields. The original volume was meant to be exploratory in nature, analyzing Vico’s sometimes obscure thought in terms of historical theory and contemporary humanistic relevance.
This is a large-scale work by an outstanding Czechoslovakian scientist and philosopher on the problem of explanation in science and related issues. The approach is that of classical twentieth century philosophy of science combined with an information theoretical model. Briefly put, the communication model has three major components: the source of information, the observer, and the statements which communicate the results of cognitive activity in science. These are pictured as three blocks connected by arrows running both ways, and are called (...) A, B, and C, respectively. Hence the objects which science depicts are found in Block A, the statements made in "scientific language" about these are in Block C, and the conceptual apparatus, scientific theories and procedures are on Block B. The point of the double arrows is to emphasize the interactions between all three components of the model. (shrink)
When Jean-Paul Sartre died on April 15, 1980, a Vatican newspaper wrote that "a very confused and confusing thinker" had passed away. To those who followed Sartre's public statements and interviews during the last five to ten years of his life, the phrase rings true. Sartre's commitment to history in confused times led to a Cartesian confusion, doubtlessly, while his philosophy followed a complex itinerary from his first publication in 1936 to his last in the seventies. Hence one welcomes the (...) present book under review and can only commend it for "totalizing"--to use a Sartrean word--the philosophy of Sartre from a critical perspective. The most recent in the Library of Living Philosophers series, this volume earns the right to its ambitious title: twenty-eight original essays cover every significant aspect of Sartre's thought. (shrink)
In this well-bred polemic against Christianity, the "romantic religion," the author speaks from the standpoint of a devout Jew. He is most challenging in his reading of the Gospels as the history of a Jew among Jews, "manifesting...what is pure and good in Judaism," except so far as it has been unfortunately obscured by a later and less-admirable Pauline theology.--R. P.
Vander Veer's aim is to show that ordinary-language analysis is a failure. To show that something is a failure of course requires a discussion of what counts as success. Here the yardstick is the defeat of skepticism; and the book is a long argument that ordinary-language methods do not send the skeptic packing. Two questions naturally arise concerning this enterprise: First, is there really some common set of doctrines, procedures, problems, attitudes, or styles of argument which can be taken as (...) characterizing ordinary-language philosophy? Second, is defeat of skepticism a clearly defined goal and is it a fair test of ordinary-language philosophy? (shrink)
Sini is well known in Italy for his original work on C. S. Peirce and his efforts to correlate Peirce's pragmatism with recent trends in Continental philosophy, especially phenomenology. In 1972 he published Pragmatismo americano, in which he argued for the continuity between the epistemology of Peirce, which gives priority to "evidence," and that of Husserl, which gives priority to "intuition." Seven years later, however, Sini rejected the possibility of a continuity between the two thinkers. Why? A more involved--or, in (...) Sini words, a more hermeneutical--reading of Peirce's theory of signs convinced him that Peirce stood outside of the long tradition of western metaphysics in which Husserl remained firmly rooted. (shrink)
Colli is best known for his co-editorship, with Mazzino Montinari, of the vast and most thorough edition of Nietzsche's complete works, published simultaneously in Italy, France, and Germany. His own publications include: Filosofia e Espressione, La Nascita della Filosofa, and La Sapienza Greca. Not long before his death in 1979, his last and most personal volume appeared--Dopo Nietzsche--a singular document which testifies to a life-long involvement with the thought of Friedrich Nietzsche.
A detailed analysis of Leopold Ranke’s blending of universal values with factual data in the writing of scientific history, especially helpful in explaining Ranke’s intellectual development, and showing that Ranke’s famous claim to portray what actually happened was much more than an unqualified commitment to factual history. The author suggests that, despite the formidable reputation of Ranke in giving to his discipline a new direction and a new role for history in culture, his was not any startling discovery of the (...) new, as much as an unprecedented way of combining notions and contexts. Ranke is seen as a complex character, committed to factuality, objectivity, the uniqueness of historical forms, the analysis of states as "ideas of God" representing collective destinies, but even more concerned with the connectedness of history in its universality and individuality. Ranke, though involved in epistemological questions, was wary of philosophy. He saw in the term "philosophy of history" a devious invention of philosophers for the enslavement of history. He was certainly wrong in his early appraisal of philosophy as "always negating." Yet for the general, abstract, and universal, Ranke developed a progressive sympathy in the important process of historical understanding, and in his later years he saw philosophy as more than the Fichtean romanticism which seemed so far removed from objectivity. He sided with his friends Schelling and Schleiermacher against Hegel at the University of Berlin. (shrink)
Broadie notes in his preface that the trouble with the Meditations is "that since the work is short and well written one has finished it before one has properly begun to grasp the vast issues with which Descartes engages." To overcome this trouble he turns to Descartes for advice. Descartes notes in his "Preface to the Reader" that he would never advise anyone to read the Meditations excepting those who desire to meditate seriously with him. Broadie takes Descartes at his (...) word, "and accordingly the present work is not so much a text book, or a commentary, as an attempt to reconstruct his ‘Treatise’ afresh. Therefore, it is not a series of reflections, but a sustained attempt to discover what is central in the Meditations, and to treat the work as Descartes urged us to." Paralleling the Meditations, the Approach is divided into six chapters. Its external features, other than an index, may be noted by their absence. Missing are the usual notes, bibliography, and references to the literature, which one is used to seeing in a scholarly work. Also, Broadie side-steps questions of translation from the Latin and French, choosing instead to rely exclusively on the Haldane and Ross translation. With all of this, however, what is missing is not a loss. He does give us a scholarly treatment of the Meditations, one which stands on its own analysis. The Approach is a worthwhile addition to the Cartesian literature. In it, Broadie attains his objective of reconstructing Descartes’ ‘Treatise’ afresh, and provides, in addition, a competent handling of the issues and thread of the argument.—D. R. P. (shrink)
This work, which first appeared in 1936, offers in addition to an historical treatment displaying Cassirer's characteristic insight, an analysis of quantum mechanics largely unaffected by subsequent development in the field. The author argues, on the basis of epistemological considerations, that quantum mechanics necessitates no major revisions in our basic understanding of causality. The new laws simply refer to "definite collectives" rather than things or events and are no less determinate than the old. In the final part the author stresses (...) the independence of causality and continuity in nature and closes by sensibly warning the reader against attempting to establish ethical freedom within the gaps of physical law. Henry Margenau has expanded the bibliography and added a helpful preface which, in part, reports Cassirer's thoughts up to 1945.--R. P. (shrink)
As seen by Professor Capek, Bergson’s views about the nature of matter were either misunderstood or ignored in the decades following their publication at the turn of the century. The explanation for this attitude of both Bergson’s opponents and his disciples lies in the fact that, at that time, although there were rumblings under the foundations of classical physics, "hardly anybody could then guess even remotely the extent of the coming scientific revolution." One of the main stumbling blocks for Bergson’s (...) readers was the non-pictorial character of his ‘model’ of matter, which was conceived as consisting of imageless events. In Bergson and Modern Physics, Capek attempts to remove this stumbling block and to evaluate the relation between Bergson’s thought and modern physics as it stands today. The book consists of three parts: Bergson’s biological theory of knowledge, his theory of duration, and his theory of the physical world and its relations to contemporary physics. Three appendices deal with Russell’s complex relation to Bergson, with the much discussed relation of microphysical indeterminancy to freedom, and with Bergson’s views on entropy and modern cosmogony, respectively. The book is indexed and carries extensive references to the scientific and philosophical literature. With this book Capek provides a competent exposition and historical perspective of Bergson’s philosophy and its relation to modern physics.—D. R. P. (shrink)
A critical edition, with translation and notes, of Samuel's 14th century Hebrew translation, otherwise available only in Mantinus' 1539 Latin translation from the Hebrew. The translator's English is surprisingly intelligible in view of the difficulties of the text which are helpfully indicated and discussed in the notes. The commentary itself is especially interesting as an instance of the influence of Aristotle on the Medieval Platonic tradition. Republic I and X are explicitly ignored as containing "no proof except by accident" and (...) as not "necessary for this science," respectively; the Divided Line passage is adumbrated beyond recognition and its position taken by an Aristotelian discussion of the Good after the Nicomachean Ethics.--R. P. (shrink)
Werner Jaeger's seventieth birthday is marked by this well-deserved Festschrift containing some thirty articles by colleagues and students as well as a list of Jaeger's publications. Of special interest are Leonard Woodbury's "Parmenides on Names," Friedrich Solmsen's "Aristotle and preSocratic Cosmogony," and Joshua Whatmough's reading of νόησις νοήσεως as a superlative.--R. P.