Results for 'Asher Howoritz'

330 found
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  1.  14
    'By a Hair's Breadth': Critique, Transcendence and the Ethical in Adorno and Levinas.Asher Howoritz - 2002 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 28 (2).
    The article stages the beginning of a virtual conversation between Levinas's 'ethics as first philosophy' and Adorno's negative dialectic. Part I frames the problem: for both thinkers the task of critique depends on some access to a 'fixed point' for transcendence (Levinas) or a 'standpoint removed' from the domain of existence (Adorno). Part II traces the deep, even essential, connection both perceive between knowledge and violence, a link which brings the possibility of critique even more stringently into question. A standpoint (...)
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  2. Richard Asher Talking Sense : A Collection of Papers Including, the Triad 'Sense and Sensibility', 'Myxoedematous Madness', 'the Dangers of Going to Bed', & 'Munchausen's Syndrome'.R. Asher & F. A. Jones - 1972
     
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  3.  32
    The Semantics and Pragmatics of Presupposition.N. Asher - 1998 - Journal of Semantics 15 (3):239-300.
    In this paper, we offer a novel analysis of presuppositions, paying particular attention to the interaction between the knowledge resources that are required to The analysis has two main features. First, we capture an analogy between presuppositions, anaphora and scope ambiguity (cf. van der Sandt 1992), by utilizing semantic under-specification (c£ Reyle 1993). Second, resolving this underspecification requires reasoning about how the presupposition is rhetorically connected to the discourse context. This has several consequences. First, since pragmatic information plays a role (...)
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  4.  11
    A Computational Account of Syntactic, Semantic and Discourse Principles for Anaphora Resolution.Nicholas Asher & Hajime Wada - 1988 - Journal of Semantics 6 (1):309-344.
    We present a unified framework for the computational implementation of syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and even “stylistic” constraints on anaphora. We build on our BUILDERS implementation of Discourse Representation (DR) Theory and Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) discussed in Wada & Asher (1986). We develop and argue for a semantically based processing model for anaphora resolution that exploits a number of desirable features: (1) the partial semantics provided by the discourse representation structures (DRSs) of DR theory, (2) the use of syntactic (...)
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  5.  55
    The Interpretation of Questions in Dialogue.Alex Lascarides & Nicholas Asher - unknown
    A semantic framework for interpreting dialogue should provide an account of the content that is mutually accepted by its participants. The acceptance by one agent of another’s contribution crucially involves the theory of what that contribution means; A’s acceptance of B’s contribution means that the content of B’s contribution must be integrated into A’s extant commitments.1 For assertions, traditionally assumed to express a proposition formalised as a set of possible worlds, it was clear how the integration should go: acceptance meant (...)
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  6. Logics of Conversation.Nicholas Asher & Alex Lascarides - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    People often mean more than they say. Grammar on its own is typically insufficient for determining the full meaning of an utterance; the assumption that the discourse is coherent or 'makes sense' has an important role to play in determining meaning as well. Logics of Conversation presents a dynamic semantic framework called Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, or SDRT, where this interaction between discourse coherence and discourse interpretation is explored in a logically precise manner. Combining ideas from dynamic semantics, commonsense reasoning (...)
     
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  7.  80
    Lexical Meaning in Context: A Web of Words.Nicholas Asher - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a book about the meanings of words and how they can combine to form larger meaningful units, as well as how they can fail to combine when the ...
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  8.  96
    Supervaluations Debugged.Nicholas Asher, Josh Dever & Chris Pappas - 2009 - Mind 118 (472):901-933.
    Supervaluational accounts of vagueness have come under assault from Timothy Williamson for failing to provide either a sufficiently classical logic or a disquotational notion of truth, and from Crispin Wright and others for incorporating a notion of higher-order vagueness, via the determinacy operator, which leads to contradiction when combined with intuitively appealing ‘gap principles’. We argue that these criticisms of supervaluation theory depend on giving supertruth an unnecessarily central role in that theory as the sole notion of truth, rather than (...)
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  9. Free Choice Permission is Strong Permission.Nicholas Asher & Daniel Bonevac - 2005 - Synthese 145 (3):303-323.
    Free choice permission, a crucial test case concerning the semantics/ pragmatics boundary, usually receives a pragmatic treatment. But its pragmatic features follow from its semantics. We observe that free choice inferences are defeasible, and defend a semantics of free choice permission as strong permission expressed in terms of a modal conditional in a nonmonotonic logic.
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  10.  12
    Familial Patterns and the Origins of Individual Differences in Synaesthesia.Kylie J. Barnett, Ciara Finucane, Julian E. Asher, Gary Bargary, Aiden P. Corvin, Fiona N. Newell & Kevin J. Mitchell - 2008 - Cognition 106 (2):871-893.
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  11. Generics and Defaults.Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Nicholas Asher - unknown
    1: Linguistic and Epistemological Background 1 . 1 : Generic Reference vs. Generic Predication 1 . 2 : Why are there any Generic Sentences at all? 1 . 3 : Generics and Exceptions, Two Bad Attitudes 1 . 4 : Exceptions and Generics, Some Other Attitudes 1 . 5 : Generics and Intensionality 1 . 6 : Goals of an Analysis of Generic Sentences 1 . 7 : A Little Notation 1 . 8 : Generics vs. Explicit Statements of Regularities..
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  12.  76
    Belief in Discourse Representation Theory.Nicholas Asher - 1986 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 15 (2):127 - 189.
    I hope I have convinced the reader that DR theory offers at least some exciting potential when applied to the semantics of belief reports. It differs considerably from other approaches, and it makes intuitively acceptable predictions that other theories do not. The theory also provides a novel approach to the semantics of other propsitional attitude reports. Further, DR theory enables one to approach the topic of anaphora within belief and other propositional attitude contexts in a novel way, thus combining the (...)
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  13.  63
    Temporal Interpretation, Discourse Relations and Commonsense Entailment.Alex Lascarides & Nicholas Asher - 1993 - Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (5):437 - 493.
    This paper presents a formal account of how to determine the discourse relations between propositions introduced in a text, and the relations between the events they describe. The distinct natural interpretations of texts with similar syntax are explained in terms of defeasible rules. These characterise the effects of causal knowledge and knowledge of language use on interpretation. Patterns of defeasible entailment that are supported by the logic in which the theory is expressed are shown to underly temporal interpretation.
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  14.  17
    Adolescents Care but Don’T Feel Responsible for Farm Animal Welfare.Siobhan M. Abeyesinghe, Jen Jamieson, Lucy Asher, David Allen, Matthew O. Parker, Christopher M. Wathes & Michael J. Reiss - 2015 - Society and Animals 23 (3):269-297.
  15.  89
    A Typology for Attitude Verbs and Their Anaphoric Properties.Nicholas Asher - 1987 - Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (2):125--197.
  16. Indirect Speech Acts.Nicholas Asher & Alex Lascarides - 2001 - Synthese 128 (1-2):183 - 228.
    In this paper, we address several puzzles concerning speech acts,particularly indirect speech acts. We show how a formal semantictheory of discourse interpretation can be used to define speech actsand to avoid murky issues concerning the metaphysics of action. Weprovide a formally precise definition of indirect speech acts, includingthe subclass of so-called conventionalized indirect speech acts. Thisanalysis draws heavily on parallels between phenomena at the speechact level and the lexical level. First, we argue that, just as co-predicationshows that some words can (...)
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  17.  47
    Were, Would, Might and a Compositional Account of Counterfactuals.N. Asher & E. McCready - 2007 - Journal of Semantics 24 (2):93-129.
    This paper has two purposes. We first give a new dynamic account of epistemic modal operators that account for both their test-like behaviour with respect to whole information states and their capacity to induce quantificational dependencies across worlds (modal subordination). We then use this theory, together with an analysis of conditionals and irrealis moods, to give a fully compositional semantics of indicative and counterfactual conditionals. In our analysis, the distinction between counterfactual and indicative conditionals follows directly from the interaction between (...)
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  18.  39
    The Metaphysics of Words in Context.Nicholas Asher & James Pustejovsky - forthcoming - Journal of Logic, Language and Information.
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  19.  70
    Questions in Dialogue.Nicholas Asher & Alex Lascarides - 1998 - Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (3):237-309.
    In this paper we explore how compositional semantics, discourse structure, and the cognitive states of participants all contribute to pragmatic constraints on answers to questions in dialogue. We synthesise formal semantic theories on questions and answers with techniques for discourse interpretation familiar from computational linguistics, and show how this provides richer constraints on responses in dialogue than either component can achieve alone.
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  20.  87
    A Default, Truth Conditional Semantics for the Progressive.Nicholas Asher - 1992 - Linguistics and Philosophy 15 (5):463 - 508.
  21. Visual Culture of the Indian Ocean: India in a Polycentric World.F. M. Asher - 2011 - Diogenes 58 (3):67-84.
  22.  87
    Ambiguity and Anaphora with Plurals in Discourse.Nicholas Asher - unknown
    We provide examples of plurals related to ambiguity and anaphora that pose problems or are counterexamples for current approaches to plurals. We then propose a dynamic semantics based on an extension of dynamic predicate logic to handle these examples. On our theory, different readings of sentences or discourses containing plurals don’t arise from a postulated ambiguity of plural terms or predicates applying to plural DPs, but follow rather from different types of dynamic transitions that manipulate inputs and outputs from formulas (...)
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  23.  2
    Was It Designed to Do That? Children’s Focus on Intended Function in Their Conceptualization of Artifacts.Yvonne M. Asher & Deborah G. Kemler Nelson - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):474-483.
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  24.  23
    Agreement, Disputes and Commitments in Dialogue.A. Lascarides & N. Asher - 2009 - Journal of Semantics 26 (2):109-158.
    This paper provides a logically precise analysis of agreement and disputes in dialogue. The semantics distinguishes among the public commitments of each dialogue agent, including commitments to relational speech acts or rhetorical relations (e.g. Narration, Explanation and Correction). Agreement is defined to be the shared entailments of the agents' public commitments. We show that this makes precise predictions about implicit agreement. The theory also provides a consistent interpretation of disputes and models what content is agreed upon when a dispute has (...)
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  25.  51
    How Extension Al is Extensional Perception?Nicholas M. Asher & Daniel Bonevac - 1985 - Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (2):203 - 228.
  26.  76
    Things and Their Aspects.Nicholas Asher - 2006 - Philosophical Issues 16 (1):1–23.
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  27. Semantic Competence, Linguistic Understanding, and a Theory of Concepts.Nicholas M. Asher - 1988 - Philosophical Studies 53 (January):1-36.
  28.  32
    Events, Facts, Propositions, and Evolutive Anaphora.Nicholas Asher - 2000 - In Achille Varzi, James Higginbotham & Fabio Pianesi (eds.), Speaking of Events. Oxford University Press. pp. 123--150.
  29.  58
    Prima Facie Obligation.Nicholas Asher & Daniel Bonevac - 1996 - Studia Logica 57 (1):19-45.
    This paper presents a nonmonotonic deontic logic based on commonsense entailment. It establishes criteria a successful account of obligation should satisfy, and develops a theory that satisfies them. The theory includes two conditional notions of prima facie obligation. One is constitutive; the other is epistemic, and follows nonmonotonically from the constitutive notion. The paper defines unconditional notions of prima facie obligation in terms of the conditional notions.
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  30.  33
    A Logic of Intentions and Beliefs.Munindar P. Singh & Nicholas M. Asher - 1993 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (5):513 - 544.
    Intentions are an important concept in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science. We present a formal theory of intentions and beliefs based on Discourse Representation Theory that captures many of their important logical properties. Unlike possible worlds approaches, this theory does not assume that agents are perfect reasoners, and gives a realistic view of their internal architecture; unlike most representational approaches, it has an objective semantics, and does not rely on an ad hoc labeling of the internal states of agents. We (...)
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  31.  48
    Discourse Parallelism, Ellipsis, and Ambiguity.N. Asher - 2001 - Journal of Semantics 18 (1):1-25.
    In this paper we combine a simple recovery mechanism for ellipsis with a general, discourse account of parallelism to account for a variety of phenomena concerning ellipsis, including Sag's wide scope puzzle and complex examples concerning sloppy identity. Our recovery mechanism requires an identity of logical structure between the recovered material and antecedent in the ellipsis. The recovered material and the antecedent are then interpreted independently in their respective contexts, subject only to the general discourse constraints on parallelism. These constraints (...)
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  32.  30
    Lexical Disambiguation in a Discourse Context.Nicholas Asher & Alex Lascarides - 1995 - Journal of Semantics 12 (1):69-108.
    In this paper we investigate how discourse structure affects the meanings of words, and how the meanings of words affect discourse structure. We integrate three ingredients: a theory of discourse structure called SDRT, which represents discourse in terms of rhetorical relations that glue together the propositions introduced by the text segments; an accompanying theory of discourse attachment called DICE, which computes which rhetorical relations hold between the constituents, on the basis of the reader's background information; and a formal language for (...)
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  33.  19
    Negated Defaults in Commonsense Entailment.Nicholas Asher & Yi Mao - 2001 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 30 (1):41-60.
  34.  50
    Situations and Events.Nicholas Asher & Daniel Bonevac - 1985 - Philosophical Studies 47 (1):57 - 77.
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  35.  70
    Reasoning Dynamically About What One Says.Nicholas Asher & Alex Lascarides - 2011 - Synthese 183 (S1):5-31.
    ’s glue logic for computing logical form dynamic. This allows us to model a dialogue agent’s understanding of what the update of the semantic representation of the dialogue would be after his next contribution, including the effects of the rhetorical moves that he is contemplating performing next. This is a pre-requisite for developing a model of how agents reason about what to say next. We make the glue logic dynamic by using a dynamic public announcement logic ( pal ). We (...)
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  36.  44
    Truth Conditional Discourse Semantics for Parentheticals.N. Asher - 2000 - Journal of Semantics 17 (1):31-50.
    It has been often argued that parentheticals, discourse adverbials and certain parts of speech like interjections do not contribute to the truth conditional content of the assertions of which they are part. In this paper I argue that many of these constructions do contribute a truth conditional content, and I propose a semantics for parentheticals and discourse adverbials that treats these constructions similarly to SDRT's treatment of presuppositions. I also point out differences between standard presupposition triggers on the one hand (...)
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  37.  21
    Order Independent and Persistent Typed Default Unification.Alex Lascarides, Ted Briscoe, Nicholas Asher & Ann Copestake - 1996 - Linguistics and Philosophy 19 (1):1 - 90.
    We define an order independent version of default unification on typed feature structures. The operation is one where default information in a feature structure typed with a more specific type, will override default information in a feature structure typed with a more general type, where specificity is defined by the subtyping relation in the type hierarchy. The operation is also able to handle feature structures where reentrancies are default. We provide a formal semantics, prove order independence and demonstrate the utility (...)
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  38. Mood and Modality (by Palmer FR).R. E. Asher & J. M. Simpson - 1993 - In R. E. Asher & J. M. Y. Simpson (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Pergamon Press. pp. 2535--2540.
  39.  93
    Generics and Defaults.Francis Jeffry Pelletier Nicholas Asher - unknown
    1: Linguistic and Epistemological Background 1 . 1 : Generic Reference vs. Generic Predication 1 . 2 : Why are there any Generic Sentences at all? 1 . 3 : Generics and Exceptions, Two Bad Attitudes 1 . 4 : Exceptions and Generics, Some Other Attitudes 1 . 5 : Generics and Intensionality 1 . 6 : Goals of an Analysis of Generic Sentences 1 . 7 : A Little Notation 1 . 8 : Generics vs. Explicit Statements of Regularities..
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  40.  6
    Message Exchange Games in Strategic Contexts.Nicholas Asher, Soumya Paul & Antoine Venant - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-50.
    When two people engage in a conversation, knowingly or unknowingly, they are playing a game. Players of such games have diverse objectives, or winning conditions: an applicant trying to convince her potential employer of her eligibility over that of a competitor, a prosecutor trying to convict a defendant, a politician trying to convince an electorate in a political debate, and so on. We argue that infinitary games offer a natural model for many structural characteristics of such conversations. We call such (...)
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  41.  33
    Determiners and Resource Situations.Nicholas Asher & Daniel Bonevac - 1987 - Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (4):567 - 596.
  42.  37
    Belief, Acceptance and Belief Reports.Nicholas Asher - 1989 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 19 (3):327 - 361.
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  43.  74
    Problems with Persistence.Nicholas Asher - 1994 - Topoi 13 (1):37-49.
    A fundamental question in reasoning about change is, what information does a reasoning agent infer about later times from earlier times? I will argue that reasoning about change by an agent is to be modeled in terms of the persistence of the agent''s beliefs over time rather than the persistence of truth and that such persistence is explained by pragmatic factors about how agents acquire information from other agents rather than by general principles of persistence about states of the world. (...)
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  44.  31
    A Typology and Discourse Semantics for Motion Verbs and Spatial PPs in French.Nicholas Asher & Pierre Sablayrolles - 1995 - Journal of Semantics 12 (2):163-209.
    In this paper we offer a semantic study of motion verbs and motion verb complexes determined by motion verbs and spatial prepositional phrase adjuncts. We propose a classification of motion verbs and of motion verb complexes. Unlike other semantic or syntactic studies, we build up the spatioremporal semantic properties of motion verb complexes compositionally, on the basis of the semantic properties of the verbs, their arguments and adjuncts. We show how to combine this lexical information with discourse information to determine (...)
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  45.  72
    Savant Memory in a Man with Colour Form-Number Synaesthesia and Asperger.Simon Baron-Cohen, D. Bor, J. Billington, J. Asher, S. Wheelwright & C. Ashwin - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 9-10):237-251.
    Extreme conditions like savantism, autism or synaesthesia, which have a neurological 2AH, UK basis, challenge the idea that other minds are similar to our own. In this paper we report a single case study of a man in whom all three of these conditions co-occur. We suggest, on the basis of this single case, that when savantism and synaesthesia co- occur, it is worthwhile testing for an undiagnosed Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC). This is because savantism has an established association with (...)
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  46.  19
    Deconstruction's Use and Abuse of Nietzsche.Kenneth Asher - 1984 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 1984 (62):169-178.
    Sensitive to the fluidity of Nietzsche's thought, which often expresses itself in apparent contradiction, Karl Jaspers notes that “for nearly every single one of Nietzsche's judgements one can also find an opposite.” But Jaspers goes on to warn that the art of reading Nietzsche faithfully demands that we gradually locate the central axis of his philosophy so that seeming irreconcilables may be resolved into a hierarchy of importance. Not surprisingly, however, this painstaking study has seldom been performed, with the result (...)
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  47.  61
    Information Dependency in Quantificational Subordination.Nicholas Asher - unknown
    The purpose of this paper is to (a) show that the received view of the problem of quantificational subordination (QS) is incorrect, and that, consequently, existing solutions do not succeed in explaining the facts, and (b) provide a new account of QS. On the received view of QS within dynamic semantic frameworks, determiners treated as universal quantifiers (henceforth universal determiners) such as all, every, and each behave as barriers to inter-sentential anaphora yet allow anaphoric accessibility in a number of situations. (...)
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  48.  24
    Maintaining America's Constitutional Responsibilities in Times of Conflict.Carly Asher - forthcoming - Ethics.
  49.  17
    A Large View of Linguistic Content.Nicholas Asher - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 15 (1):17-39.
    This essay lays out a view of linguistic content in which discourse context plays an essential role. It provides a role for sentential content by using underspecification but argues that discourse level phenomena are essential not only to determining content but even grammaticality judgments in certain cases. It is thus argued that the traditional view which separates very strictly the areas of semantics — a context insensitive notion of meaning — and pragmatics — a non linguistic notion of speaker meaning (...)
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  50.  60
    Modality, Morality, and Belief: Essays in Honor of Ruth Barcan Marcus.Ruth Barcan Marcus, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Diana Raffman & Nicholas Asher (eds.) - 1995 - Cambridge University Press.
    Modality, morality and belief are among the most controversial topics in philosophy today, and few philosophers have shaped these debates as deeply as Ruth Barcan Marcus. Inspired by her work, a distinguished group of philosophers explore these issues, refine and sharpen arguments and develop new positions on such topics as possible worlds, moral dilemmas, essentialism, and the explanation of actions by beliefs. This 'state of the art' collection honours one of the most rigorous and iconoclastic of philosophical pioneers.
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