Results for 'Edd Cowley'

803 found
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  1.  83
    Motivation and Mission in the Public Sector: Evidence From the World Values Survey. [REVIEW]Edd Cowley & Sarah Smith - 2014 - Theory and Decision 76 (2):241-263.
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  2. Concepts – Not Just Yardsticks, but Also Heuristics: Rebutting Hacker and Bennett.Machiel Keestra & Stephen J. Cowley - 2011 - Language Sciences 33 (3):464-472.
    In their response to our article (Keestra and Cowley, 2009), Hacker and Bennett charge us with failing to understand the project of their book Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience (PFN; Bennett and Hacker, 2003) and do this by discussing foundationalism, linguistic conservatism and the passivity of perception. In this rebuttal we explore disagreements that explain the alleged errors. First, we reiterate our substantial disagreement with Bennett and Hacker (B&H) regarding their assumption that, even regarding much debated concepts like ‘consciousness’, we (...)
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  3.  85
    Mimesis and Language: A Distributed View.Stephen J. Cowley - 2012 - Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 13 (1):17-40.
    To unzip language from social behaviour one can hypothesise that language-systems are constituted by words and rules or, alternatively, constructions. The systems thus become autonomous and, if linked to individualist psychology, one can posit that each person’s brain operates a language faculty However, such views find little support in neuroscience. Brains self-organize by linking phonetic (and manual) gestures with action-perception. Far from being housed in the skull,language activity links people across time-scales. Not only does articulation give rise to speech but,together (...)
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  4. A Defence of Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Reply to Schuklenk and Savulescu.Christopher Cowley - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (4):358-364.
    In a recent Bioethics editorial, Udo Schuklenk argues against allowing Canadian doctors to conscientiously object to any new euthanasia procedures approved by Parliament. In this he follows Julian Savulescu's 2006 BMJ paper which argued for the removal of the conscientious objection clause in the 1967 UK Abortion Act. Both authors advance powerful arguments based on the need for uniformity of service and on analogies with reprehensible kinds of personal exemption. In this article I want to defend the practice of conscientious (...)
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  5.  55
    A New Rejection of Moral Expertise.Christopher Cowley - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):273-279.
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  6.  23
    The Relevance of Stakeholder Theory and Social Capital Theory in the Context of CSR in SMEs: An Australian Perspective.Suman Sen & James Cowley - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):413-427.
    The concept of business responsibility, usually termed as corporate social responsibility (CSR), originated in the early 1930s after the Wall Street crash of 1929 exposed corporate irresponsibility in large organisations. The understanding of CSR has evolved since then and its scope has now broadened from mere compliance to corporate laws to active alignment of internal business goals with externally set societal aspirations. Unfortunately, the significance of this multidimensional concept within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector has continued to be (...)
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  7.  32
    Conscientious Objection in Healthcare and the Duty to Refer.Christopher Cowley - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):207-212.
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  8.  36
    Conscientious Objection and Healthcare in the UK: Why Tribunals Are Not the Answer.Christopher Cowley - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (2):69-72.
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  9.  61
    The Dangers of Medical Ethics.C. Cowley - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (12):739-742.
    Next SectionThe dominant conception of medical ethics being taught in British and American medical schools is at best pointless and at worst dangerous, or so it will be argued. Although it is laudable that medical schools have now given medical ethics a secure place in the curriculum, they go wrong in treating it like a scientific body of knowledge. Ethics is a unique subject matter precisely because of its widespread familiarity in all areas of life, and any teaching has to (...)
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  10.  22
    How to Do Things Without Words.D. Spurrett & S. J. Cowley - 2004 - Language Sciences 26 (5):443-466.
    Clark and Chalmers (1998) defend the hypothesis of an ‘Extended Mind’, maintaining that beliefs and other paradigmatic mental states can be implemented outside the central nervous system or body. Aspects of the problem of ‘language acquisition’ are considered in the light of the extended mind hypothesis. Rather than ‘language’ as typically understood, the object of study is something called ‘utterance-activity’, a term of art intended to refer to the full range of kinetic and prosodic features of the on-line behaviour of (...)
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  11.  13
    Coordination in Language: Temporality and Time-Ranging.Stephen J. Cowley & Sune Vork Steffensen - 2015 - Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 16 (3):474-494.
  12. Expertise, Wisdom and Moral Philosophers: A Response to Gesang.Christopher Cowley - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (6):337-342.
    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I (...)
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  13.  51
    The Evolution of Language as Controlled Collectivity.Joanna Raczaszek-Leonardi & Stephen J. Cowley - 2012 - Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 13 (1):1-16.
  14.  10
    Reckless Enabling.Christopher Cowley - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-17.
    The 2016, the UK Supreme Court case of Jogee confirmed a long-standing convention in English law. In cases where D is assisting or encouraging P to commit an offence, D will only be liable as an accessory for that offence if she intentionally assists or encourages P and if she knows the essential features of the offence. In this paper, I discuss and develop some of the arguments from Sanford Kadish’s 1996 article “Reckless Complicity.” I argue that a special sub-category (...)
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  15.  17
    Insightful Thinking: Cognitive Dynamics and Material Artifacts.Evridiki Fioratou & Stephen J. Cowley - 2009 - Pragmatics and Cognition 17 (3):549-572.
    We trace how cognition arises beyond the skin. Experimental work on insight problem solving is used to examine how external artifacts can be used to reach the goal of assembling a `cheap necklace'. Instead of asking how insight occurs `in the head', our participants in Experiment 1 can either draw solution attempts or manipulate real objects . Even though performance with real chain links is significantly more successful than on paper, access to objects does not make this insight problem simple: (...)
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  16.  5
    Distributed Language and Dynamics.Stephen Cowley - 2009 - Pragmatics and Cognition 17 (3):495-508.
    Language is coordination. Pursuing this, the present Special Issue of Pragmatics & Cognition challenges two widely held positions. First, the papers reject the claim that language is essentially `symbolic'. Second, they deny that minds represent verbal patterns. Rather, language is social, individual, and contributes the feeling of thinking. Simply, it is distributed. Elucidating this claim, the opening papers report empirically-based work on the anticipatory dynamics of reading, their cognitive consequences, Shakespearean theatre, what images evoke, and insight problem-solving. Having given reasons (...)
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  17.  13
    The Extended Infant: Utterance Activity and Distributed Cognition.David Spurrett & Stephen Cowley - 2010 - In Richard Menary (ed.), The Extended Mind. MIT Press.
    This chapter applies the parity principle in discussing “active externalism,” which claims that the mind need not be confined within either the brain or body. Consequently, how one brain or body interacts with other brains and bodies must be explored, together with the problems that may arise out of this interaction. This chapter is not concerned with beliefs and desires as mental states but whether they play a role in controlling behavior. It argues the notion that any course of action (...)
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  18.  6
    When ‘Sanctity of Life’ and ‘Self-Determination’ Clash: Briggs Versus Briggs [2016] EWCOP 53 – Implications for Policy and Practice. [REVIEW]Jenny Kitzinger, Celia Kitzinger & Jakki Cowley - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (7):446-449.
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  19.  23
    Commentary on ‘Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder and Assisted Dying’.Christopher Cowley - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (8):585-586.
  20.  19
    How Human Infants Deal with Symbol Grounding.Stephen J. Cowley - 2007 - Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 8 (1):83-104.
  21.  37
    Education, Despair and Morality: A Reply to Roberts.Christopher Cowley - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 51 (1):298-309.
    In a recent thought-provoking piece, Peter Roberts argues against the central role of happiness as a guiding concept in education, and argues for more attention to be paid to despair. This does not mean cultivating despair in young people, but allowing them to make sense of their own natural occasional despair, as well as the despair of others. I agree with Roberts about happiness, and about the need for more attention to despair, but I argue that focusing too much on (...)
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  22.  53
    Foundationalism and Neuroscience; Silence and Language.Machiel Keestra & Stephen Cowley - 2009 - Language Sciences 31:531-552.
    Neuroscience offers more than new empirical evidence about the details of cognitive functions such as language, perception and action. Since it also shows many functions to be highly distributed, interconnected and dependent on mechanisms at different levels of processing, it challenges concepts that are traditionally used to describe these functions. The question is how to accommodate these concepts to the recent evidence. A recent proposal, made in Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience (2003) by Bennett and Hacker, is that concepts play a (...)
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  23. Medical Ethics, Ordinary Concepts, and Ordinary Lives.Christopher Cowley - 2007 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Mainstream philosophical discussions of ethics usually involve either a search for a problem-solving theory (such as utilitarianism), or an exploration of ontological status (of things like obligations or reasons). This book will argue that such efforts are often misplaced. Instead, the proper starting point should always be the actual words and deeds of ordinary people in ordinary disagreements; for the ethical concepts in play can only derive their full meaning within the context of ordinary human lives. This will require a (...)
     
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  24. Euthanasia in Psychiatry Can Never Be Justified. A Reply to Wijsbek.Christopher Cowley - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (3):227-238.
    In a recent article, Henri Wijsbek discusses the 1991 Chabot “psychiatric euthanasia” case in the Netherlands, and argues that Chabot was justified in helping his patient to die. Dutch legislation at the time permitted physician assisted suicide when the patient’s condition is severe, hopeless, and unbearable. The Dutch Supreme Court agreed with Chabot that the patient met these criteria because of her justified depression, even though she was somatically healthy. Wijsbek argues that in this case, the patient’s integrity had been (...)
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  25.  29
    Thinking in Action.Stephen Cowley & Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (4):469-475.
  26.  41
    Education, Despair and Morality: A Reply to Roberts.Christopher Cowley - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (4).
    In a recent thought-provoking piece, Peter Roberts argues against the central role of happiness as a guiding concept in education, and argues for more attention to be paid to despair. This does not mean cultivating despair in young people, but allowing them to make sense of their own natural occasional despair, as well as the despair of others. I agree with Roberts about happiness, and about the need for more attention to despair, but I argue that focusing too much on (...)
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  27.  50
    Introduction: The Agents, Acts and Attitudes of Supererogation.Christopher Cowley - 2015 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 77:1-23.
    I confess to finding the term ‘supererogation’ ugly and unpronounceable. I am also generally suspicious of technical terms in moral philosophy, since they are vulnerable to self-serving definition and counter-definition, to the point of obscuring whether there is a single phenomenon about which to disagree. It was surely not accidental that J.O. Urmson, in his classic 1958 article that launched the contemporary Anglophone debate, eschewed the technical term in favour of the more familiar concepts of saints and heroes. Since then, (...)
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  28. Understanding Another's Wrongdoing.Christopher Cowley - 2011 - Philosophy and Literature 35 (1):79-90.
    In Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment, Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov is an impoverished university student who commits a brutal double-murder of an old money-lender and her sister, and then for much of the novel manages to evade detection.1 He is racked by guilt and anxiety from the act. Sonia is a young woman who lives with her parents and several siblings. Her father is an alcoholic, unable to hold down a job, and Sonia has therefore become a prostitute to support the family. (...)
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  29. A New Defence of Williams's Reasons-Internalism.Christopher Cowley - 2005 - Philosophical Investigations 28 (4):346–368.
  30. Suicide is Neither Rational nor Irrational.Christopher Cowley - 2006 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (5):495 - 504.
    Richard Brandt, following Hume, famously argued that suicide could be rational. In this he was going against a common ‘absolutist’ view that suicide is irrational almost by definition. Arguments to the effect that suicide is morally permissible or prohibited tend to follow from one’s position on this first issue of rationality. I want to argue that the concept of rationality is not appropriately ascribed – or withheld – to the victim or the act or the desire to commit the act. (...)
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  31.  62
    Regret, Remorse and the Twilight Perspective.Christopher Cowley - 2017 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 25 (5):624-634.
    I examine the ‘momentous’ choices that one makes early in life – about career or spouse, for example – and I ask what it means to regret such choices at the end of one’s life. I argue that such regrets are almost meaningless because of the difficulty of imaginatively accessing a much earlier self. I then contrast long-term regret to remorse, and argue that the two are qualitatively different experiences because remorse involves another person as victim.
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  32.  1
    Insightful Thinking: Cognitive Dynamics and Material Artifacts.Evridiki Fioratou & Stephen Cowley - 2009 - Pragmatics and Cognition 17 (3):549-572.
    We trace how cognition arises beyond the skin. Experimental work on insight problem solving is used to examine how external artifacts can be used to reach the goal of assembling a `cheap necklace'. Instead of asking how insight occurs `in the head', our participants in Experiment 1 can either draw solution attempts or manipulate real objects. Even though performance with real chain links is significantly more successful than on paper, access to objects does not make this insight problem simple: objects (...)
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  33. Changing One’s Mind on Moral Matters.Christopher Cowley - 2005 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (3):277 - 290.
    Contemporary moral philosophy assumes an account of what it means to legitimately change one’s mind in ethics, and I wish to challenge this account by enlarging the category of the legitimate. I am just as eager to avoid illegitimate mind-changing brought on by deceit or brainwashing, but I claim that legitimacy should be defined in terms of transparency of method. A social reformer should not be embarrassed to admit that he acquired many beliefs about justice while reading Dickens. As such, (...)
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  34. Moral Responsibility.Christopher Cowley - 2013 - Routledge.
    How and to what degree are we responsible for our characters, our lives, our misfortunes, our relationships and our children? This question is at the heart of "Moral Responsibility". The book explores accusations and denials of moral responsibility for particular acts, responsibility for character, and the role of luck and fate in ethics. Moral responsibility as the grounds for a retributivist theory of punishment is examined, alongside discussions of forgiveness, parental responsibility, and responsibility before God. The book also discusses collective (...)
     
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  35.  54
    Simulating Convesations: The Communion Game. [REVIEW]Stephen J. Cowley & Karl MacDorman - 1995 - AI and Society 9 (2-3):116-137.
    In their enthusiasm for programming, computational linguists have tended to lose sight of what humansdo. They have conceived of conversations as independent of sound and the bodies that produce it. Thus, implicit in their simulations is the assumption that the text is the essence of talk. In fact, unlike electronic mail, conversations are acoustic events. During everyday talk, human understanding depends both on the words spoken and on fine interpersonal vocal coordination. When utterances are analysed into sequences of word-based forms, (...)
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  36.  34
    Moral Necessity and the Personal.Christopher Cowley - 2004 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):123-138.
    I claim that the dominant moral-realist understanding of action and moral responsibility cannot provide a comprehensive account of morality since it neglects the irreducibly personal component of the individual’s moral experience. This is not to embrace non-cognitivism, however; indeed, I challenge the whole realist framework of most contemporary moral philosophy. To this end I explore the phenomenon of moral necessity, exemplified by Luther’s declaration that he “has to” continue his protests against the church. I am careful to distinguish this kind (...)
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  37.  10
    Semiosis and Bio-Mechanism: Towards Consilience.Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen & Stephen J. Cowley - 2018 - Biosemiotics 11 (3):405-425.
    In biosemiotics, some oppose the study of sign relations to empirical work on bio-mechanisms. Urging consilience between these views, we show the value of Alain Berthoz’s concept of simplexity. Its heuristic power is to present molecules, cells, organisms and communities as using tricks to self-fabricate by agglomerating ‘simplex’ bio-mechanisms. Their properties enable living systems to self-sustain, adapt and, at best, to thrive. But simplexity also empowers agents to engage with their surroundings in novel ways. Life thus not only generates know-how (...)
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  38.  35
    Why Genuine Forgiveness Must Be Elective and Unconditional.Christopher Cowley - 2010 - Ethical Perspectives 17 (4):556.
    Charles Griswold’s 2007 book Forgiveness argues that genuine forgiveness of an unexcused, unjustified and unignored offence must be normgoverned and conditional. In the same way that gift-giving is governed by norms of appropriateness, so too is forgiveness; and the appropriateness of forgiving is centrally dependent on the offender’s repentance. In response, I claim that genuine forgiveness must always be elective and unconditional, and therefore genuinely unpredictable, no matter how much – or how little – the offender repents. I consider and (...)
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  39. Symbol Grounding: Special Issue Of.T. Belpaeme, S. Cowley & K. F. MacDorman - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (1).
  40.  61
    Medical Ethics and Law: The Core Curriculum.C. Cowley - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):409-409.
    This is a slim, user friendly volume designed to introduce medical students and practicing clinicians to some basic issues of medical law and ethics, as well as to the ways in which lawyers and philosophers characteristically think. The book is divided into two parts: the first adumbrates the main ethical theories, some central ethical concepts, the role of law in society, and the English legal system ; the second part comprises chapters about key issues such as “consent”, “reproductive medicine”, and (...)
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  41. The Cradle of Language : Making Sense of Bodily Connexions.Stephen J. Cowley - 2007 - In Danièle Moyal-Sharrock (ed.), Perspicuous Presentations: Essays on Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Psychology. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  42.  3
    Conversation, Coordination, and Vertebrate Communication.Stephen J. Cowley - 1997 - Semiotica 115 (1-2):27-52.
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  43.  44
    Linguistic Fire and Human Cognitive Powers.Stephen J. Cowley - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (2):275-294.
    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains, but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others trained in distributional analysis, he reifies ‘words’. Though rejecting inner languages and grammatical universals, he ascribes mental reality to a lexicon. Reliant as he is on transcriptions, he takes the cognitivist view that brains (...)
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  44.  25
    Dementia, Identity and the Role of Friends.Christopher Cowley - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (2):255-264.
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  45.  64
    The Conjoined Twins and the Limits of Rationality in Applied Ethics.Christopher Cowley - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (1):69–88.
  46.  42
    Polemic: Five Proposals for a Medical School Admission Policy.C. Cowley - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (8):491-494.
    Five proposals for admitting better applicants into medical school are discussed in this article: An A level in a humanity or social science would be required, to supplement—not replace—the stringent science requirement. This would ensure that successful candidates would be better “primed” for the medical curriculum. Extra points in the applicant’s initial screening would be awarded for an A level in English literature. There would be a minimum age of 23 for applicants, although a prior degree would not be required. (...)
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  47.  54
    Early Hominins, Utterance-Activity, and Niche Construction.Stephen J. Cowley - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):509-510.
    Falk's argument takes for granted that “protolanguage” used a genetic propensity for producing word-forms. Using developmental evidence, I dispute this assumption and, instead, reframe the argument in terms of behavioral ecology. Viewed as niche-construction, putting the baby down can help clarify not only the origins of talk but also the capacity to modify what we are saying as we speak.
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  48.  21
    Language and Biosemiosis: Towards Unity?Stephen J. Cowley - 2006 - Semiotica 2006 (162):417-443.
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  49.  87
    The Identity of a Person and His Body.Fraser Cowley - 1971 - Journal of Philosophy 68 (October):678-683.
  50.  11
    Meaning in Nature: Organic Manufacture? [REVIEW]Stephen J. Cowley - 2008 - Biosemiotics 1 (1):85-98.
    The paper examines Marcello Barbieri’s (2007) Introduction to Biosemiotics. Highlighting debate within the biosemiotic community, it focuses on what the volume offers to those who explain human intellect in relation to what Turing called our ‘physical powers.’ In scrutinising the basis of world-modelling, parallels and contrasts are drawn with other work on embodied-embedded cognition. Models dominate biology. Is this a qualitative fact or does it point to biomechanisms? In evaluating the 18 contributions, it is suggested that the answers will shape (...)
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